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The grass genera of the world

L. Watson, T.D. Macfarlane, and M.J. Dallwitz

Ferrocalamus Hsueh & P. C. Keng

~ Indocalamus

Habit, vegetative morphology. Shrubby perennial; rhizomatous and caespitose. Culms 200–300 cm high; to 12 cm in diameter; cylindrical; scandent to not scandent; self-supporting, or scrambling; branched above. Buds from which the primary culm branches arise presumably 1. Primary branches 1 (below), or 3–5 (above, erect, almost as thick as the culm). The branching suffrutescent. Culm nodes prominent, hairy (via a ring of white hairs beneath). Culm leaf sheaths present; deciduous, or persistent; not conspicuously auriculate. Culm leaves with conspicuous blades. Culm leaf blades linear, or lanceolate. Culm internodes hollow. Erect, pluricaespitose. Rhizomes elongated, leptomorph. Leaves auriculate to non-auriculate; with auricular setae. Leaf blades broad; about 32 cm long, 80 mm wide; pseudopetiolate; with 20–24 secondary veins; cross veined. Ligule present; short. Contra-ligule absent.

Reproductive organization. Plants bisexual, all with bisexual spikelets; with hermaphrodite florets. The spikelets hermaphrodite.

Inflorescence. Inflorescence determinate; without pseudospikelets; many spikeleted; paniculate (about 6 cm long, on leafy flowering branches); open; espatheate (?); not comprising ‘partial inflorescences’ and foliar organs (?). Spikelets solitary; not secund; pedicellate.

Female-fertile spikelets. Spikelets morphologically ‘conventional’ to unconventional; 15–20 mm long; slender, oblong; not noticeably compressed (subterete); disarticulating above the glumes; disarticulating between the florets. Rachilla prolonged beyond the uppermost female-fertile floret; the rachilla extension with incomplete florets.

Glumes persistent, two; shorter than the spikelets; blunt, not pointed; non-carinate; oblong, chartaceous, similar. Lower glume 16–24 nerved. Upper glume 16–24 nerved. Spikelets with incomplete florets. The incomplete florets distal to the female-fertile florets. The distal incomplete florets 1; merely underdeveloped; awnless.

Female-fertile florets 2–3 (according to Clayton et al., to 10 according to Flora of China ...). Lemmas oblong; similar in texture to the glumes to decidedly firmer than the glumes (chartaceous or leathery); non-carinate; with obscure transverse venation, 22 nerved. Palea present; relatively long (longer than the lemma); apically notched (emarginate). Lodicules present; 3. Stamens 3; with free filaments. Ovary apically glabrous. Styles short. Stigmas plumose, 2.

Fruit, embryo and seedling. Fruit ovoid or subglobose. Pericarp fleshy; free, or fused (with no hardened endocarp). Seed ‘non-endospermic’.

Cytology. 2n = 48.

Classification. Watson & Dallwitz (1994): not described separately. Soreng et al. (2015): Bambusoideae; Arundinarodae; Arundinarieae; Arundinariinae. 2 species (F. fibrillosus, F. rimosivaginus (the latter based on non-flowering material).

Distribution, phytogeography, ecology. Tropical Asia, Indochina.

Economic aspects. Culms formerly used for making arrows.

Special comments. The morphological descriptions seen are impossible to reconcile re. number of female-fertile florets, etc. ... F. rimosivaginus has been ignored here. Anatomical data wanting.


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Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., Macfarlane, T.D., and Dallwitz, M.J. 1992 onwards. The grass genera of the world: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval; including synonyms, morphology, anatomy, physiology, phytochemistry, cytology, classification, pathogens, world and local distribution, and references. Version: 13th November 2017. delta-intkey.com/grass’.

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