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The grass genera of the world

L. Watson, T.D. Macfarlane, and M.J. Dallwitz

Dendrochloa C.E. Parkinson

~ Schizostachyum

Habit, vegetative morphology. Perennial. The flowering culms leafy. Culms 1500–2000 cm high; woody and persistent; to 11 cm in diameter; not scandent; branched above. Pluricaespitose. Rhizomes leptomorph. Plants unarmed. Leaves not basally aggregated; without auricular setae. Leaf blades linear-lanceolate; broad (long-acuminate); 50–90 mm wide; rolled; pseudopetiolate (the pseudopetiole about 1 cm long); without cross venation (these inconspicuous and remote); disarticulating from the sheaths. Ligule erect and conspicuous; not truncate (obtuse); 3–7 mm long.

Reproductive organization. Plants bisexual, all with bisexual spikelets; with hermaphrodite florets.

Inflorescence. Inflorescence determinate; without pseudospikelets; paniculate (about 75 cm long, with verticils of branches); spatheate; not comprising ‘partial inflorescences’ and foliar organs. Spikelet-bearing axes ‘racemes’, or paniculate (?); persistent. Spikelets solitary.

Female-fertile spikelets. Spikelets about 40–60 mm long; compressed laterally; disarticulating above the glumes; disarticulating between the florets; with distinctly elongated rachilla internodes between the florets (the segments about 2 cm long). Rachilla prolonged beyond the uppermost female-fertile floret; the rachilla extension with incomplete florets. Hairy callus absent.

Glumes present; two; shorter than the spikelets; shorter than the adjacent lemmas (3–10 mm long); hairless; awnless (mucronate); non-carinate; similar (rigid). Spikelets with incomplete florets. The incomplete florets distal to the female-fertile florets.

Female-fertile florets 5–7. Lemmas about 1 cm wide; similar in texture to the glumes; not becoming indurated; entire; pointed; mucronate to awned (aristo-mucronate). Awns 1; median; apical; non-geniculate; much shorter than the body of the lemma. Lemmas hairless (but ciliate at the tip); glabrous; non-carinate; about 13 nerved. Palea present; relatively long (equalling the lemma, or longer); apically notched; awnless, without apical setae; several nerved (6 nerved between the keels, 5 nerved between them and the margins); 2-keeled. Palea keels wingless. Lodicules present; 3; membranous; ciliate; not toothed (narrowly obovate-oblong, 1 –1.2 cm long); heavily vascularized. Stamens 6; triadelphous (one free, and a pair and a triplet with connate filaments). Anthers 14 mm long; without an apically prolonged connective. Ovary apically glabrous; with a conspicuous apical appendage. The appendage long, stiff and tapering. Styles fused (into one). Stigmas 3 (the ‘style’ apex obscurely trifid).

Fruit, embryo and seedling. Fruit large (about 2 cm long); not noticeably compressed (ellipso-cylindric). Seed endospermic.

Classification. Watson & Dallwitz (1994): Bambusoideae; Bambusodae; Bambuseae. Soreng et al. (2015): Bambusoideae; Bambusodae; Bambuseae; Melocanninae. 1 species (D. distans).

Distribution, phytogeography, ecology. Burma.

References, etc. Morphological/taxonomic: Parkinson 1933.

Special comments. Anatomical data wanting.

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Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., Macfarlane, T.D., and Dallwitz, M.J. 1992 onwards. The grass genera of the world: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval; including synonyms, morphology, anatomy, physiology, phytochemistry, cytology, classification, pathogens, world and local distribution, and references. Version: 11th December 2017.’.