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The grass genera of the world

L. Watson, T.D. Macfarlane, and M.J. Dallwitz

Puelia Franch.

Including Atractocarpa Franch.

Habit, vegetative morphology. Perennial (sometimes with root tubers); rhizomatous. The flowering culms leafless, or leafy (i.e. sometimes with separate fertile and vegetative culms). Culms herbaceous; unbranched above. Culm leaves present. Culm leaf sheaths present. Culm internodes hollow. Rhizomes pachymorph. Plants unarmed. Leaves not basally aggregated; non-auriculate; without auricular setae. Leaf blades ovate-lanceolate; broad; 20–70 mm wide; flat; pseudopetiolate; cross veined; persistent. Ligule a fringed membrane. Contra-ligule present.

Reproductive organization. Plants bisexual, all with bisexual spikelets; without hermaphrodite florets (the spikelets with proximal male florets and a terminal female). The spikelets hermaphrodite.

Inflorescence. Inflorescence narrowly paniculate; contracted; espatheate, or spatheate (in that the branches are sometimes subtended by small bracts); not comprising ‘partial inflorescences’ and foliar organs. Spikelet-bearing axes short ‘racemes’; persistent. Spikelets not secund; pedicellate; imbricate.

Female-fertile spikelets. Spikelets 12–15 mm long; ovate; compressed laterally; disarticulating above the glumes; not disarticulating between the florets (the males falling together with the terminal female); with distinctly elongated rachilla internodes between the florets (having a 1 mm internode beneath the female floret, bearing a fleshy outgrowth embracing the base of the floret). Rachilla terminated by a female-fertile floret (seemingly). Hairy callus absent.

Glumes two; very unequal, or more or less equal; shorter than the adjacent lemmas; ciliate on the margins; pointed (the upper), or not pointed; awnless; carinate; similar. Lower glume much shorter than half length of lowest lemma; 4 nerved, or 5 nerved. Upper glume 7 nerved. Spikelets with incomplete florets. The incomplete florets proximal to the female-fertile florets. Spikelets with proximal incomplete florets. The proximal incomplete florets 3–5; paleate. Palea of the proximal incomplete florets fully developed. The proximal incomplete florets male (the stamens 6, monadelphous, at least sometimes with penicillate anthers). The proximal lemmas lanceolate; awnless; 11 nerved; exceeded by the female-fertile lemmas.

Female-fertile florets 1. Lemmas convolute; decidedly firmer than the glumes; smooth; not becoming indurated (pallid, softly leathery below, becoming cartilaginous towards the apex); entire; blunt; awnless; hairy (except towards the tip); non-carinate (rounded on the back); without a germination flap; 9–11 nerved. Palea present; relatively long; not convolute; entire; awnless, without apical setae (apically fringed); thinner than the lemma; not indurated (but cartilaginous towards the apex); several nerved (5 nerved in the material seen); keel-less (abaxially rounded). Palea back hairy. Lodicules present; 3; free; membranous; ciliate; not toothed. Stamens 0. Ovary apically glabrous; with a conspicuous apical appendage. The appendage broadly conical, fleshy (and very long). Styles fused (into one). Stigmas 2–3; brown.

Fruit, embryo and seedling. Hilum long-linear. Pericarp free. Embryo small.

Abaxial leaf blade epidermis. Costal/intercostal zonation conspicuous. Papillae absent. Long-cells markedly different in shape costally and intercostally (the costals much narrower); of similar wall thickness costally and intercostally (thin walled). Intercostal zones with typical long-cells. Mid-intercostal long-cells rectangular; having markedly sinuous walls (the sinuosity deep, rather irregular). Microhairs seemingly absent (none seen in either of the species examined). Stomata common. Subsidiaries non-papillate; dome-shaped to triangular (the triangles often apically truncated). Guard-cells overlapping to flush with the interstomatals. Intercostal short-cells common; in cork/silica-cell pairs; silicified. Intercostal silica bodies when properly developed crescentic and oryzoid-type. P. ciliata with abundant small microhairs and prickles intercostally. Costal zones with short-cells. Costal short-cells conspicuously in long rows. Costal silica bodies present and well developed; consistently saddle shaped.

Transverse section of leaf blade, physiology. C3; XyMS+. Mesophyll without adaxial palisade; with arm cells; with fusoids. The fusoids external to the PBS. Leaf blade adaxially flat. Midrib conspicuous; having complex vascularization (with an abaxial arc of three (a large median with small laterals) embedded in sclerenchyma, and a small adaxial sclerenchyma mass containing 1–3 small bundles); with colourless mesophyll adaxially. The lamina symmetrical on either side of the midrib. Bulliforms present in discrete, regular adaxial groups; in simple fans (these large and wide). All the vascular bundles accompanied by sclerenchyma. Combined sclerenchyma girders present (with all the bundles); forming ‘figures’ (I’s and ‘anchors’). Sclerenchyma all associated with vascular bundles.

Cytology. Chromosome base number, x = 12. 2n = 24. 2 ploid.

Classification. Watson & Dallwitz (1994): Bambusoideae; Bambusodae; Puelieae. Soreng et al. (2015): Puelioideae; Atractocarpeae. 6 species.

Distribution, phytogeography, ecology. Tropical Africa.

Shade species.

References, etc. Leaf anatomical: Metcalfe 1960; this project.

Illustrations. • P. ciliata: Jacques-Félix, 1962. • P. olyriformis (as Atractocarpa): Jacques-Félix, 1962. • P. olyriformis (as Atractocarpa), leaf blade anatomy: Jacques-Félix, 1962. • P. ciliata, with Pseudostachyum polymorphum and Melocalamus compactiflorus (Camus, 1913). • Abbreviations for Camus (1913) figures


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Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., Macfarlane, T.D., and Dallwitz, M.J. 1992 onwards. The grass genera of the world: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval; including synonyms, morphology, anatomy, physiology, phytochemistry, cytology, classification, pathogens, world and local distribution, and references. Version: 13th November 2017. delta-intkey.com/grass’.

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