The grass genera of the world
Habit, vegetative morphology. Annual. Culms herbaceous. Leaves non-auriculate. Sheath margins free. Leaf blades narrow; without cross venation. Ligule an unfringed membrane; not truncate; 2–3 mm long.
Reproductive organization. Plants bisexual, all with bisexual spikelets; with hermaphrodite florets. The spikelets all alike in sexuality.
Inflorescence. Inflorescence paniculate; open; espatheate; not comprising partial inflorescences and foliar organs. Spikelet-bearing axes persistent. Spikelets not secund; pedicellate (the pedicels terete).
Female-fertile spikelets. Spikelets 3–4.5 mm long; compressed laterally; disarticulating above the glumes. Rachilla prolonged beyond the uppermost female-fertile floret; the rachilla extension with incomplete florets. Hairy callus absent.
Glumes two; very unequal to more or less equal; shorter than the adjacent lemmas; pointed (acute to acuminate); awnless; carinate; similar. Lower glume 3 nerved. Upper glume 3 nerved, or 5 nerved. Spikelets with incomplete florets. The incomplete florets distal to the female-fertile florets.
Female-fertile florets 2–5. Lemmas similar in texture to the glumes (leathery); not becoming indurated; incised; 2 lobed; not deeply cleft (notched); mucronate (with a tiny awn in the apical notch); hairy (but asperulous, not webby, with appressed hairs on the nerves); carinate; without a germination flap; 3 nerved. Palea present; relatively long; 2-nerved; 2-keeled. Lodicules present; 2; joined, or free; membranous; glabrous; toothed; not or scarcely vascularized. Stamens 3. Ovary apically glabrous; without a conspicuous apical appendage. Styles free to their bases. Stigmas 2.
Fruit, embryo and seedling. Fruit small (2.5–2.8 mm long); compressed laterally. Hilum short. Embryo small.
Abaxial leaf blade epidermis. Costal/intercostal zonation conspicuous. Papillae absent. Long-cells markedly different in shape costally and intercostally (the costals narrower, rectangular); differing markedly in wall thickness costally and intercostally (the intercostals thin walled, the costals quite thick walled). Mid-intercostal long-cells fusiform; having straight or only gently undulating walls. Microhairs absent. Stomata fairly common. Subsidiaries non-papillate; parallel-sided. Guard-cells overlapped by the interstomatals. Intercostal short-cells absent or very rare. Strongly pointed prickles common costally. Costal short-cells neither distinctly grouped into long rows nor predominantly paired (mostly solitary, fairly infrequent). Costal silica bodies present and well developed; horizontally-elongated crenate/sinuous and horizontally-elongated smooth.
Transverse section of leaf blade, physiology. C3; XyMS+. Leaf blade adaxially flat, or with distinct, prominent adaxial ribs; with the ribs more or less constant in size (only slight ribs apparent in the collapsed material seen). Midrib conspicuous to not readily distinguishable (perhaps slightly larger and more prominent abaxially); with one bundle only. The lamina symmetrical on either side of the midrib. Bulliforms not determinable in the material seen. All the vascular bundles accompanied by sclerenchyma. Combined sclerenchyma girders absent (all the bundles seeming to have adaxial and abaxial strands). Sclerenchyma all associated with vascular bundles.
Classification. Watson & Dallwitz (1994): Pooideae; Poodae; Poeae. Soreng et al. (2015): Pooideae; Poodae; Poeae; Poinae. 1 species (L. sintenisii).
Distribution, phytogeography, ecology. Cyprus.
Species of open habitats. Rocky slopes.
References, etc. Leaf anatomical: studied by us.
We advise against extracting comparative information from the descriptions. This is much more easily achieved using the DELTA data files or the interactive key, which allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting or lacking specified attributes, distributions of character states within any set of taxa, geographical distribution, and classifications. See also Guidelines for using data taken from Web publications.
Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., Macfarlane, T.D., and Dallwitz, M.J. 1992 onwards. The grass genera of the world: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval; including synonyms, morphology, anatomy, physiology, phytochemistry, cytology, classification, pathogens, world and local distribution, and references. Version: 11th December 2017. delta-intkey.com/grass’.