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The grass genera of the world

L. Watson, T.D. Macfarlane, and M.J. Dallwitz

Character list

#1. <Derivations and allusions of generic names:>/

Facts and opinions on the etymology (derivations) and meanings (allusions) of plant names can be interesting or amusing, but in the present context are of little real consequence. In the case of grass genera, only rarely is the name really diagnostically informative; in fact the meanings (or the supposed meanings) are often simply misleading.

The only genuine authority on the intended allusion of a name would be the taxonomist who coined it; however, it has never been standard taxonomic practice to explain these in original descriptions. In any case, it was impracticable for the present purpose to routinely research original generic descriptions, many of which are quite inaccessible. While compiling the (incomplete) information hazarded here, it became apparent that the meanings of names given in standard regional floras (which are generally unreferenced) often differ from one to another; some seem very unlikely, and one (for Eragrostis, q.v.) may have been painstakingly bowdlerized.

Special difficulties arise from the fact that many supposed allusions quoted today evidently predate the advent of modern, standard descriptive terminology for grass spikelets. Thus, ‘chaff’ and ‘scale’ became ‘glume’, a term formally applied indiscriminately to glumes and lemmas.

In view of all this, there seems little point in worrying whether particular names have been taken directly from the Latin, or (as seems more usual) Latinized from the Greek; likewise no attempt has been made here to standardize diverse transliterations from Greek script.

#2. <Common name:>/

#3. ~ <Sensu lato genus to which sometimes referred (see Notes)>/

~ (‘alternatively’) is here used to indicate ‘sometimes included in or reduced to’. Including numerous ‘genera’ reduced to synonymy in recent times by practitioners of cladistics, which for practical purposes are defensible in terms of comparative morphology, anatomy and physiology; cf. the detailed comparative descriptions provided here. Sensu lato descriptions are easily prepared from these using the Intkey 'Summary' facility, should they be required.

#4. Type species:/

#5. Including <synonyms: ‘genera’ included in the current description, including superfluous names>/

The data would be improved by inclusion of nomenclatural references. At present, they are given only for genera not covered by Clayton and Renvoize (1986).

#6. Excluding <segregate genera for which separate descriptions are provided>/

Habit, vegetative morphology

#7. <Longevity of plants:>/

1. annual <or biennial, without remains of old sheaths or culms>/

2. perennial <with remains of old sheaths and/or culms>/

‘Annual’: plants progressing from germination to seed production and perishing, within that period.

‘Biennial’ (not known in grasses?): a plant normally requiring two years to complete its life-cycle, growing vegetatively in the first, then flowering, fruiting and perishing in the second.

‘Perennial’: a plant which persists and continues growth for several to many years. Detectable in herbaceous grasses by the shrivelled remnants of old sheaths and culms.

#8. <Reeds:>/

1. reedy <helophytic, tall, to (2–)3 m or more in height; culms woody and persistent, always leafy>/

2. not reedy <<implicit>>/

#9. <Habit:>/

1. <conspicuously> rhizomatous/

2. <conspicuously> stoloniferous/

3. caespitose/

4. decumbent <including ‘rooting at the nodes’, implying roots developing at nodes bearing leaves rather than scales>/

#10. <Perennials, whether geophytic>/

1. geophytic/

2. not geophytic/

#11. The flowering culms <whether having foliage leaves; dimorphic culms; intended mainly for bambusoids>/

1. leafless/

2. leafy/

#12. Plants to <diameter: as yet uncoded>/

cm in diameter/

#13. <Mature> culms <maximum height; data unreliable for large genera>/

cm high/

#14. Culms <whether woody or herbaceous>/

1. woody and persistent/

2. herbaceous <not woody, not persistent>/

#15. Culms to <maximum diameter: note cm units, intended for bamboos>/

cm in diameter/

#16. Culms <shape: intended for bamboos>/

1. cylindrical <terete>/

2. flattened on one side/

#17. Culms <whether scandent>/

1. scandent/

2. not scandent <self-supporting, scrambling or floating> <<implicit>>/

#18. Culms <habit: as yet uncoded>/

1. self-supporting <<implicit>>/

2. decumbent/

3. scrambling/

4. scandent/

5. pendent/

6. floating/

#19. Culms <whether branched above>/

1. branched <vegetatively> above/

2. unbranched <vegetatively> above/

#20. Buds from which the primary culm branches arise <in bamboos, number>/

#21. Primary branches <‘complement’, number>/

#22. Primary branches <arrangement>/

1. horizontally aligned/

2. in an irregular line/

3. clumped/

4. girdling/

5. around a triangular space/

#23. The <culm> branching <nature>/

1. simple/

2. fastigiate/

3. suffrutescent/

4. dendroid/

#24. Culms <whether tuberous at base>/

1. tuberous <at base>/

2. not tuberous <at base> <<implicit>>/

#25. Culms <number of aerial nodes: as yet uncoded>/

noded/

#26. Culm nodes <exposure; few data>/

1. exposed/

2. hidden by leaf sheaths/

#27. Culm nodes <whether hairy or glabrous>/

1. hairy/

2. glabrous/

#28. Culm nodes <number of ridges: bamboos>/

ridged/

#29. Culm leaves <presence; few data>/

1. present/

2. absent/

#30. Culm leaf sheaths <bamboos: presence>/

1. present/

2. absent/

#31. Culm leaf sheaths <persistence>/

1. deciduous/

2. persistent/

#32. Culm leaf sheaths <whether keeled>/

1. keeled/

2. compressed/

3. rounded/

The compiled data almost exclusively for Australian taxa.

#33. Culm leaf sheaths <bamboos: when deciduous, persistent girdle>/

1. leaving a persisten girdle <after falling>/

2. not leaving a persistent girdle/

#34. Culm leaf sheaths <bamboos: auricles>/

1. conspicuously auriculate/

2. not conspicuously auriculate/

#35. Culm leaves <bamboos: blade>/

1. with conspicuous blades/

2. without conspicuous blades/

#36. Culm leaf blades <bamboos: shape>/

1. linear/

2. lanceolate/

3. ovate/

4. triangular/

#37. <Mid> culm internodes <whether solid or hollow: avoid the ‘peduncle’>/

1. solid <or spongy>/

2. <conspicuously> hollow/

#38. <Bambusoid habit, unicaespitose or pluricaespitose (intended for bamboos):>/

1. unicaespitose/

2. pluricaespitose/

#39. Rhizomes <form (intended mainly for bamboos)>/

1. pachymorph <sympodial>/

2. leptomorph <monopodial>/

#40. Plants <whether conspicuously armed>/

1. conspicuously armed <<specify how>>/

2. unarmed <<to become implicit, except in bamboos>>/

#41. Plants <presence of multicellular glands, with comments on location, form>/

1. with multicellular glands/

2. without multicellular glands <<implicit>>/

#42. Young <vegetative> shoots <whether extra- or intravaginal: poorly recorded>/

1. extravaginal <bursting through the bases of subtending sheaths>/

2. intravaginal <emerging from between subtending sheath and stem>/

#43. The <fresh> shoots <whether aromatic when crushed>/

1. aromatic/

2. not aromatic <<implicit>>/

#44. Leaves <whether mainly basal, or mainly on the culms>/

1. mostly basal/

2. not <distinctly> basally aggregated <i.e., the culms leafy>/

#45. Leaves <whether differentiated into sheath and blade>/

1. clearly differentiated into sheath and blade <<implicit>>/

2. not clearly differentiated into sheath and blade/

#46. Leaves <phyllotaxy>/

1. spirally disposed <from intitiation>/

2. <at least initially> distichous <though subject to subsequent displacement; the near-universal condition> <<implicit>>/

#47. Leaves <whether auricles present or absent>/

1. auriculate/

2. non-auriculate/

‘Auricles’: see Clifford and Watson (1977) for definition.

#48. Leaves <presence of auricular setae>/

1. with auricular <‘oral’> setae/

2. without auricular <‘oral’> setae <<implicit, save in Bambusoideae>>/

#49. <Leaf> sheath margins <whether joined>/

1. joined <to at least one-quarter of their length: ‘sheaths tubular’>/

2. free <<implicit>>/

#50. <Comments on sheaths:>/

#51. Leaf blades <extreme reduction>/

1. <all> greatly reduced <with main functions transferred elsewhere>/

2. not all greatly reduced <<implicit>>/

#52. Leaf blades <shape; data incomplete>/

1. linear/

2. linear-lanceolate/

3. lanceolate/

4. ovate-lanceolate/

5. ovate/

6. elliptic <oblong>/

7. obovate/

#53. Leaf blades <apices flat or cucullate>/

1. apically cucullate <hooded>/

2. apically flat/

#54. Leaf blades <texture>/

1. leathery/

2. flimsy/

3. neither leathery nor flimsy <<implicit>>/

#55. Leaf blades <whether broad or narrow <specify the true range>>/

1. broad <maximum (flattened) width greater than 1 cm>/

2. narrow <maximum (flattened) width less than 1 cm>/

#56. Leaf blades <mid-width; data very incomplete>/

mm wide <in the middle>/

#57. Leaf blades <whether cordate or sagittate>/

1. <at least some of them> cordate/

2. <at least some of them> sagittate/

3. not cordate, not sagittate <<implicit>>/

#58. Leaf blades <whether setaceous>/

1. setaceous <i.e., fine and bristle-like: not to be confused with pungent, subulate etc.>/

2. not setaceous <<implicit>>/

#59. Leaf blades <folded/rolled>/

1. flat/

2. folded/

3. rolled/

4. acicular/

#60. Leaf blades <whether needle-like>/

1. hard, woody, needle-like <and plants prickly, e.g. Triodia>/

2. not needle-like <plants not prickly> <<implicit>>/

#61. Leaf blades <presence abaxially of multicellular glands>/

1. without abaxial multicellular glands/

2. exhibiting multicellular glands abaxially/

Data almost exclusively on Chloridoideae, provided by An Van den Borre (1994).

#62. The abaxial leaf blade glands <distribution>/

1. on the blade margins/

2. costal <usually basal to macrohairs>/

3. intercostal/

#63. Leaf blades <whether pseudopetiolate>/

1. pseudopetiolate/

2. not pseudopetiolate <<implicit>>/

#64. Leaf blades <venation>/

1. pinnately veined/

2. palmately veined/

3. <conventionally> parallel veined <venation neither pinnate nor palmate> <<implicit>>/

#65. Leaf blades <whether cross veined>/

1. cross veined <with more than the occasional transverse vein detectable>/

2. without cross venation/

#66. Leaf blades <whether disarticulating>/

1. <or at least many of them, ultimately> disarticulating from the sheaths/

2. persistent <not disarticulating>/

#67. Leaf blades <whether vernation rolled or folded>/

1. rolled in bud/

2. once-folded in bud/

3. folded like a fan in bud/

#68. <Adaxial> ligule <presence>/

1. <consistently> present <<implicit>>/

2. absent <at least from upper leaves>/

#69. <Adaxial> ligule <form; avoid seedlings>/

1. an unfringed membrane <may be variously hairy or ciliolate>/

2. a fringed membrane/

3. a fringe of hairs/

4. a rim of minute papillae/

#70. <Adaxial> ligule <shape of apex>/

1. truncate/

2. not truncate <acute, obtuse or rounded>/

#71. <Adaxial> ligule <length at middle: generally recorded only for membranous, unfringed forms>/

mm long/

#72. <Outer> contra-ligule <presence; data very incomplete>/

1. present/

2. absent/

Reproductive organization

#73. Plants <whether monoecious, with bisexual spikelets, or dioecious>/

1. <bisexual, but> monoecious with all the fertile spikelets unisexual/

2. bisexual, all with <at least some> bisexual spikelets/

3. dioecious <with separate male and female-fertile individuals - including gynodioecious>/

‘Gynodioecious’: Comprising plants of two sesx forms. In one the flowers are functionally hermaphrodite, and in the other the flowers are functionally female through the action of a system causing reproducible male sterility; both sex forms produce seeds.

#74. Plants <whether having hermaphrodite florets: not to be confused with presence or absence of hermaphrodite spikelets>/

1. with <at least some> hermaphrodite florets/

2. without hermaphrodite florets/

#75. The spikelets <whether heterospiculate: exclusive of ‘hidden’ spikelets>/

1. of <at least two> sexually distinct forms on the same plant <e.g., female or hermaphrodite and sterile or male-only; including ‘heterogamous’. Vestigial spikelets represented only by their pedicels have here been regarded as spikelets>/

2. all alike in sexuality <on the same plant (‘homogamous’): ignore hidden axillary spikelets, etc. Implicit>/

#76. The spikelets <sexuality>/

1. hermaphrodite/

2. female-only/

3. male-only/

4. sterile/

#77. The male and female-fertile spikelets <disposition on the plant>/

1. in different inflorescences/

2. on different <main> branches of the same inflorescence/

3. segregated, in different parts of the same inflorescence branch/

4. mixed in the inflorescence/

#78. The spikelets <whether heteromorphic (intended mainly for heterospiculate andropogonoids)>/

1. overtly heteromorphic/

2. <externally> homomorphic/

#79. The spikelets <whether the spikelet combinations are all heterogamous: generally applied only to andropogonoids, inapplicable when exclusively homogamous>/

1. in both homogamous and heterogamous combinations/

2. all in heterogamous combinations/

#80. Plants <whether outbreeding or inbreeding>/

1. outbreeding <allogamous>/

2. inbreeding <autogamous>/

#81. Plants <cleistogamy in exposed spikelets>/

1. exposed-cleistogamous <associated with varying degrees of spikelet and/or floret modification>/

2. chasmogamous <<unreliably implicit>>/

Data mainly from Connor (1979).

#82. Plants <possession of hidden, cleistogamous spikelets in leaf axils or on specialised rhizomes>/

1. with hidden cleistogenes <more or less hidden, usually conspicuously modified cleistogamous spikelets>/

2. without hidden cleistogenes <<implicit>>/

#83. The hidden cleistogenes <location>/

1. in the leaf sheaths/

2. subterranean <rhizanthogenes>/

#84. <Whether apomixis observed, with data comment on pseudogamy/non-pseudogamy; data mainly from Connor 1979:>/

1. apomictic/

2. reproducing sexually <<unreliably implicit>>/

#85. <Occurrence of vivipary (poorly recorded):>/

1. viviparous/

2. not viviparous/

Including "proliferous inflorescences". The records compiled here are no doubt incomplete for wild grasses, and do not include forms cultivated as cereals, where the grain is retained prior to threshing (essential for organized harvesting).

Inflorescence

#86. Inflorescence <whether determinate (semelauctant) or indeterminate (iterauctant or with a seemingly indeterminate synflorescence)>/

1. determinate <semelauctant> <<implicit>>/

2. indeterminate <iterauctant: with axillary buds at the spikelet bases>/

See McLure (1973), Calderon and Soderstom (1973), etc., for definitions.

#87. Inflorescence <whether possessing pseudospikelets>/

1. with pseudospikelets <having basal bracts with axillary buds or spikelets, in addition to or instead of the usual barren glumes>/

2. without pseudospikelets <<implicit>>/

In most grasses, florets develop alternately on either side of the 1-many floreted (distichous) spikelets. Sometimes, however, secondary spikelets develop in the axils of the proximal lemmas instead of florets. The resulting complexes, known as 'pseudospikelets', are characteristic of some bamboos.

See McLure (1973), Calderon and Soderstom (1973), etc., for definitions.

#88. Inflorescence <reduction>/

1. reduced to a single spikelet/

2. few spikeleted/

3. <normally> many spikeleted <<unreliably implicit>>/

#89. Inflorescence <chasmogamous: overall form>/

1. a single spike <per culm>/

2. of spicate <spike-like> main branches <of spikes, narrow racemes or narrow panicles>/

3. a false spike, with spikelets <or spikelet clusters> on contracted axes/

4. a single raceme <per culm; at least some of the spikelets clearly pedicellate>/

5. paniculate <and not readily referable to any of the other states>/

In the absence of a suite of characters to deal satisfactorily with general inflorescence form, this has to suffice. Note that the coded data are frequently supplemented by important data comments, and forms for which these states are inappropriate are described exclusively via comments.

#90. Inflorescence <tumbleweeds>/

1. deciduous in its entirety <including ‘tumbleweeds’>/

2. not deciduous <<implicit>>/

#91. Inflorescence <whether open or contracted: mainly applied to panicles>/

1. open/

2. contracted <very compact, or narrow and spike-like>/

#92. Inflorescence <compact, solitary: form — mainly applied to panicles and solitary racemes>/

1. capitate <more or less spherical>/

2. more or less ovoid/

3. spicate <elongated-symmetrical, spike-like>/

4. more or less irregular <neither capitate nor ovoid, not elongated-symmetrical>/

#93. Inflorescence <whether branches divaricate>/

1. with conspicuously divaricate branchlets/

2. without conspicuously divaricate branchlets <<implicit>>/

#94. Inflorescence <whether branchlets capillary: avoid INTKEY use with non-paniculate inflorescences, which have usually been scored as ‘inapplicable’>/

1. with capillary branchlets/

2. without capillary branchlets/

#95. Inflorescence <whether digitate or subdigitate>/

1. digitate <includes paired branches>/

2. subdigitate/

3. non-digitate <neither digitate nor ‘subdigitate’> <<implicit>>/

#96. Primary inflorescence branches <number; applied mainly to forms with spike-like main branches; data very incomplete>/

#97. Primary inflorescence branches <insertion on the main axis; data in process of transcription from Pooideae and Panicodae databases (q.v.); avoid where possible>/

1. borne biseriately on one side of the main axis/

2. borne distichously/

3. inserted all around the main axis <borne neither biseriately nor distichously: includes spiralled, ‘alternate’, opposite, whorled>/

#98. Inflorescence <whether branches end in spikelets: caution required, notably in Paniceae where ‘bristles’ are interpreted as the naked tips of reduced axes>/

1. with axes ending in spikelets <<implicit>>/

2. axes <often> not ending in spikelets/

#99. Rachides <whether clearly (macroscopically) flattened, hollowed or winged; data fairly unreliable>/

1. hollowed/

2. flattened/

3. winged/

4. neither flattened nor hollowed, not winged <<implicit>>/

#100. Spikelets <whether embedded in the rachis>/

1. all <more or less> partially embedded in the rachis/

2. not all embedded <<implicit>>/

#101. Inflorescence <whether spatheate (note: ‘spatheate’ not currently distinguished from ‘spatheolate’)>/

1. spatheate <<specify>> <ignore mere early enclosure by an unmodified flag leaf>/

2. espatheate/

#102. Inflorescence <whether comprising a complex of ‘partial inflorescences’ and intervening foliar organs (= leaves, spathes, spatheoles>/

1. a complex of ‘partial inflorescences’ and intervening foliar organs <i.e., a ‘pseudo-inflorescence’>/

2. not comprising ‘partial inflorescences’ and foliar organs/

#103. <Ultimate> spikelet-bearing axes <form; intended mainly for andropogonoids and bamboos>/

1. very much reduced <<specify>>/

2. spikes/

3. ‘racemes’/

4. spikelike <evidently not spikes, on close examination. e.g. Hemarthria, Phacelurus>/

5. paniculate/

6. capitate <= 1&5>/

#104. The spikelet-bearing axes <andropogonoid, number of spikelet-bearing ‘articles’ (joints)>/

1. with only one spikelet-bearing ‘article’/

2. with 2–3 spikelet-bearing ‘articles’/

3. with 4–5 spikelet-bearing ‘articles’/

4. with 6–10 spikelet-bearing ‘articles’/

5. with more than 10 spikelet-bearing ‘articles’ <<specify the approximate number>>/

#105. The racemes <whether spikelet bearing to the base>/

1. spikelet bearing to the base/

2. without spikelets towards the base/

#106. <Ultimate> spikelet-bearing axes <grouping> <intended mainly for andropogonoids>/

1. solitary/

2. paired/

3. clustered <in groups of three or more>/

#107. <Ultimate> spikelet-bearing axes <thickness of rachides> <intended mainly for andropogonoids>/

1. with very slender rachides/

2. with substantial rachides/

#108. Spikelet-bearing axes <whether disarticulating. Note that spikelet-bearing axes may be greatly reduced>/

1. disarticulating <often manifested in clearly articulated rachides. Excluding inflorescences falling whole (tumbleweeds)>/

2. persistent <not disarticulating> <<implicit>>/

#109. Spikelet-bearing axes <manner of disarticulation>/

1. falling entire/

2. disarticulating at the joints/

#110. The pedicels and rachis internodes <Bothriochloa, Dichanthium and relatives>/

1. with a longitudinal, translucent furrow/

2. without a longitudinal, translucent furrow <<implicit>>/

#111. ‘Articles’ <(‘joints’) of the spikelet-bearing rachis, shape (intended mainly for andropogonoids)>/

1. linear/

2. non-linear/

#112. ‘Articles’ <of the spikelet-bearing rachis: whether bearing an elaiosome>/

1. with a basal callus-knob <elaiosome>/

2. without a basal callus-knob/

#113. ‘Articles’ <of the spikelet-bearing rachis, whether appendaged (intended mainly for andropogonoids)>/

1. appendaged/

2. not appendaged/

#114. ‘Articles’ <of the spikelet-bearing rachis, orientation of disarticulation (intended mainly for andropogonoids)>/

1. disarticulating transversely/

2. disarticulating obliquely/

#115. ‘Articles’ <of the spikelet-bearing rachis, whether hairy (intended mainly for andropogonoids>/

1. densely long-hairy/

2. somewhat hairy/

3. glabrous/

#116. Spikelets <and/or clusters, whether subtended by or associated with ‘involucres’ or bristles representing vestigial branches (note that ‘bristles’ must not be confused with hairs)>/

1. <all> unaccompanied by bractiform involucres, not associated with setiform vestigial branches <<implicit>>/

2. <at least some of them> subtended by solitary ‘bristles’ <vestigial branches>/

3. <or clusters> with ‘involucres’ of ‘bristles’ <vestigial branches> <ignore true hairs>/

4. associated with bractiform involucres/

#117. The <reduced branch> ‘bristles’ <form, coalescence>/

1. spiny, markedly coalescent basally/

2. relatively slender, not spiny/

#118. The <reduced branch> ‘bristles’ <whether deciduous>/

1. persisting on the axis/

2. deciduous with the spikelets/

#119. The involucres <whether deciduous or persistent>/

1. persistent on the rachis/

2. shed with the fertile spikelets/

#120. Spikelets <grouping: recorded mainly in spikes and racemes>/

1. <mainly> solitary/

2. <consistently> paired/

3. <consistently> in triplets/

#121. Spikelets <whether secund: currently a catch-all character, covering one-sidedness of inflorescence (e.g., Dactylis, dorsiventral rachides, etc.>/

1. secund/

2. not secund/

#122. Spikelets <insertion>/

1. biseriate <on one side of the rachis>/

2. distichous/

3. not two-ranked <not biseriate, not distichously arranged> <<to become implicit>>/

#123. Spikelets <insertion (revised version)>/

1. sessile/

2. subsessile/

3. pedicellate/

#124. Pedicel apices <shape; recorded as yet only in Paniceae>/

1. oblique/

2. truncate/

3. discoid/

4. cupuliform/

Data mainly from Webster (1985).

‘Female-fertile spikelet’: a spikelet in which at least one floret has the potential to produce fruit. This and parallel expressions (see below) are peculiar to this package and its derivatives. They reflect the necessity in classification and identification for a term enabling the recording of comparative data across the diversity of sexual expression in the family (for example, permitting structures of the female spikelets of dioecious grasses to be compared with homologous structures in those where the spikelets are exclusively bisexual, and distinguishing them from those of male-only or sterile spikelets).

‘Female-fertile floret’: a floret having the potential to bear fruit.

‘Female-fertile lemma’: a lemma axillant to a female-fertile floret (q.v.).

‘Female-fertile palea’: a palea axillant to a female-fertile flower (the palea of a female-fertile floret, q.v.).

#125. Spikelets <disposition, e.g. Diplachne/Leptochloa: not widely recorded>/

1. imbricate <overlapping and contiguous, like roof tiles>/

2. not imbricate/

#126. Spikelets <whether in regular ‘long-and-short’ combinations, as exemplified in typical andropogonoids>/

1. consistently in ‘long-and-short’ combinations <i.e., pedicellate/sessile or long-pedicel/short-pedicel pairs or triplets: currently includes andropogonoid forms with the pedicellate ‘spikelets’ reduced to their pedicels>/

2. not <consistently> in distinct ‘long-and-short’ combinations <<implicit>>/

#127. Spikelets <detail of ‘long-and-short’ combinations (intended mainly for andropogonoids)>/

1. in pedicellate/sessile combinations/

2. unequally pedicellate in each combination/

#128. Pedicels of the ‘pedicellate’ spikelets <whether fused with the rachis: intended for andropogonoids>/

1. discernible, but <extensively> fused with the rachis/

2. free of the rachis/

#129. The ‘shorter’ <andropogonoid> spikelets <sessile or shorter-pedicelled, sexuality>/

1. hermaphrodite/

2. female-only/

3. male-only/

4. sterile/

#130. The ‘longer’ <andropogonoid> spikelets <pedicelled or longer-pedicelled, sexuality>/

1. hermaphrodite/

2. female-only/

3. male-only/

4. sterile <comment if reduced to pedicels>/

Female-sterile spikelets

#131. <Comments on female-sterile spikelets:>/

#132. Rachilla of male spikelets <whether prolonged beyond the uppermost male floret>/

1. prolonged beyond the uppermost male floret/

2. terminated by a male floret/

#133. The male spikelets <presence of glumes>/

1. with glumes/

2. without glumes/

#134. The male spikelets <whether with proximal sterile florets>/

1. with proximal incomplete florets/

2. without proximal incomplete florets/

#135. The male spikelets <number of florets>/

floreted/

#136. The lemmas <of male spikelets, whether awned>/

1. awnless/

2. mucronate/

3. awned/

#137. Male florets <number per male spikelet>/

#138. Male florets <of male-only spikelets, number of stamens>/

staminate/

#139. The staminal filaments <in male-only spikelets, whether joined>/

1. free <<implicit>>/

2. joined/

Female-fertile spikelets

#140. <Female-fertile> spikelets <whether morphologically conventional>/

1. morphologically ‘conventional’ <with readily identifiable glumes, lemmas and paleas> <<implicit>>/

2. <very> unconventional <and hard to interpret>/

‘Female-fertile spikelet’: a spikelet in which at least one floret has the potential to produce fruit. This and parallel expressions (see below) are peculiar to this package and its derivatives. They reflect the necessity in classification and identification for a term enabling the recording of comparative data across the diversity of sexual expression in the family (for example, permitting structures of the female spikelets of dioecious grasses to be compared with homologous structures in those where the spikelets are exclusively bisexual, and distinguishing them from those of male-only or sterile spikelets).

‘Female-fertile floret’: a floret having the potential to bear fruit.

‘Female-fertile lemma’: a lemma axillant to a female-fertile floret (q.v.).

‘Female-fertile palea’: a palea axillant to a female-fertile flower (the palea of a female-fertile floret, q.v.). 208:210. Data mainly from Webster (1985).

Female-fertile spikelet’: a spikelet in which at least one floret has the potential to produce fruit. This and parallel expressions (see below) are peculiar to this package and its derivatives. They reflect the necessity in classification and identification for a term enabling the recording of comparative data across the diversity of sexual expression in the family (for example, permitting structures of the female spikelets of dioecious grasses to be compared with homologous structures in those where the spikelets are exclusively bisexual, and distinguished from those of male-only or sterile spikelets).

‘Female-fertile floret’: a floret having the potential to bear fruit.

‘Female-fertile lemma’: a lemma axillant to a female-fertile floret (q.v.).

‘Female-fertile palea’: a palea axillant to a female-fertile flower (the palea of a female-fertile floret, q.v.).

#141. <Female-fertile> spikelets <approximate length, excluding any awns; data unreliable for large genera>/

mm long/

#142. <Female-fertile> spikelets <shape>/

1. fusiform/

2. subcylindrical/

3. subspherical/

4. suborbicular/

5. cuneate/

6. turbinate/

7. oblong/

8. elliptic/

9. lanceolate/

10. ovate/

11. obovate/

12. oblanceolate/

13. linear/

#143. <Female-fertile> spikelets <colour; few data>/

#144. <Female-fertile> spikelets <orientation of sessile to subsessile forms>/

1. abaxial <G1 when present on the side away from the rachis; in panicoid forms having a proximal incomplete floret, the upper (female-fertile) lemma backs onto the rachis>/

2. adaxial <G1 when present against the rachis; in panicoid forms having a proximal incomplete floret, the upper (female-fertile) lemma is on the side away from the rachis>/

#145. <Female-fertile> spikelets <plane of compression>/

1. compressed laterally <lying on the side when placed on a flat surface>/

2. not noticeably compressed <terete>/

3. compressed <dorsally, ventrally or> dorsiventrally <lying on front or back when placed on a flat surface>/

#146. <Female-fertile> spikelets <shape of ‘dorsiventrally flattened’ forms>/

1. planoconvex/

2. biconvex/

#147. <Female-fertile> spikelets <location of disarticulation positions>/

1. <readily> disarticulating above the glumes <when mature>/

2. disarticulating between the glumes/

3. falling with the glumes <when mature; pending data changes, including forms where the spikelets are shed by inflorescence disarticulation>/

4. not disarticulating <common in cultivated cereals>/

#148. <Female-fertile> spikelets <whether rachilla disarticulates between the florets of spikelets with two or more fertile florets>/

1. not disarticulating between the florets/

2. disarticulating between the florets/

#149. <Female-fertile> spikelets <rachilla internode spacings; unsatisfactorily defined> <<and inadequately scored for treating state 1 as implicit>>/

1. with conventional internode spacings/

2. with a distinctly elongated rachilla internode between the glumes/

3. with a distinctly elongated rachilla internode above the glumes/

4. with distinctly elongated rachilla internodes between the florets/

#150. <Presence or absence of Ichnanthus-type stipe (Paniceae):>/

1. the upper floret conspicuously stipitate/

2. the upper floret not stipitate/

#151. The stipe beneath the upper floret <thickness: Ichnanthus relatives>/

1. filiform/

2. not filiform/

#152. The stipe beneath the upper floret <shape: Ichnanthus relatives>/

1. straight and swollen/

2. curved, not swollen/

#153. The stipe beneath the upper floret <whether heterogeneous Zuloaga 1987>/

1. heterogeneous <membranous towards the base of the palea, indurated on the lemma side>/

2. homogeneous/

#154. Rachilla <of female-fertile spikelets, whether terminated by a female-fertile floret, or ‘prolonged’>/

1. prolonged beyond the uppermost female-fertile floret <i.e. not terminated by a female-fertile floret: note that ‘racemose’ spikelets with three or more female-fertile florets have all been awarded this state>/

2. terminated by a female-fertile floret <not ‘prolonged’>/

#155. Rachilla <of female-fertile spikelets, whether hairy>/

1. hairy <between the female-fertile florets, or above the single one>/

2. hairless/

#156. The rachilla extension <beyond the uppermost female-fertile floret of female-fertile spikelets, rudiments>/

1. with incomplete florets/

2. naked/

#157. Hairy callus <presence: an unsatisfactory catch-all character, but widely recorded and useful in keys>/

1. present/

2. absent/

#158. Callus hairs <presence, size: Calamagrostis/Agrostis>/

1. present, more than 0.5 mm long/

2. absent, or if present less than 0.5 mm long/

#159. The callus hairs <of female-fertile spikelets, colour>/

1. white/

2. brown/

3. purple/

#160. Callus <presence/length; data very incomplete>/

1. absent/

2. short/

3. long/

#161. Callus <whether blunt or pointed>/

1. pointed/

2. blunt/

#162. Glumes <of female-fertile spikelets, present or absent>/

1. present <<implicit>>/

2. absent/

#163. Glumes <of female-fertile spikelets, number: ‘glumes’ are barren, with neither axillary spikelets nor florets>/

1. one per spikelet/

2. two/

3. several/

#164. Glumes <whether glumes of the female-fertile spikelets are all minute>/

1. minute <relative to the rest of the spikelet>/

2. relatively large <<implicit>>/

#165. Glumes <of female-fertile spikelets, whether markedly unequal in the intact spikelet; regardless of any differences in form>/

1. very unequal <in length in the intact spikelet>/

2. more or less equal <in length in the intact spikelet: generally includes ‘subequal’>/

#166. Glumes <of female-fertile spikelets, length relative to the spikelet; poorly recorded>/

1. <markedly> shorter than the spikelets/

2. about equalling the spikelets/

3. exceeding the spikelets/

#167. Glumes <of female-fertile spikelets, lengths relative to proximal (adjacent) lemmas; refers to the longer glume when glumes unequal>/

1. <decidedly> shorter than the adjacent lemmas <in intact spikelets>/

2. long relative to the adjacent lemmas <more or less equalling or exceeding them>/

#168. Glumes <of female-fertile spikelets, whether free or joined>/

1. joined <at least basally>/

2. free <<implicit>>/

#169. Glumes <of female-fertile spikelets, whether ventricose>/

1. conspicuously ventricose <basally>/

2. not ventricose <<implicit>>/

#170. Glumes <of sessile to subsessile female-fertile spikelets, position relative to rachis>/

1. dorsiventral to the rachis <the entire spikelet orientated dorsiventrally to flatwise>/

2. lateral to the rachis <the spikelets usually but not always borne flatwise>/

3. displaced <e.g., lateral to each other on side away from rachis>/

#171. Glumes <of female-fertile spikelets, whether hairy>/

1. hairy/

2. hairless/

#172. Glumes <of hairless female-fertile spikelets, whether glabrous or scabrous>/

1. glabrous/

2. scabrous/

#173. Glumes <of female-fertile spikelets, hair disposition>/

1. with distinct hair tufts/

2. with distinct rows of hairs/

3. without conspicuous tufts or rows of hairs <<implicit>>/

#174. Glumes <of female-fertile spikelets, shape of apex>/

1. pointed/

2. not pointed <blunt or incised>/

#175. Glumes <of female-fertile spikelets, shape>/

1. subulate/

2. not subulate <<to become implicit>>/

#176. Glumes <of female-fertile spikelets, whether awned>/

1. awned/

2. awnless/

#177. Glumes <of female-fertile spikelets, whether carinate (i.e., one-keeled to middle or below)>/

1. carinate <one-keeled>/

2. non-carinate <includes forms with more than one keel, as well as those with non-keeled glumes>/

#178. Glumes <of female-fertile spikelets, whether conspicuously winged on the median keel>/

1. with the keel conspicuously winged/

2. without a median keel-wing <<implicit>>/

#179. Glumes <of female-fertile spikelets, whether markedly dissimilar in form or texture; ignore mere size difference>/

1. very dissimilar <<specify>>/

2. <more or less> similar/

#180. Lower glume <in situ length relative to upper glume of female-fertile spikelet: not recorded if glumes more or less equal>/

times the length of the upper glume/

#181. Lower glume <length relative to lowest lemma: not widely recorded>/

1. shorter than the lowest lemma/

2. about equalling the lowest lemma/

3. much exceeding the lowest lemma/

#182. Lower glume <length relative to the lowest lemma (originally introduced to deal with Colpodium/Catabrosa)>/

1. much shorter than half length of lowest lemma/

2. longer than half length of lowest lemma/

#183. Lower glume <of female-fertile spikelets, whether distinctly two-keeled to the middle or below (intended mainly for andropogonoids)>/

1. two-keeled <distinctly two-keeled to the middle or below>/

2. not two-keeled <not distinctly two-keeled, at least below the upper quarter> <<implicit, save in Andropogonodae>>/

#184. Lower glume <of female-fertile spikelets, shape of back (recorded mainly for andropogonoids)>/

1. convex on the back/

2. flattened on the back/

3. concave <between the keels> on the back/

4. sulcate on the back/

#185. Lower glume <of female-fertile spikelet, whether pitted with 1–3 pits, cf. Bothriochloa; not synonymous with lacunose, qv. (intended for andropogonoids)>/

1. with a conspicuous pit/

2. not pitted <<implicit>>/

#186. Lower glume <of female-fertile spikelet, texture (intended mainly for andropogonoids)>/

1. relatively smooth <i.e. glabrous, scabrous or hairy, but not lacunose, rugose, tuberculate, muricate or spiny>/

2. lacunose with <several-to-many> deep depressions/

3. rugose/

4. tuberculate/

5. muricate/

6. prickly/

#187. Lower glume <of female-fertile spikelet, mid-zone nerve number>/

nerved/

#188. Upper glume <whether (asymmetrically) saccate: e.g. Sacciolepis>/

1. distinctly saccate/

2. not saccate <<implicit>>/

#189. Upper glume <(or the single glume) of female-fertile spikelets, mid-zone nerve number>/

nerved/

#190. Upper glume <(or the single glume) of female-fertile spikelets, whether prickly>/

1. prickly/

2. not prickly <<implicit>>/

#191. <Female-fertile> spikelets <whether containing sterile or male-only florets in addition to female-fertile florets>/

1. <normally> with female-fertile florets only/

2. <or at least some of them, normally> with incomplete <sterile or male-only> florets <note that the situation at the apex of spikelets with more than three florets is often unknown or unclear>/

#192. The incomplete <male or sterile> florets <position in spikelet>/

1. proximal to the female-fertile florets/

2. distal to the female-fertile florets/

3. both distal and proximal to the female-fertile florets/

#193. The distal incomplete florets <of female-fertile spikelets, number; few data>/

#194. The distal incomplete florets <of female-fertile spikelets, specialisation>/

1. merely underdeveloped <neither clearly specialised nor peculiarly modified in form>/

2. clearly specialised and modified in form/

#195. The distal incomplete florets <of female-fertile spikelets, whether awned; data very incomplete>/

1. awned/

2. awnless/

#196. <Female-fertile> spikelets <presence or absence of proximal incomplete florets>/

1. with proximal incomplete florets <includes empty lemmas>/

2. without proximal incomplete florets <and no proximal empty lemmas>/

Really a redundant character, but universally recorded and very useful for keys.

‘Female-fertile spikelet’: a spikelet in which at least one floret has the potential to produce fruit. This and parallel expressions (see below) are peculiar to this package and its derivatives. They reflect the necessity in classification and identification for a term enabling the recording of comparative data across the diversity of sexual expression in the family (for example, permitting structures of the female spikelets of dioecious grasses to be compared with homologous structures in those where the spikelets are exclusively bisexual, and distinguishing them from those of male-only or sterile spikelets).

‘Female-fertile floret’: a floret having the potential to bear fruit.

‘Female-fertile lemma’: a lemma axillant to a female-fertile floret (q.v.).

‘Female-fertile palea’: a palea axillant to a female-fertile flower (the palea of a female-fertile floret, q.v.).

#197. The proximal incomplete florets <of female-fertile spikelets, when present, number (intended mainly for panicoids)>/

#198. The proximal incomplete florets <of female-fertile spikelets, whether paleate>/

1. paleate/

2. epaleate/

#199. Palea of the proximal incomplete florets <of female-fertile spikelets, development>/

1. fully developed/

2. reduced <or vestigial>/

#200. Palea of the proximal incomplete florets <whether becoming hardened and enlarged laterally: mainly for Panciceae>/

1. becoming conspicuously hardened and enlarged laterally/

2. not becoming conspicuously hardened and enlarged laterally <<implicit>>/

#201. The proximal incomplete florets <of the female-fertile spikelets, sexuality>/

1. male/

2. sterile/

#202. The proximal <imperfect> lemmas <of the female-fertile spikelets, shape comments>/

#203. The proximal <imperfect> lemmas <of the female-fertile spikelets, whether awned>/

1. awned/

2. awnless/

#204. The proximal <imperfect> lemmas <of the female-fertile spikelets, mid-zone nerve number (intended mainly for panicoids)>/

nerved/

#205. The proximal <imperfect> lemmas <of the female-fertile spikelets, length relative to the female-fertile ones in the intact spikelet (intended mainly for panicoids)>/

1. exceeded by the female-fertile lemmas/

2. more or less equalling the female-fertile lemmas/

3. decidedly exceeding the female-fertile lemmas/

#206. The proximal <imperfect> lemmas <of the female-fertile spikelets, firmness relative to the female-fertile ones (intended mainly for panicoids)>/

1. less firm than the female-fertile lemmas/

2. similar in texture to the female-fertile lemmas/

3. decidedly firmer than the female-fertile lemmas/

#207. The proximal <imperfect> lemmas <of the female-fertile spikelets, whether becoming indurated (intended mainly for panicoids)>/

1. becoming indurated/

2. not becoming indurated/

#208. <Number of> female-fertile florets <per female-fertile spikelet>/

#209. <Female-fertile> lemmas <insertion>/

1. conspicuously non-distichous/

2. not conspicuously non-distichous <<implicit>>/

#210. <Female-fertile> lemmas <shape comments>/

#211. <Female-fertile> lemmas <whether convolute>/

1. convolute <and hiding at least the lower part of the palea>/

2. not convolute <<implicit, but data not yet reliable>>/

#212. <Female-fertile> lemmas <whether saccate>/

1. saccate/

2. not saccate <<unreliably implicit>>/

#213. <Female-fertile> lemmas <whether ‘crowned’; see Notes>/

1. with an apical ‘crown’/

2. without a crown <<implicit>>/

‘Crown’: in Stipeae, a solid cylinder (sometimes shorter than wide) resulting from fusion of the lemma towards the apex. Sometimes associated with a cuplike structure and or a ring of hairs beneath the awn. See Barkworth (1990), Jacobs et al. (1995).

‘Female-fertile spikelet’: a spikelet in which at least one floret has the potential to produce fruit. This and parallel expressions (see below) are peculiar to this package and its derivatives. They reflect the necessity in classification and identification for a term enabling the recording of comparative data across the diversity of sexual expression in the family (for example, permitting structures of the female spikelets of dioecious grasses to be compared with homologous structures in those where the spikelets are exclusively bisexual, and distinguishing them from those of male-only or sterile spikelets).

‘Female-fertile floret’: a floret having the potential to bear fruit.

‘Female-fertile lemma’: a lemma axillant to a female-fertile floret (q.v.).

‘Female-fertile palea’: a palea axillant to a female-fertile flower (the palea of a female-fertile floret, q.v.).

#214. <Female-fertile> lemmas <firmness, relative to the glumes>/

1. less firm than the <firmer of the> glumes/

2. similar in texture to the <firmer of the> glumes/

3. decidedly firmer than the <firmer of the> glumes/

#215. <Female-fertile> lemmas <texture; data mainly for Australian Paniceae>/

1. smooth/

2. <longitudinally, minutely> striate <rugulose>/

3. <transversely> rugose/

#216. <Female-fertile> lemmas <whether becoming indurated>/

1. becoming indurated <cf. fingernails, when mature and dry>/

2. not becoming indurated <hyaline, membranous, leathery, cartilaginous etc.>/

#217. <Female-fertile> lemmas <of Paniceae, colour of mature L2>/

1. white in fruit/

2. yellow in fruit/

3. brown in fruit/

4. black in fruit/

#218. <Female-fertile> lemmas <shape of apex>/

1. entire/

2. incised/

#219. <Female-fertile> lemmas <entire, whether pointed or blunt>/

1. pointed/

2. blunt/

#220. <Female-fertile> lemmas <number of lobes>/

lobed/

#221. <Female-fertile> lemmas <whether deeply cleft>/

1. deeply cleft <to a third or more>/

2. not deeply cleft/

#222. <Female-fertile> lemmas <whether crested, cf. Cyrtococcum>/

1. crested at the tip/

2. not crested <<implicit>>/

#223. <Female-fertile> lemmas <whether mucronate or awned>/

1. awnless <neither mucronate nor awned>/

2. mucronate <with a short, hard point or vestigial or incipient awn>/

3. awned/

#224. Awns <of female-fertile lemmas, form>/

1. triple or trifid, commonly with a basal column <Aristida type>/

2. not of the triple/trifid, basal column type <<implicit>>/

#225. Awns <of female-fertile lemmas, if present, number>/

#226. Awns <of female-fertile lemmas, position>/

1. median/

2. median and lateral/

3. lateral only/

#227. <The median> awns <of female-fertile lemmas, whether different from the laterals in form> <<use comment 'the median' in items, e.g. '219(the median),1>>/

1. different in form from the laterals/

2. similar in form to the laterals/

#228. Awns <main, median awns of female-fertile lemmas, position>/

1. from a sinus/

2. dorsal/

3. apical/

#229. Awns <of dorsally awned female-fertile lemmas, position>/

1. from near the top <from the upper quarter, or near the apex, or just behind an apical notch>/

2. from well down the back <from near the middle, or below>/

#230. Awns <main, median awns of female-fertile lemmas, whether hooked (‘uncinate’)>/

1. hooked/

2. not hooked <<implicit>>/

#231. Awns <main, median awns of female-fertile lemmas, whether straight or geniculate when dry>/

1. non-geniculate <straight or curved>/

2. geniculate <usually twisted at the base>/

#232. Awns <main, median awns of female-fertile lemmas, when non-geniculate, shape>/

1. straight/

2. recurving/

3. flexuous/

#233. Awns <main, median awns of female-fertile lemmas, hairiness>/

1. hairless <glabrous or scabrous>/

2. hairy <but not long-plumose>/

3. long-plumose/

#234. Awns <main, median awns of female-fertile lemmas, relative length>/

1. much shorter than the body of the lemma/

2. about as long as the body of the lemma/

3. much longer than the body of the lemma/

#235. Awns <main, median awns of female-fertile lemmas, number of veins entering base>/

1. entered by one vein/

2. entered by several <three or more> veins/

#236. Awns <main, median awns of female-fertile lemmas, whether deciduous; e.g. Stipa/Oryzopsis>/

1. deciduous/

2. persistent <<to become implicit>>/

#237. The lateral awns <relative length>/

1. shorter than the median <in the intact spikelet>/

2. about equalling the median/

3. exceeding the median/

#238. Awn bases <of female-fertile lemmas, whether twisted; few data>/

1. twisted/

2. not twisted/

#239. Awn bases <of female-fertile lemmas, whether flattened; few data>/

1. flattened/

2. not flattened/

#240. <Female-fertile> lemmas <whether hairy: excludes callus and awns>/

1. <conspicuously> hairy/

2. hairless <glabrous, scabrous, sparsely puberulent, etc.>/

#241. The hairs <of the female-fertile lemmas, whether in tufts>/

1. in tufts/

2. not in tufts <<implicit>>/

#242. The hairs <of the female-fertile lemmas, whether in transverse rows>/

1. in transverse rows/

2. not in transverse rows <<implicit>>/

#243. <Female-fertile> lemmas <hairless, whether glabrous or scabrous>/

1. glabrous/

2. scabrous/

#244. <Female-fertile> lemmas <whether carinate (i.e., one-keeled at least to the middle on the back>/

1. carinate <with a single median keel>/

2. non-carinate <rounded, flat, with two or more keels>/

#245. The keel <of female-fertile lemmas, whether winged; few records>/

1. winged/

2. wingless <<implicit>>/

#246. <Female-fertile> lemmas <whether margins Digitaria or Paspalum type (intended for Paniceae)>/

1. having the margins <at least over the upper two-thirds> lying flat on the palea <Digitaria-type>/

2. having the margins <at least over the lower two-thirds> inrolled against the palea <Paspalum-type>/

#247. <Female-fertile> lemmas <presence of germination flap>/

1. with a clear germination flap <when mature>/

2. without a germination flap/

#248. <Female-fertile> lemmas <number of nerves traversing mid-region>/

nerved/

#249. <Female-fertile> lemmas <confluence of nerves: data very incomplete>/

1. with the nerves confluent <i.e. merging, not merely convergent> towards the tip/

2. with the nerves non-confluent/

#250. <Female-fertile> palea <presence in female-fertile florets>/

1. present/

2. absent/

#251. <Female-fertile> palea <relative size>/

1. relatively long <three-quarters or more of female-fertile lemma length>/

2. conspicuous but relatively short <less than three-quarters of female-fertile lemma length>/

3. very reduced <or vestigial>/

#252. <Female-fertile> palea <whether convolute>/

1. convolute around the flower/

2. not convolute <<implicit, but data not yet reliable>>/

#253. <Female-fertile> palea <whether gaping; especially Aveneae>/

1. gaping/

2. tightly clasped by the lemma <not gaping>/

#254. <Female-fertile> palea <whether prow-tipped or ‘pinched’; see Notes>/

1. prow-tipped <‘pinched’>/

2. not prow-tipped <<implicit>>/

See Barkworth (1990), Jacobs et al. (1995).

‘Female-fertile spikelet’: a spikelet in which at least one floret has the potential to produce fruit. This and parallel expressions (see below) are peculiar to this package and its derivatives. They reflect the necessity in classification and identification for a term enabling the recording of comparative data across the diversity of sexual expression in the family (for example, permitting structures of the female spikelets of dioecious grasses to be compared with homologous structures in those where the spikelets are exclusively bisexual, and distinguishing them from those of male-only or sterile spikelets).

‘Female-fertile floret’: a floret having the potential to bear fruit.

‘Female-fertile lemma’: a lemma axillant to a female-fertile floret (q.v.).

‘Female-fertile palea’: a palea axillant to a female-fertile flower (the palea of a female-fertile floret, q.v.).

#255. <Female-fertile> palea <whether incised>/

1. entire/

2. apically notched/

3. deeply bifid/

#256. <Female-fertile> palea <whether with awns or setae>/

1. awnless, without apical setae/

2. with apical setae/

3. awned/

#257. Palea <texture; data very incomplete>/

1. thinner than the lemma/

2. textured like the lemma/

#258. <Female-fertile> palea <whether indurated>/

1. indurated/

2. not indurated/

#259. <Female-fertile> palea <nerve number>/

1. nerveless/

2. 1-nerved <truly 1-veined, or with two contiguous veins>/

3. 2-nerved <with two well-separated nerves>/

4. several nerved <<specify>>/

#260. <Female-fertile> palea <whether dorsally 2-keeled, one-keeled (carinate), or keel-less>/

1. keel-less/

2. one-keeled/

3. 2-keeled/

#261. <Female-fertile> palea back <indumentum; as yet uncoded>/

1. glabrous/

2. scabrous/

3. hairy/

#262. <Female-fertile> palea keels <whether winged; data very incomplete>/

1. winged/

2. wingless/

#263. <Female-fertile> palea keels <female-fertile, hairiness>/

1. glabrous/

2. scabrous/

3. hairy/

#264. Lodicules <presence in female-fertile florets>/

1. present/

2. absent/

#265. Lodicules <number in female-fertile florets>/

#266. <Presence of third lodicule in female-fertile florets:>/

1. third lodicule present/

2. no third lodicule/

#267. Lodicules <of female-fertile florets, whether anterior pair joined or free>/

1. joined <at least basally>/

2. free/

#268. Lodicules <of female-fertile florets, texture>/

1. <distally> fleshy <‘cuneate’; panicoid type>/

2. <distally> membranous <i.e. pooid type>/

#269. Lodicules <of female-fertile florets, whether hairy>/

1. ciliate <or hairy>/

2. glabrous/

#270. Lodicules <of female-fertile florets, whether toothed; inapplicable when fleshy>/

1. toothed/

2. not toothed/

#271. Lodicules <of female-fertile florets, vascularization; note that this fairly unsatisfactory character is not equivalent to ‘presence or absence of xylem strands’>/

1. heavily vascularized <cf. bamboos>/

2. not or scarcely vascularized <i.e. the norm>/

Note that this fairly unsatisfactory character is not equivalent to ‘presence or absence of xylem’. However, the distinction is usually fairly obvious.

‘Female-fertile spikelet’: a spikelet in which at least one floret has the potential to produce fruit. This and parallel expressions (see below) are peculiar to this package and its derivatives. They reflect the necessity in classification and identification for a term enabling the recording of comparative data across the diversity of sexual expression in the family (for example, permitting structures of the female spikelets of dioecious grasses to be compared with homologous structures in those where the spikelets are exclusively bisexual, and distinguishing them from those of male-only or sterile spikelets).

‘Female-fertile floret’: a floret having the potential to bear fruit.

‘Female-fertile lemma’: a lemma axillant to a female-fertile floret (q.v.).

‘Female-fertile palea’: a palea axillant to a female-fertile flower (the palea of a female-fertile floret, q.v.).

#272. Stamens <number per female-fertile floret (not applicable to male spikelets or male florets)>/

#273. Stamens <whether filaments joined>/

1. with free filaments <<implicit>>/

2. monadelphous/

3. diadelphous/

4. triadelphous/

#274. Anthers <of hermaphrodite florets, length; data very incomplete, unreliable for large genera>/

mm long/

#275. Anthers <of hermaphrodite florets, whether penicillate>/

1. penicillate/

2. not penicillate/

#276. Anthers <of hermaphrodite florets, whether connective apically prolonged>/

1. with the connective apically prolonged/

2. without an apically prolonged connective/

#277. Ovary <of female-fertile florets, whether apex glabrous or hairy>/

1. apically glabrous/

2. apically hairy/

#278. Ovary <whether with a conspicuous apical appendage>/

1. with a conspicuous apical appendage/

2. without a conspicuous apical appendage <<implicit>>/

#279. The <ovary> appendage <form: intended for bamboos>/

1. long, stiff and tapering <Schizostachyum type>/

2. broadly conical, fleshy <umbonate: Bambusa type>/

#280. Styles <whether fused>/

1. fused <at least basally; each stigma assumed to represent one style>/

2. free to their bases/

#281. Styles <fusion: as yet uncoded>/

1. completely fused/

2. joined below/

3. free/

#282. Style bases <degree of separation; as yet uncoded>/

1. adjacent/

2. widely separated/

#283. Stigmas <number>/

#284. Stigmas <colour, in chasmogamous spikelets>/

1. white/

2. red <anthocyanin> pigmented <i.e. red, pink, purple or black>/

3. <golden> brown/

Fruit, embryo and seedling

#285. Disseminule <constitution; data not yet entered>/

1. a naked seed/

2. a free caryopsis/

3. a caryopsis enclosed in but free of the lemma and palea/

4. a caryopsis enclosed within and partially fused with the lemma and palea/

5. consisting of the abscised spikelet/

6. consisting of the abscised spikelet and its pedicel/

7. comprising the rachis segment and associated structures/

8. consisting of the disarticulated spikelet-bearing inflorescence unit/

9. constituted by the complete, deciduous inflorescence/

#286. Fruit <adherence>/

1. adhering to lemma and/or palea/

2. free from both lemma and palea <but may be enclosed>/

#287. Fruit <length when mature>/

1. small <less than 4 mm>/

2. medium sized <4–10 mm>/

3. large <more than 10 mm long>/

#288. Fruit <colour; few data>/

#289. Fruit <shape>/

1. linear/

2. fusiform/

3. banana-shaped/

4. ellipsoid/

5. subglobose/

6. pyriform/

#290. Fruit <whether grooved in transverse section>/

1. longitudinally grooved <sulcate>/

2. not grooved <includes terete, triangular in section, etc.> <<implicit>>/

#291. Fruit <plane of compression>/

1. compressed laterally/

2. compressed <dorsally, ventrally or> dorsiventrally/

3. not noticeably compressed/

4. trigonous/

#292. Fruit <indumentum: as yet uncoded>/

1. glabrous/

2. scabrous/

3. hairy/

#293. Fruit <hair distribution>/

1. with hairs confined to a terminal tuft/

2. hairy on the body/

#294. Fruit <or grain surface pattern>/

1. sculptured/

2. <relatively> smooth <the near-universal condition> <<implicit>>/

#295. Hilum <form>/

1. short <punctiform or shortly elliptical, less than half length of fruit>/

2. long-linear <more than half as long as fruit>/

#296. Pericarp <texture>/

1. thin <the usual condition> <<implicit>>/

2. thick and hard/

3. fleshy <fruit a berry>/

#297. Pericarp <whether fused or loose (or free)>/

1. free/

2. loosely adherent <fairly easily removable when soaked>/

3. fused <<implicit, except in Arundinoideae and Chloridoideae>>/

#298. Embryo <relative size>/

1. large <at least one-third as long as fruit>/

2. small <less than one-third as long as fruit>/

#299. Embryo <whether waisted in surface view>/

1. waisted/

2. not waisted/

#300. Seed <whether endospermic>/

1. endospermic <<implicit>>/

2. ‘non-endospermic’ <i.e. endosperm greatly reduced in the mature fruit: confined to some bamboos, where the condition is sometimes described as "liquid">/

#301. Endosperm <hard or liquid>/

1. liquid <soft or milky> in the mature fruit <confined to Pooideae>/

2. hard/

Data extensively from Terrell (1971), Rosenburtt et al. (1972).

#302. Endosperm <presence of lipid>/

1. with lipid/

2. without lipid/

Data mainly from Rosengurtt et al. (1972).

#303. Endosperm <form of starch grains>/

1. containing only simple starch grains <each with only one hilum>/

2. containing <at least some> compound starch grains <with at least some grains having two or more hila>/

Data mainly from Tateoka (1954, 1955, 1962).

#304. Embryo <presence of epiblast>/

1. with an epiblast/

2. without an epiblast/

Data extensively from Reeder (1962, 1967) and Decker (1964).

#305. Embryo <presence of scutellar tail>/

1. with a scutellar tail <i.e. with a cleft between scutellum and coleorhiza>/

2. without a scutellar tail/

#306. Embryo <relative length of mesocotyl internode>/

1. with an elongated mesocotyl internode/

2. with a negligible <short> mesocotyl internode/

#307. Embryo <number of scutellum bundles>/

1. with one scutellum bundle/

2. with more than one scutellum bundle/

#308. Embryonic leaf margins <whether overlapping or meeting>/

1. meeting/

2. overlapping/

#309. Seedling <relative length of mesocotyl; compiled data probably unreliable, because germination conditions should be standardized>/

1. with a short mesocotyl/

2. with a long mesocotyl/

#310. Seedling <tightness of coleoptile>/

1. with a loose coleoptile <at least near tip>/

2. with a tight coleoptile/

Data extensively from Muller (1978).

#311. First seedling leaf <possession of lamina>/

1. with a well-developed lamina/

2. without a lamina/

Data on seedling leaf characters mainly from Kuwabara (1960, 1961) and H.T. Clifford (pers. comm.).

#312. The <first seedling leaf> lamina <relative width; data on seedling leaf characters mainly from Kuwabara 1960, 1961 and H.T. Clifford pers. comm.>/

1. broad <length/breadth, ratio less than 20>/

2. narrow <length/breadth ratio 20 or more>/

#313. The <first seedling leaf> lamina <carriage>/

1. erect/

2. curved/

3. supine/

#314. The <first seedling leaf> lamina <vein number, in middle>/

veined/

Ovule, embryology

#315. Micropyle <whether oblique>/

1. <detectably> oblique <curving away from the floral axis>/

2. not noticeably oblique/

#316. Outer integument <completeness>/

1. extensive, being absent only from the micropylar region/

2. covering no more than the chalazal half of the ovule <or reduced to a collar at the base of the ovule on the side of its attachment to the placenta>/

#317. Outer integument <thickening around micropyle>/

1. more than two cells thick at the micropylar margin/

2. two cells thick at the micropylar margin/

#318. Inner integument <whether complete>/

1. discontinuous distally <via a broad or expanded micropyle>/

2. continuous, the micropyle constricted/

#319. Inner integument <thickening around the micropyle>/

1. <at least somewhat> thickened around the micropyle <more than two cells thick>/

2. not thickened around the micropyle <only one or two cells thick>/

#320. Synergids <haustorial or not>/

1. haustorial/

2. not haustorial/

#321. Synergids <starch>/

1. exhibiting large, globular starch grains/

2. without large, globular starch grains <these absent, or if present very finely granular>/

Abaxial leaf blade epidermis

#322. Costal/intercostal zonation <of the abaxial leaf blade epidermis, presence>/

1. conspicuous/

2. lacking/

#323. Papillae <presence in the abaxial leaf blade epidermis>/

1. present/

2. absent/

#324. Papillae <in the abaxial epidermis of the leaf blade, general location; data very incomplete>/

1. costal/

2. intercostal/

#325. Intercostal papillae <in the abaxial epidermis of the leaf blade, whether over-arching the stomata (at least at one end)>/

1. <frequently> over-arching the stomata/

2. not over-arching the stomata/

#326. Intercostal papillae <in the abaxial epidermis of the leaf blade, form, arrangement>/

1. consisting of one oblique swelling per cell/

2. consisting of one symmetrical <conical or finger-like> projection per cell/

3. several per cell <<specify appearance>>/

#327. Long-cells <in the abaxial epidermis of the leaf blade, whether similar in shape costally and intercostally>/

1. similar in shape costally and intercostally/

2. markedly different in shape costally and intercostally/

‘Long-cells’ and ‘short-cells’ (hyphenated, nouns) are the two categories of cells (exclusive of stomata and subsidiaries, and trichomes) of which a typical abaxial grass leaf blade epidermis is composed. The former are typically elongated horizontally (parallel with the long axis of the blade), while the latter are more nearly equidimensional or even somewhat vertically elongated. ‘Short-cells’ are often but not always resolvable into ‘silica-cells’ (containing silica bodies) or ‘ cork-cells’ (with suberised walls). In a very few grasses, short-cells are absent, and in some others long-cells may be relatively short or short-cells relatively long; however, their recognition seldom poses problems, and the homologies are usually obvious. The term ‘fundamental cell’, used in a few pulications, is equivalent to ‘long-cell’. The latter is preferred here, in line with L.W.’s policy of following where possible the terminology used in Metcalfe’s superb compendium (1960) of anatomical descriptions. It is unfortunate that his work, and the high standards he set, have been largely ignored by the United States school of anatomists and agrostologists.

All the leaf anatomical data in these descriptions refer to preparations made from the mid-zone of the laminae of mature, ‘normal’ leaves; and descriptions of the epidermis refer exclusively to the lower (abaxial) surface of the blade. To obtain reliably comparative data, avoid seedling and flag leaves, culm leaves with blades reduced or missing, and conspicuously unhealthy material. Attempted identification of leaf fragments should be conducted with these sampling considerations in mind, and the results qualified accordingly.

Epidermal preparations have been described as though orientated with the long axis of the leaf (as indictated by its main veins) arranged horizontally across the field of view. ‘Vertical’ thus means ‘at right angles to the long axis of the leaf and its main veins, and parallel with its surface’.

For detailed discussion of grass leaf blade terminology, sampling and preparative techniques, and illustrations, see Metcalfe (1960), Clifford and Watson (1967) and Watson and Dallwitz (1988).

The accompanying file informs on the samples from which the descriptions derive.

#328. Long-cells <in the abaxial epidermis of the leaf blade, whether similar in thickness costally and intercostally>/

1. of similar wall thickness costally and intercostally/

2. differing markedly in wall thickness costally and intercostally/

#329. Intercostal zones <of abaxial epidermis of the leaf blade, whether of typical long-cells>/

1. with typical long-cells <more or less exclusively> <<implicit when epidermis adequately described>>/

2. exhibiting many atypical long-cells/

3. without typical long-cells/

#330. Mid-intercostal long-cells <of the abaxial epidermis of the leaf blade, shape>/

1. <more or less> rectangular/

2. <more or less> fusiform <narrowed at their ends>/

#331. Mid-intercostal long-cells <of the abaxial epidermis of the leaf blade, whether walls straight or sinuous in (outer) optical section>/

1. having markedly sinuous <tessellated> walls/

2. having straight or only gently undulating walls/

#332. Microhairs <presence in abaxial leaf blade epidermis>/

1. present/

2. absent/

For comparative ultrastructure and secretory properties of microhairs, see Amarasinghe and Watson (1988 and 1989) and Amarasinghe (1990).

#333. Microhairs <in the abaxial epidermis of the leaf blade, shape>/

1. more or less spherical/

2. elongated <<to become implicit>>/

#334. Microhairs <in the abaxial epidermis of the leaf blade, number of cells visible>/

1. ostensibly one-celled <usually indicative of a sunken basal cell>/

2. clearly two-celled <<to become implicit>>/

3. uniseriate/

#335. Microhairs <in the abaxial epidermis of the leaf blade, form>/

1. panicoid-type <distal cell more or less parallel-sided or tapered to the apex; usually relatively elongated, thin-walled, often collapsed or missing. Probably secreting polysaccharide and/or protein>/

2. chloridoid-type <distal cell inflated or more or less hemispherical, relatively short, usually thick-walled relative to the panicoid type, persistent. Secreting polysaccharide and/or proten, rarely salt>/

3. Enneapogon-type <long, with very long basal cell and relatively short, inflated apical cell. Secreting polysaccharide and/or protein>/

#336. <Abaxial leaf blade> microhair apical cell wall <thickness/firmness relative to that of the basal cell>/

1. thinner than that of the basal cell and often collapsed/

2. thinner than that of the basal cell but not tending to collapse/

3. of similar thickness/rigidity to that of the basal cell/

Data almost exclusively on Chloridoideae, provided by An Van den Borre (1994).

All the leaf anatomical data in these descriptions refer to preparations made from the mid-zone of the laminae of mature, ‘normal’ leaves; and descriptions of the epidermis refer exclusively to the lower (abaxial) surface of the blade. To obtain reliably comparative data, avoid seedling and flag leaves, culm leaves with blades reduced or missing, and conspicuously unhealthy material. Attempted identification of leaf fragments should be conducted with these sampling considerations in mind, and the results qualified accordingly.

Epidermal preparations have been described as though orientated with the long axis of the leaf (as indictated by its main veins) arranged horizontally across the field of view. ‘Vertical’ thus means ‘at right angles to the long axis of the leaf and its main veins, and parallel with its surface’.

For detailed discussion of grass leaf blade terminology, sampling and preparative techniques, and illustrations, see Metcalfe (1960), Clifford and Watson (1977) and Watson and Dallwitz (1988).

The accompanying file informs on the samples from which the descriptions derive.

#337. Microhairs <of the abaxial leaf blade epidermis, whether with ‘partitioning membranes>/

1. with ‘partitioning membranes’ <only sometimes associated with salt secretion>/

2. without ‘partitioning membranes’/

#338. The ‘partitioning membranes’ <of microhairs in the abaxial epidermis of the leaf blade, location>/

1. in the basal cell/

2. in the apical cell/

#339. Microhairs <of the abaxial epidermis of the leaf blade, total external length>/

microns long/

For species sampled for microhair measurements, see the list accompanying this package, plus Metcalfe (1960).

All the leaf anatomical data in these descriptions refer to preparations made from the mid-zone of the laminae of mature, ‘normal’ leaves; and descriptions of the epidermis refer exclusively to the lower (abaxial) surface of the blade. To obtain reliably comparative data, avoid seedling and flag leaves, culm leaves with blades reduced or missing, and conspicuously unhealthy material. Attempted identification of leaf fragments should be conducted with these sampling considerations in mind, and the results qualified accordingly.

Observing the epidermal characters used here requires transmission light microscopy, because their interpretation depends on viewing cells in in optical section, or focusing into them. Many useful epidermal characters are unavailable or are not reliably recordable from scanning electron micrographs.

Epidermal preparations have been described as though orientated with the long axis of the leaf (as indictated by its main veins) arranged horizontally across the field of view. ‘Vertical’ thus means ‘at right angles to the long axis of the leaf and its main veins, and parallel with its surface’.

For detailed discussion of grass leaf blade terminology, sampling and preparative techniques, and illustrations, see Metcalfe (1960), Clifford and Watson (1967) and Watson and Dallwitz (1988).

The accompanying file informs on the samples from which the descriptions derive.

#340. <Abaxial leaf blade> microhair basal cells <length>/

microns long/

#341. Microhairs <of the abaxial epidermis of the leaf blade, width at the septum; for species sample, see attached list>/

microns wide at the septum/

#342. Microhair total length/width at septum <useful ranges: 0.5–1.5 (more or less spherical); 1.5–3 (decidedly plump); 3–8 (narrow); 8–40 (very narrow)>/

#343. Microhair apical cells <of abaxial leaf blade, length>/

microns long/

#344. Microhair apical cell/total length ratio <of microhairs of the abaxial epidermis of the leaf blade; useful approximations: 0–0.3 (a.c. markedly shorter than b.c.); 0.3–0.7 (a.c. and b.c. about equal); 0.7–1.0 (a.c. markedly longer than b.c.)>/

#345. Stomata <presence in the abaxial leaf blade epidermis>/

1. common <abaxially>/

2. absent or very rare/

#346. Stomata <of the abaxial leaf blade, end to end guard cell length>/

microns long/

#347. <Stomatal> subsidiaries <of the abaxial leaf blade, whether papillate; data not comprehensively checked>/

1. papillate/

2. non-papillate/

#348. <Stomatal> subsidiaries <of the abaxial leaf blade, shape>/

1. parallel-sided/

2. dome-shaped/

3. triangular <includes the triangular-truncate type>/

#349. <Stomatal> subsidiaries <of the abaxial leaf blade, whether parallel-sided and triangular on the same leaf>/

1. including both triangular and parallel-sided forms on the same leaf/

2. not including both parallel-sided and triangular forms on the same leaf <<implicit when epidermis adequately described>>/

#350. <Stomatal> guard-cells <of the abaxial leaf blade, whether overlapped or overlapping (Watson & Johnston 1978: Aust. J. Bot. 26)>/

1. overlapped by the interstomatals/

2. overlapping to flush with the interstomatals/

#351. Intercostal short-cells <abaxial leaf blade, presence/abundance; prickles and hair bases not regarded as short-cells>/

1. common/

2. absent or very rare/

#352. Intercostal short-cells <in the abaxial leaf blade epidermis, presence/distribution>/

1. absent/

2. irregularly dispersed/

3. regularly alternating with the long-cells/

#353. Intercostal short-cells <in the abaxial leaf blade epidermis, arrangement>/

1. in cork/silica-cell pairs/

2. <ostensibly> not paired <note that some short-cells recorded as ‘solitary’ probably represent superposed cork/silica-cell pairs>/

#354. Intercostal short-cells <in the abaxial leaf blade epidermis, whether silicified>/

1. silicified/

2. not silicified/

#355. Intercostal silica bodies <in the abaxial leaf blade epidermis, presence, development>/

1. absent/

2. imperfectly developed/

3. present and perfectly developed/

#356. Intercostal silica bodies <shape; data in process of organization, and not yet reliable>/

1. rounded <currently including ‘oblong’ and ‘elliptic’>/

2. crescentic/

3. tall-and-narrow/

4. acutely-angled/

5. cross-shaped/

6. vertically elongated-nodular <= vertically elongated-crenate, ‘olyroid-type’>/

7. saddle shaped/

8. oryzoid-type/

9. <more or less> cubical/

In adequate preparations, silica bodies are conspicuous by their refractory appearance, and by the frequent occurrence within them of tiny ‘granules’. For taxonomic purposes, it is essential to distinguish silica bodies from silica cells (which may be empty), and their shapes from the shapes of the cells containing them. This is an important reason for recommending transmission light microscopy in the present connection, and for staining preparations with phenolic Bismarck Brown (for recipe, see Clifford and Watson 1977). Scanning electron micrographs of epidermes, which are becoming increasingly popular in anatomical and palaeobotanical work, lose much information here and elsewhere.

All the leaf anatomical data in these descriptions refer to preparations made from the mid-zone of the laminae of mature, ‘normal’ leaves; and descriptions of the epidermis refer exclusively to the lower (abaxial) surface of the blade. To obtain reliably comparative data, avoid seedling and flag leaves, culm leaves with blades reduced or missing, and conspicuously unhealthy material. Attempted identification of leaf fragments should be conducted with these sampling considerations in mind, and the results qualified accordingly.

Epidermal preparations have been described as though orientated with the long axis of the leaf (as indictated by its main veins) arranged horizontally across the field of view. ‘Vertical’ thus means ‘at right angles to the long axis of the leaf and its main veins, and parallel with its surface’.

For detailed discussion of grass leaf blade terminology, sampling and preparative techniques, and illustrations, see Metcalfe (1960), Clifford and Watson (1977) and Watson and Dallwitz (1988).

The accompanying file informs on the samples from which the descriptions derive.

#357. <Comments on macrohairs and prickles of the abaxial epidermis of the leaf blade:>/

#358. Crown cells <presence in the abaxial leaf blade epidermis>/

1. present/

2. absent <<implicit when epidermis adequately described>>/

#359. Costal zones <of the abaxial leaf blade epidermis, possession of short-cells>/

1. with short-cells <<implicit when epidermis adequately described>>/

2. without short-cells/

#360. Costal short-cells <of the abaxial leaf blade epidermis, arrangement; prickles, hair bases not counted as short-cells>/

1. conspicuously in long rows <of five or more cells>/

2. predominantly paired/

3. neither distinctly grouped into long rows nor predominantly paired <solitary; in short rows, mixtures of solitaries, pairs, short rows, etc.>/

#361. Costal silica bodies <of the abaxial leaf blade epidermis, presence>/

1. present and well developed/

2. poorly developed/

3. absent/

#362. Costal silica bodies <of the abaxial leaf blade epidermis, distribution when present>/

1. present throughout the costal zones/

2. confined to the outer files of the costal zones/

3. confined to the central file(s) of the costal zones/

4. present in alternate cell files of the costal zones/

#363. Costal silica bodies <of the abaxial leaf blade epidermis, usual forms; preponderance often stated in data comments>/

1. horizontally-elongated crenate/sinuous <‘pooid type’>/

2. horizontally-elongated smooth/

3. rounded <round to oval, potato shaped>/

4. saddle shaped/

5. tall-and-narrow/

6. crescentic/

7. oryzoid <vertical dumb-bell>/

8. ‘panicoid-type’ <cross shaped, dumb-bell shaped or nodular>/

9. acutely-angled <Isachne-type>/

10. rounded to upright-ovoid, with a raised prickly belt around the equator <‘Scrotochloa-type’>/

#364. <Panicoid-type> costal silica bodies <of the abaxial leaf blade epidermis, detailed shape: variation likely to be underestimated>/

1. cross shaped/

2. butterfly shaped <short dumb-bells with indented ends, intermediate between cross- and dumb-bell shaped, etc.>/

3. dumb-bell shaped/

4. nodular/

#365. Costal silica bodies <of the abaxial leaf blade epidermis, presence of sharp points; including but not exclusively ‘acutely-angled’ and ‘Isachne-type’ sensu Metcalfe>/

1. <conspicuously> sharp-pointed/

2. not sharp-pointed <<implicit when epidermis adequately described>>/

Transverse section of leaf blade, physiology

#366. Leaf blades <whether the mid-laminar region consists largely of midrib>/

1. consisting <largely> of <reasonably interpretable as> midrib/

2. <conventionally> ‘laminar’ <rather than consisting (largely) of midrib> <<implicit>>/

All the leaf anatomical data in these descriptions refer to preparations made from the mid-zone of the laminae of ‘normal’, mature leaves. To obtain reliably comparative data, avoid seedling and flag leaves, culm leaves with blades reduced or missing, and conspicuously unhealthy material. Attempted identification of leaf fragments should be conducted with these sampling considerations in mind, and the results qualified accordingly.

The accompanying file informs on the samples from which the descriptions derive.

For detailed discussion of grass leaf blade terminology, sampling and preparative techniques, and illustrations, see Metcalfe (1960), Clifford and Watson (1967) and Watson and Dallwitz (1988).

#367. Lamina mid-zone in transverse section <shape>/

1. open <exhibiting infolding or inrolling only under conditions of water stress>/

2. infolded permanently <involving modified internal structure; involving some ‘acicular’, ‘setaceous’, ‘filiform’ and ‘junciform’ types>/

3. terete <involving some ‘acicular’ and ‘junciform’ types>/

#368. Lamina mid-zone in transverse section <adaxial outline of permanently infolded leaves, excluding terete blades>/

1. V-shaped/

2. U-shaped/

3. circular <disregarding adaxial channel>/

4. triangular <base broad on either side of median bundle>/

#369. The adaxial channel <of the lamina, in transverse sections of permanently infolded leaves, excluding ‘circular’ forms>/

1. parallel-sided, with a digitate base/

2. irregularly furrowed/

3. rounded/

4. triangular/

5. reduced to a small groove/

#370. <Photosynthetic pathway; see Notes:>/

1. <showing a maximum cells-distant count of one, reliably predicting> C4/

2. <showing a maximum cells-distant count of two or more, reliably predicting> C3/

‘Maximum cells-distant count’: the maximum number of cells separating any individual chlorenchymatous mesophyll or photosynthetic carbon assimilation (PCA) cell from the nearest parenchymatous bundle sheath (PBS) or photosynthetic carbon reduction (PCR) cell. This parameter defines the relatively unambiguous ‘one cell distant criterion’, whereby C3 and C4 forms are reliably and easily distinguished. By contrast, C3/C4 assignments by ‘radiateness’ of chlorenchyma, or by recognition of ‘Kranz’/‘non-Kranz’ anatomy, are less satisfactory: ‘radiateness’ is ambiguous and is often misleading, and many C4 leaves (Arundinella, Triodia etc.) do not exhibit typical ‘Kranz’ anatomy.

The terms PCA (primary carbon assimilation) and PCR (photosynthetic carbon reduction: containing Rubisco) are applicable to the cells and tissues of C4 forms only. For these, the term PCR is preferable to ‘Kranz’, since it is directly indicative of physiological function, and PCR cells do not always occur in ‘Kranz’ bundle sheaths.

For detailed discussion, see Hattersley and Watson (1975) and Hattersley et al. (1977).

#371. The <C4> anatomical organization <of the leaf blade, whether conventional>/

1. conventional <<implicit when ts adequately described>>/

2. unconventional/

For detailed discussion and definitions of C4 anatomical types, see Hattersley et al. (1977), Hattersley (1987 and 1992), Hattersley and Watson (1993).

#372. Organization of <leaf blade> PCR tissue <when unconventional>/

1. Triodia type <with the PCR cells forming a layer draping (at least in places) from one bundle to the next, rather than constituting discrete bundle sheaths>/

2. Alloteropsis type <with two bundle sheaths, the inner being PCR>/

3. Aristida type <the PCR cells constituting a double bundle sheath>/

4. Arundinella type <with single PCR files or groups in the mesophyll, in addition to the conventional PCR sheath>/

#373. <C4> biochemical type <as determined by enzyme assay>/

1. PCK/

2. NAD–ME/

3. NADP–ME/

Hatch and Kagawa (1974); Gutierrez et al. (1974a and 1974b); Hatch, Kagawa and Craig (1975); Prendergast et al. (1987).

#374. <Leaf blade XyMS; reliably indicative of C4 type; ascertainable from primary vascular bundles only; see Notes:>/

1. XyMS+ <C3, or C4 ‘aspartate formers’ type PCK or NAD–ME (exceptions: Eriachneae)>/

2. XyMS– <C4 ‘malate formers’, type NADP–ME>/

Refers to the presence (XyMS+) or absence (XyMS-) of cells between the metaxylem vessel elements and laterally adjacent chlorenchymatous bundle sheath (CBS, ‘Kranz’ or PCR: C4) or parenchymatous bundle sheath (PBS: C3) cells in the primary lateral vascular bundles (i.e. in the largest bundles exhibiting both metaxylem and protoxylem) of the leaf blade (see Hattersley and Watson 1976). When properly applied, this unambiguous criterion reliably distinguishes NADP-ME species (XyMS-) from PCK and NAD-ME species (both XyMS+). The terms MS (mestome sheath) and PS (parenchymatous sheath) of Brown (1975, 1977) refer to the supposed homologies of photosynthetic carbon reduction (PCR, ‘Kranz’) sheaths in C4 forms. The MS condition is identified by XyMS-, the PS one by XyMS+. Dengler et al. (1985) provide comparative ontological evidence in support of the MS/PS hypothesis.

For detailed discussion of C4 anatomical tissue configurations and physiological types, see Hattersley (1992) and Hattersley and Watson (1993).

All the leaf anatomical data in these descriptions refer to preparations made from the mid-zone of the laminae of ‘normal’, mature leaves. To obtain reliably comparative data, avoid seedling and flag leaves, culm leaves with blades reduced or missing, and conspicuously unhealthy material. Attempted identification of leaf fragments should be conducted with these sampling considerations in mind, and the results qualified accordingly.

The accompanying file informs on the samples from which the descriptions derive.

For detailed discussion of grass leaf blade terminology, sampling and preparative techniques, and illustrations, see Metcalfe (1960), Clifford and Watson (1967) and Watson and Dallwitz (1988).

#375. <Leaf blade> PCR sheath outlines <in C4 forms>/

1. uneven <PCK or ‘PCK-like’>/

2. even <NAD-ME or ‘NAD-ME-like’>/

Data extensively from Ellis (1977), Prendergast and Hattersley (1987).

The terms PCA (primary carbon assimilation) and PCR (photosynthetic carbon reduction: containing Rubisco) are applicable to the cells and tissues of C4 forms only. For these, the term PCR is preferable to ‘Kranz’, since it is directly indicative of physiological function, and PCR cells do not always occur in ‘Kranz’ bundle sheaths.

#376. PCR sheaths of the primary vascular bundles <of the leaf blades, whether interrupted>/

1. complete/

2. interrupted/

#377. PCR sheaths of the primary vascular bundles <of the leaf blades, how interrupted>/

1. interrupted abaxially only/

2. interrupted adaxially only/

3. interrupted both abaxially and adaxially/

4. interrupted laterally <e.g. Desmostachya>/

#378. <Leaf blade> PCR sheath extensions <presence>/

1. present <in at least some veins>/

2. absent/

Data mainly from Prendergast (1987).

The terms PCA (primary carbon assimilation) and PCR (photosynthetic carbon reduction: containing Rubisco) are applicable to the cells and tissues of C4 forms only. For these, the term PCR is preferable to ‘Kranz’, since it is directly indicative of physiological function, and PCR cells do not always occur in ‘Kranz’ bundle sheaths.

#379. Maximum number of <leaf blade PCR sheath> extension cells/

#380. <Leaf blade> PCR cells <of C4 forms, presence of a suberised lamella>/

1. with a suberised lamella/

2. without a suberised lamella/

Hattersley and Browning (1981).

The terms PCA (primary carbon assimilation) and PCR (photosynthetic carbon reduction: containing Rubisco) are applicable to the cells and tissues of C4 forms only. For these, the term PCR is preferable to ‘Kranz’, since it is directly indicative of physiological function, and PCR cells do not always occur in ‘Kranz’ bundle sheaths.

#381. <Leaf blade> PCR cell chloroplasts <of C4 forms, shape>/

1. ovoid/

2. elongated/

Data from Prendergast (1987), Prendergast et al. (1987).

The terms PCA (primary carbon assimilation) and PCR (photosynthetic carbon reduction: containing Rubisco) are applicable to the cells and tissues of C4 forms only. For these, the term PCR is preferable to ‘Kranz’, since it is directly indicative of physiological function, and PCR cells do not always occur in ‘Kranz’ bundle sheaths.

#382. <Leaf blade> PCR cell chloroplasts <of C4 forms, whether granal>/

1. with well developed grana/

2. with reduced grana/

Gutierrez et al. (1974), Carolin et al. (1973), Hattersley and Browning (1981).

The terms PCA (primary carbon assimilation) and PCR (photosynthetic carbon reduction: containing Rubisco) are applicable to the cells and tissues of C4 forms only. For these, the term PCR is preferable to ‘Kranz’, since it is directly indicative of physiological function, and PCR cells do not always occur in ‘Kranz’ bundle sheaths.

#383. <Leaf blade> PCR cell chloroplasts <position>/

1. centrifugal/peripheral <sometimes NAD-ME, more often indicative of NADP–ME or PCK>/

2. centripetal <NAD–ME: predominant in arid and semiarid species>/

Data extensively from Ellis (1977), Brown (1960), Prendergast and Hattersley (1987).

The terms PCA (primary carbon assimilation) and PCR (photosynthetic carbon reduction: containing Rubisco) are applicable to the cells and tissues of C4 forms only. For these, the term PCR is preferable to ‘Kranz’, since it is directly indicative of physiological function, and PCR cells do not always occur in ‘Kranz’ bundle sheaths.

For detailed discussion of C4 anatomical tissue configurations and physiological types, see Hattersley (1992) and Hattersley and Watson (1993).

#384. <Leaf blade> PBS cells <of C3 forms, presence of suberised lamella>/

1. with a suberised lamella/

2. without a suberised lamella/

#385. <Leaf blade> mesophyll <whether chlorenchyma radiate: an ill-defined feature, not reliably indicative of photosynthetic pathway>/

1. with radiate chlorenchyma/

2. with non-radiate chlorenchyma/

#386. <Leaf blade> mesophyll <presence of palisade>/

1. with <a clear> adaxial palisade/

2. without <any obvious> adaxial palisade/

#387. <Leaf blade> mesophyll <presence of Isachne-type mesophyll>/

1. Isachne-type/

2. not Isachne-type <<implicit when ts adequately described>>/

#388. <Leaf blade> mesophyll <presence of ‘circular cells’ (i.e. isolated PCR cells or cell groups; ‘distinctive cells’)>/

1. exhibiting ‘circular cells’/

2. without ‘circular cells’ <<implicit when ts adequately described>>/

The terms PCA (primary carbon assimilation) and PCR (photosynthetic carbon reduction: containing Rubisco) are applicable to the cells and tissues of C4 forms only. For these, the term PCR is preferable to ‘Kranz’, since it is directly indicative of physiological function, and PCR cells do not always occur in ‘Kranz’ bundle sheaths.

#389. <Leaf blade> mesophyll <whether traversed by (at least some) columns of colourless mesophyll cells>/

1. traversed by columns of colourless mesophyll cells/

2. not traversed by colourless <mesophyll cell> columns <<implicit when ts adequately described>>/

‘Colourless cells, tissue’: mesophyll with unlignified cell walls and seemingly without cytoplasmic contents. A characteristic feature of many mature grass leaf blades, offering much scope for ontogenetic and functional-physiological work. Sometimes (and commonly in Chloridoideae) linking with bulliforms to divide the blade longitudinally into ‘compartments’, which exhibut varying degrees of completeness from genus to genus.

All the leaf anatomical data in these descriptions refer to preparations made from the mid-zone of the laminae of ‘normal’, mature leaves. To obtain reliably comparative data, avoid seedling and flag leaves, culm leaves with blades reduced or missing, and conspicuously unhealthy material. Attempted identification of leaf fragments should be conducted with these sampling considerations in mind, and the results qualified accordingly.

The accompanying file informs on the samples from which the descriptions derive.

For detailed discussion of grass leaf blade terminology, sampling and preparative techniques, and illustrations, see Metcalfe (1960), Clifford and Watson (1967) and Watson and Dallwitz (1988).

#390. <Leaf blade> mesophyll <presence of arm cells (= ‘ratchet’ cells)>/

1. with arm cells/

2. without arm cells <<implicit when ts adequately described>>/

#391. <Leaf blade> mesophyll <presence of fusoid cells>/

1. with fusoids/

2. without fusoids <<implicit when ts adequately described>>/

#392. The fusoids <whether part of the PBS>/

1. an integral part of the PBS/

2. external to <though contiguous with> the PBS/

#393. Leaf blade <ribbing>/

1. with distinct, prominent adaxial ribs <only>/

2. ‘nodular’ in section/

3. adaxially <more or less> flat <ignore mid-rib. Includes forms with abaxial ribs only>/

#394. Leaf blade <adaxial ribs, relative sizes>/

1. with the ribs more or less constant in size/

2. with the ribs very irregular in sizes <i.e. of two or more size orders; ignore the mid-rib>/

#395. Midrib <of the leaf blade, prominence>/

1. conspicuous <prominent in the outline, with distinctive sclerenchyma, etc.>/

2. not readily distinguishable <other than by position>/

#396. Midrib <of the mid leaf blade, vascularization>/

1. with one bundle only/

2. having a conventional arc of bundles <i.e. at least three bundles>/

3. having complex vascularization <i.e. with more than one bundle, not arranged in a conventional arc>/

#397. Midrib <and/or middle part of leaf blade, whether extensively of colourless mesophyll cells adaxially>/

1. with <conspicuous> colourless mesophyll adaxially/

2. without <conspicuous> colourless mesophyll adaxially <<implicit when ts adequately described>>/

All the leaf anatomical data in these descriptions refer to preparations made from the mid-zone of the laminae of ‘normal’, mature leaves. To obtain reliably comparative data, avoid seedling and flag leaves, culm leaves with blades reduced or missing, and conspicuously unhealthy material. Attempted identification of leaf fragments should be conducted with these sampling considerations in mind, and the results qualified accordingly.

The accompanying file informs on the samples from which the descriptions derive.

For detailed discussion of grass leaf blade terminology, sampling and preparative techniques, and illustrations, see Metcalfe (1960), Clifford and Watson (1967) and Watson and Dallwitz (1988).

‘Colourless cells, tissue’: mesophyll with unlignified cell walls and seemingly without cytoplasmic contents. A characteristic feature of many mature grass leaf blades, offering much scope for ontogenetic and functional-physiological work. Sometimes (and commonly in Chloridoideae) linking with bulliforms to divide the blade longitudinally into ‘compartments’, which exhibut varying degrees of completeness from genus to genus.

All the leaf anatomical data in these descriptions refer to preparations made from the mid-zone of the laminae of ‘normal’, mature leaves. To obtain reliably comparative data, avoid seedling and flag leaves, culm leaves with blades reduced or missing, and conspicuously unhealthy material. Attempted identification of leaf fragments should be conducted with these sampling considerations in mind, and the results qualified accordingly.

The accompanying file informs on the samples from which the descriptions derive.

For detailed discussion of grass leaf blade terminology, sampling and preparative techniques, and illustrations, see Metcalfe (1960), Clifford and Watson (1967) and Watson and Dallwitz (1988).

#398. The lamina <in transverse section, symmetry around the midrib>/

1. distinctly asymmetrical on either side of the midrib <usually involving marked asymmetry in the ribbing and/or the form of the margin; e.g. as in many bamboos>/

2. symmetrical on either side of the midrib/

#399. Bulliforms <in the adaxial epidermis of the leaf blade, whether present in discrete adaxial groups; exclude ‘hinge’ groups flanking midribs>/

1. present in discrete, regular adaxial groups/

2. not present in discrete, regular adaxial groups <bulliform cells absent or in ill defined or irregular groups, or constituting most of the epidermis>/

#400. The bulliform groups <in the adaxial epidermis of the leaf blade, excluding ‘hinges’, whether associated with colourless mesophyll cells; data under development; not recommended for current use>/

1. not associated with colourless mesophyll cells/

2. associated with colourless mesophyll cells/

#401. Bulliforms <in the adaxial epidermis of the leaf blade, form of groups>/

1. in simple <more or less> fans <i.e. without contiguous colourless mesophyll cells, deeply penetrating or not>/

2. associated <internally> with colourless mesophyll cells to form deeply-penetrating fans/

3. combining with colourless mesophyll cells to form narrow groups penetrating into the mesophyll/

#402. Bulliforms <in the adaxial epidermis of the leaf blade, whether associating with colourless mesophyll cells to form arches over minor leaf blade bundles>/

1. associating with colourless mesophyll cells <sometimes> to form arches over small vascular bundles/

2. nowhere involved in bulliform-plus-colourless mesophyll arches <<implicit when ts adequately described>>/

#403. <Presence in the leaf blade of small vascular bundles unaccompanied by sclerenchyma:>/

1. many of the smallest vascular bundles unaccompanied by sclerenchyma/

2. all <or nearly all> the vascular bundles accompanied by sclerenchyma/

#404. Combined <foliar> sclerenchyma girders <presence in the leaf blade of vascular bundles combining both adaxial and abaxial girders>/

1. present <at least some, if only associated with midribs>/

2. absent/

#405. Combined <foliar> sclerenchyma girders <adaxial and abaxial sclerenchyma girders, whether forming ‘anchors’, I’s or T’s in one or more bundles of the leaf blade (include the midrib)>/

1. forming ‘figures’ <‘anchors’, I’s or T’s> <in at least some bundles>/

2. nowhere forming ‘figures’ <i.e. no ‘anchors’, I’s or T’s>/

#406. <Leaf blade> sclerenchyma <whether all bundle-associated>/

1. all associated with vascular bundles <apart from any marginal fibres>/

2. not all <obviously> bundle-associated/

#407. The ‘extra’ <leaf blade> sclerenchyma <location of leaf blade sclerenchyma not associated with vascular bundles; exclusive of any in the midrib>/

1. in abaxial groups/

2. in a continuous abaxial layer/

3. within the mesophyll/

4. in adaxial groups/

#408. The ‘extra’ <leaf blade> sclerenchyma <position of groups within the lamina; exclusive of midrib>/

1. abaxial-hypodermal, the groups isolated <opposite bulliforms and/or furrows>/

2. abaxial-hypodermal, the groups continuous with colourless columns/

3. adaxial-hypodermal, contiguous with the bulliforms/

#409. The lamina margins <presence of marginal fibres, i.e. groups not associated with vascular bundles>/

1. with fibres/

2. without fibres/

Culm anatomy

#410. Culm internode bundles <arrangement; poorly recorded; data mainly from Metcalfe 1960>/

1. in one or two rings <ignore ‘outer rings’ of very few bundles>/

2. in three or more rings/

3. scattered/

Phytochemistry

#411. Tissues of the culm bases <whether accumulating abundant starch>/

1. with abundant starch/

2. with little or no starch <implying fructans and/or sucrose>/

Smith (1968), Smouter and Simpson (1989), and original observations.

#412. Fructosans predominantly <short- or long-chain>/

1. short-chain/

2. long-chain/

#413. Leaves <presence of flavonoid sulphates>/

1. containing flavonoid sulphates/

2. without flavonoid sulphates/

Data from Harborne and Williams (1976).

#414. Leaf blade chlorophyll a:b ratio/

Data from Prendergast (1987).

#415. Serological cross-reactions of pollen antigens/

1. available <to display comparative data, view the illustrations associated with this character; for further information, see Notes>/

2. not available <<implicit>>/

Extracts for raising rabbit antisera and for testing (supposedly representing diffusible antigens) consisted of 20-minute buffered saline leachings from pure pollen samples. The ‘antigens’ consisted of extracts boiled for 3 minutes. For immunoelectrophoresis, antisera were placed in the troughs and pollen extracts in the wells, with the homologous reactions represented on the upper halves of the slides as arranged here. The gels illustrated were washed in saline and dried, then stained with Coomassie Blue. Extracts and procedures were all standardized: for details, see Watson and Knox 1976, Watson 1983.

In the diagram depicting immunodiffusion tests (Watson and Knox 1976), ‘Agropyron repens’ is here referred to Elytrigia, ‘Danthonia eriantha’ to Austrodanthonia, and the two ‘Elymus’ species to Leymus.

The illustrations of Watson’s immunoelectrophoretic gels (cf. Watson 1983) are labelled with only generic names. The species used were: Agrostis tenuis, Bromus inermis, Festuca rubra, Cortaderia selloana, Cynodon dactylon, Lolium perenne, Paspalum distichum, Phalaris arundinacea, Poa pratensis, Saccharum officinarum, Secale cereale, Sorghum halepense, Zea mais.

#416. RuBisCO Km(CO2) and Km(RUBP) data/

1. available <to view comparative data, display the illustrations associated with this character>/

2. not available <<implicit>>/

Comparative data, displayable as illustrations of this character, consist of tables from Yeoh, Badger and Watson (1980 and 1981).

Special diagnostic features

#417. Spikelets <whether in much-reduced andropogonoid ‘racemes’, each of these reduced to a single triplet and enclosed at its base by a trumpet-like development of the peduncle tip (‘Anadelphia scyphofera’ etc.)>/

1. in much-reduced andropogonoid ‘racemes’, each of the latter reduced to a single triplet and enclosed at its base by a trumpet-like development of the peduncle tip/

2. not borne as in ‘Anadelphia scyphofera’ (q.v.) <<implicit>>/

#418. <Whether inflorescence of 2–3 glumeless, bracteate spikelets, the lodicules represented by a fringed annulus (Anomochloa):>/

1. inflorescence of 2–3 glumeless, bracteate spikelets, the lodicules represented by a fringed annulus/

2. plant not as in Anomochloa (q.v.) <<implicit>>/

#419. <Arundo/Phragmites:>/

1. female-fertile lemmas conspicuously hairy; ligule hairs to 0.3 mm long, shorter than the membrane/

2. female-fertile lemmas hairless; ligule hairs longer than 0.5 mm, longer than the membrane/

#420. <Whether the inflorescences of very peculiar pseudospikelets, characterized by development of rachides with long terminal segments, each of which serves as the pedicel of an abscissile spikelet (Atractantha):>/

1. the inflorescences of very peculiar pseudospikelets, characterized by development of rachides with long terminal segments, each of which serves as the pedicel of an abscissile spikelet/

2. the inflorescences not as in Atractantha (q.v.) <<implicit>>/

#421. <Whether lemmas as broad as long, gibbous and umbonate, cordate at base (Briza):>/

1. lemmas as broad as long, gibbous and umbonate, cordate at base <Briza>/

2. lemmas not as in Briza (q.v.) <<implicit>>/

#422. <Whether lemma awn winged, the wing extending down upper back of the lemma (Brylkinia):>/

1. lemma awn winged, the wing extending down the upper back of the lemma/

2. lemma not wing-awned <<implicit>>/

#423. <Whether having male inflorescences elevated, with one to four spicate, unilateral branches, and the female spikelets in burr-like spatheate clusters (Buchloë):>/

1. the male inflorescences elevated, with one to four spicate, unilateral branches; female spikelets in burr-like clusters, usually two burrs per inflorescence, each burr on a short, stout rachis, partially enclosed in a broad, bractlike leaf sheath, falling entire with the indurate rachis united with the upper glumes/

2. inflorescence not as in Buchloë (q.v.) <<implicit>>/

#424. <Whether upper glume extended downwards into a conspicuous spur (Centrochloa):>/

1. upper glume extended downwards into a conspicuous spur/

2. upper glume not as in Centrochloa (q.v.) <<implicit>>/

#425. <Whether pedicels articulated and bearded with long hairs at and above the joint (Chaetobromus):>/

1. pedicels articulated and bearded with long hairs at and above the joint/

2. pedicels not as in Chaetobromus (q.v.)/

#426. <Whether inflorescences in hard, globular 6–12 mm utricles (Coix):>/

1. inflorescences in hard, globular 6–12 mm utricles/

2. inflorescences not as in Coix (q.v.) <<implicit>>/

#427. <Whether spikelets in numerous small, compact, short-branched panicles, each panicle at the tip of a stout, recurved peduncle and enclosed by a leathery, toothed involucre, the peduncles themselves subtended by the inflated sheaths of the (modified) upper leaves (Cornucopiae):>/

1. spikelets in numerous small, compact, short-branched panicles, each panicle at the tip of a stout, recurved peduncle and enclosed by a leathery, toothed involucre, the peduncles themselves subtended by the inflated sheaths of the (modified) upper leaves/

2. spikelets not borne as in Cornucopiae (q.v.)/

#428. <Cortaderia/Lamprothyrsus:>/

1. the lemma awns lateral and median, the median strongly flattened/

2. the median lemma awn not strongly flattened, laterals present or absent/

#429. <Whether lemmas awned, the awn bearing a ring of minute hairs at the middle, and apically clavate (Corynephorus):>/

1. lemmas awned, the awn bearing a ring of minute hairs at the middle, and apically clavate/

2. lemmas without the characteristic Corynephorus awn <<implicit>>/

#430. <Whether the inflorescence of a few digitately-borne, bracteate spikelets, subtended by a spatheate leaf atop a single elongated culm internode, the plant very sedge-like in appearance (Cyperochloa):>/

1. the inflorescence of a few digitately-borne, bracteate spikelets, subtended by a spatheate leaf atop a single elongated culm internode, the plant very sedge-like in appearance/

2. plants not as in Cyperochloa (q.v.) <<implicit>>/

#431. <Whether the lower glume exceeding the female-fertile lemma (Diandrostachya):>/

1. the lower glume exceeding the female-fertile lemma/

2. the lower glume shorter than the female-fertile lemma/

#432. <Whether grain with a conspicuous whitish or yellowish, glossy beak (Diarrhena):>/

1. grain with a conspicuous whitish or yellowish, glossy beak/

2. fruit not as in Diarrhena (q.v.) <<implicit>>/

#433. <Whether plants from a short rosette of winter leaves, the primary panicle producing secondary inflorescences with cleistogamous spikelets (Dichanthelium):>/

1. plants from a short rosette of winter leaves, the primary panicle producing secondary inflorescences with cleistogamous spikelets/

2. plants not as in Dichanthelium (q.v.) <<implicit>>/

#434. <Whether the pedicelled member of the sessile/pedicellate spikelet pairs much the larger, very striking, with a broad, flat, papery, reddish, long-awned lower glume (Diectomis):>/

1. the pedicelled member of the sessile/pedicellate spikelet pairs much the larger, very striking, with a broad, flat, papery, reddish, long-awned lower glume/

2. without the sessile/pedicellate spikelet pairs characteristic of Diectomis <<implicit>>/

#435. <Enneapogon/Schmidtia/Cottea/Kaokochloa:>/

1. female-fertile lemmas 9-lobed, each lobe terminating in an awn/

2. female-fertile lemmas 6-lobed and 5-awned, with an awn arising between each pair of lobes/

3. female-fertile lemmas irregularly lobed, the lobes produced into 7–11 awns/

4. female-fertile lemmas with an incurved-emarginate apex, and a narrow awned lobe at each margin (sometimes with 1–2 shorter, additional lobes)/

#436. <Whether spikelets supported on a peculiar, hardened, cupuliform ‘callus’ (Eriochloa):>/

1. spikelets supported on a peculiar, hardened, cupuliform ‘callus’/

2. no Eriochloa-type ‘callus’ <<implicit>>/

#437. <Hackelochloa/Hemarthria/Rottboellia:>/

1. lower glume of female-fertile spikelet globose, pitted/

2. lower glume of female-fertile spikelet flattish, not pitted; ‘pedicellate’ spikelets similar to the female-fertile spikelets/

3. lower glume of female-fertile spikelet flattish, not pitted; ‘pedicellate’ spikelets reduced, herbaceous/

#438. <Whether plants of wet places, the leaves remarkably thin and delicate (Hubbardia):>/

1. plants of wet places, the leaves remarkably thin and delicate/

2. plants not as in Hubbardia (q.v.) <<implicit>>/

#439. <Whether the adaxial surface of the leaf blade raised into sinuous lamellae (Hydrothauma):>/

1. the adaxial surface of the leaf blade raised into sinuous lamellae/

2. the adaxial surface of the leaf blade not as in Hydrothauma (q.v.) <<implicit>>/

#440. <Whether plants aquatic, with inflated leaf sheaths serving as floats (Hygroryza):>/

1. plants aquatic, with inflated leaf sheaths serving as floats/

2. plants not as in Hygroryza (q.v.) <<implicit>>/

#441. <Whether the upper part of the female-fertile lemma exhibits a pappus-like arangement of long hairs (Jarava):>/

1. the upper part of the <female-fertile> lemma exhibiting a conspicuous, pappus-like arrangement of long hairs/

2. the upper part of the <female-fertile> lemma without pappus-like hairs <<implicit>>/

#442. <Koeleria/Trisetum:>/

1. panicle dense, cylindrical, ovoid, not interrupted: awns if present straight, subterminal, inconspicuous in the inflorescence/

2. panicle loose, or if dense then interrupted, neither cylindrical nor ovoid: awns usually present, usually twisted, usually distinctly dorsal, conspicuous if inflorescence compact/

#443. <Whether having female spikelets, with shell- or urn-shaped lemmas which are closed save for an apical pore (Leptaspis and Scrotochloa):>/

1. having female spikelets, with shell- or urn-shaped lemmas which are closed save for an apical pore/

2. not having female spikelets as in Leptaspis and Scrotochloa (q.v.) <<implicit>>/

#444. <Whether female-fertile lemma very broad, with a conspicuous, succulent, translucent region near the base of each wing (Lombardochloa):>/

1. female-fertile lemma very broad, with a conspicuous, succulent, translucent region near the base of each wing/

2. female-fertile lemma not as in Lombardochloa (q.v.) <<implicit>>/

#445. <Whether spikelets minute, shaped like cartoon birds’ heads (Lopholepis):>/

1. spikelets minute, shaped like cartoon birds’ heads/

2. spikelets not as in Lopholepis (q.v.) <<implicit>>/

#446. <Whether plant coarsely tufted, with wiry leaf blades, the inflorescence of one very peculiar spikelet enclosed in a sheath (Lygeum):>/

1. plant coarsely tufted, with wiry leaf blades, the inflorescence of one very peculiar spikelet enclosed in a sheath/

2. plant and inflorescence not as in Lygeum (q.v.) <<implicit>>/

#447. <Whether spikelets in ‘false pairs’, the pedicellate member of the andropogonoid pair abscinding from its pedicel but remaining attached to the base of the ‘article’ above, alongside the sessile member of that ‘article’ (Manisuris):>/

1. spikelets in ‘false pairs’, the pedicellate member of the andropogonoid pair abscinding from its pedicel but remaining attached to the base of the ‘article’ above, alongside the sessile member of that ‘article’/

2. spikelets not arranged as in Manisuris (q.v.) <<implicit>>/

#448. <Whether spikelets with the distal incomplete florets and/or the rachilla apex forming a terminal clavate appendage (Melica et al.):>/

1. spikelets with the distal incomplete florets and/or the rachilla apex forming a terminal clavate appendage/

2. spikelets without a terminal clavate appendage <<implicit>>/

#449. <Merxmuellera/Karroochloa/Chaetobromus/Schismus:>/

1. female-fertile lemmas with a bent awn, the awn twisted below/

2. female-fertile lemmas awnless, mucronate or with a short straight awn/

#450. <Merxmuellera/Karroochloa:>/

1. spikelets 8–25 mm long, inflorescence longer than 60 mm long/

2. spikelets 4–6(–7) mm long, inflorescence 10–60 mm long/

#451. <Whether spikelet with a single gibbous floret, the lemma awn placed off-centre (Nassella):>/

1. spikelet with a single gibbous floret, the lemma awn placed off-centre/

2. spikelet not as in Nassella (q.v.) <<implicit>>/

#452. <Whether the inflorescence a coarse, cylindrical ‘raceme’, apparently representing a raceme of reduced ‘glomerules’, each glomerule shortly pedunculate, comprising a single spikelet subtended crosswise by a lobed scale forming an involucre-plus-bristle (Odontelytrum):>/

1. the inflorescence a coarse, cylindrical ‘raceme’, apparently representing a raceme of reduced ‘glomerules’, each glomerule shortly pedunculate, comprising a single spikelet subtended crosswise by a lobed scale forming an involucre-plus-bristle/

2. the inflorescence not as in Odontelytrum (q.v.) <<implicit>>/

#453. The lower lemma <whether combining a median translucent zone (cf. a Bothriochloa pedicel) with a terminal pair of hygroscopically active setae (Ophiochloa)>/

1. narrow, of peculiar form, having a central hyaline portion bordered by well developed, conspicously ciliate and terminally setose nerves (the whole being reminiscent of a Bothriochloa pedicel), and exhibiting apically a pair of cushion-based, 5–7 mm long, hygroscopically active and awnlike setae/

2. unlike that of Ophiochloa (i.e., without a central hyaline portion bordered by well developed, conspicously ciliate and terminally setose nerves, and without a pair of hygroscopically active setae at the apex) <<implicit>>/

#454. <Paspalum/Echinochloa/Paspalidium:>/

1. glumes and/or sterile lemmas awned or acuminate-mucronate/

2. spikelets awnless, muticous/

3. spikelets awnless, the female-fertile lemmas pointed or apiculate but not mucronate/

#455. <Whether seed dark brown, with ruminate endosperm (Phaenosperma):>/

1. seed dark brown, with ruminate endosperm/

2. seed not as in Phaenosperma (q.v.) <<implicit>>/

#456. <Whether spikelets borne on one side of a broad, leaflike rachis (Phyllorhachis):>/

1. spikelets borne on one side of a broad, leaflike rachis/

2. spikelets not borne on a broad, leaflike rachis <<implicit>>/

#457. <Whether scandent via leaf blades with retrorsely scabrid margins (Prosphytochloa):>/

1. scandent via leaf blades with retrorsely scabrid margins/

2. not scandent as in Prosphytochloa (q.v.) <<implicit>>/

#458. <Whether female-fertile lemma with its tip extended beyond the palea as a conical, herbaceous beak (flotation device) composed of aerenchyma with transverse septa, tapering into an awn (Rhynchoryza):>/

1. female-fertile lemma with its tip extended beyond the palea as a conical, herbaceous beak (flotation device) composed of aerenchyma with transverse septa, tapering into an awn/

2. female-fertile lemma not as in Rhynchoryza (q.v.) <<implicit>>/

#459. <Sorghastrum/Sorghum:>/

1. spikelets ostensibly solitary, each accompanied by a barren pedicel/

2. spikelets paired, all the pedicels spikelet-bearing/

#460. <Whether rush-like, with reduced leaf blades (Spartochloa, Xerochloa):>/

1. rush-like, with reduced leaf blades/

2. not rush-like <<implicit>>/

#461. <Whether female inflorescence a large, deciduous globular head of sessile, bristle-tipped racemes (Spinifex):>/

1. female inflorescence a large, deciduous globular head of sessile, bristle-tipped racemes/

2. inflorescence not as in Spinifex (q.v.) <<implicit>>/

#462. <Whether culms dimorphic, the fertile culms leafless, the vegetative culms each with a single developed leaf, this being eligulate and with a terete, culm-like ‘sheath’ (Steyermarkochloa):>/

1. culms dimorphic, the fertile culms leafless, the vegetative culms each with a single developed leaf, this being eligulate and with a terete, culm-like ‘sheath’/

2. plants not as in Steyermarkochloa (q.v.) <<implicit>>/

#463. <Whether flowering culms ultimately bending over, so as to enclose the ripening fruit (Thuarea):>/

1. flowering culms ultimately bending over, so as to enclose the ripening fruit/

2. flowering culms not as in Thuarea (q.v.) <<implicit>>/

#464. <Whether lower glume <of female-fertile spikelet> with a rectangular window, surmounted by bristles (Thyridolepis):>/

1. lower glume <of female-fertile spikelet> with a rectangular window, surmounted by bristles/

2. lower glume without a Thyridolepis-type window (q.v.) <<implicit>>/

#465. <Whether the lower glume of the pedicellate spikelet with a 5–10 mm (or longer) awn (Urelytrum):>/

1. the lower glume of the pedicellate spikelet with a 5–10 mm (or longer) awn/

2. the lower glume of the pedicellate spikelet awnless/

#466. <Whether the inflorescence a spicate ‘raceme’, with each spikelet subtended at its base by a tiny hyaline bract (from Madagascar) (Viguierella):>/

1. the inflorescence a spicate ‘raceme’, with each spikelet subtended at its base by a tiny hyaline bract: Madagascar/

2. the inflorescence not as in Viguierella (q.v.) <<implicit>>/

#467. <Whether fruiting inflorescence a massive, spatheate cob, the fruits in many rows (Zea mays):>/

1. fruiting inflorescence a massive, axillary, spatheate cob with a spongy axis, the fruits in many rows/

2. fruiting inflorescence not as in maize (q.v.) <<implicit>>/

#468. <Whether stems cane-like, spikelets in bracteate, globular 1–3.5 cm heads (Zygochloa):>/

1. stems cane-like, spikelets in bracteate, globular 1–3.5 cm heads/

2. plants not as in Zygochloa (q.v.) <<implicit>>/

Cytology

#469. Chromosome base number, x =/

#470. <Diploid chromosome numbers> 2n =/

#471. <Recorded ploidy levels; data very incomplete:>/

ploid/

#472. Haplomic genome content <of Triticeae, as shown by genomic analysis; data incomplete>/

1. A/

2. B/

3. C/

4. D/

5. E/

6. F/

7. G/

8. H/

9. I/

10. J/

11. K/

12. L/

13. M/

14. N/

15. O/

16. P/

17. Q/

18. R/

19. S/

20. T/

21. U/

22. V/

23. W/

24. X/

25. Y/

26. Z/

Data from Löve 1984.

#473. Chromosomes <size, cf. Avdulov 1931; data very incomplete>/

Data mainly from Tsvelev (1976). The Avdulov reference has proved elusive.

#474. Haploid nuclear DNA content <2c value divided by ploidy: ranges and means>/

pg/

#475. Mean diploid 2c DNA value/

pg/

Data mainly from Bennett and Smith (1976) and Bennett et al. (1982).

#476. Nucleoli <in root tip meristems, whether or not persisting to metaphase>/

1. persistent/

2. disappearing before metaphase/

Data exclusively from Brown and Emery (1957).

Classification

#477. Watson & Dallwitz (1994):/

1. Stipoideae/

2. Pooideae/

3. Bambusoideae/

4. Centothecoideae/

5. Arundinoideae/

6. Chloridoideae/

7. Panicoideae/

8. not described separately/

Subfamilies updated from Watson et al. (1985). A complete classification of the family, with short group descriptions, is also provided.

#478. <Supertribes of Watson & Dallwitz (1994)>/

1. Triticodae/

2. Poodae/

3. Oryzodae/

4. Bambusodae/

5. Panicodae/

6. Andropogonodae/

Supertribes updated from Watson et al. (1985), with name endings changed. A complete classification of the family, with short group descriptions, is also provided.

#479. <Tribe of Pooideae (Watson & Dallwitz, 1994)>/

1. Triticeae/

2. Brachypodieae/

3. Bromeae/

4. Aveneae <including Agrostideae, Phalarideae>/

5. Meliceae/

6. Seslerieae/

7. Poeae <including Hainardieae, Monermeae>/

A complete classification of the family, with short group descriptions, is also provided.

#480. <Tribe of Stipoideae (Watson & Dallwitz, 1994)>/

1. Nardeae/

2. Lygeae/

3. Anisopogoneae/

4. Stipeae/

5. Ampelodesmeae/

6. Brachyelytreae/

#481. <Tribe of Bambusoideae (Watson & Dallwitz, 1994)>/

1. Diarrheneae/

2. Oryzeae/

3. Olyreae/

4. Anomochloeae/

5. Ehrharteae/

6. Phaenospermateae/

7. Phyllorhachideae/

8. Phareae/

9. Streptochaeteae/

10. Streptogyneae/

11. Guaduelleae/

12. Puelieae/

13. Bambuseae/

#482. <Tribe of Centothecoideae (Watson & Dallwitz, 1994)>/

1. Centotheceae/

#483. <Tribe of Arundinoideae (Watson & Dallwitz, 1994)>/

1. Steyermarkochloeae/

2. Arundineae/

3. Danthonieae <and satellites>/

4. Cyperochloeae/

5. Micraireae/

6. Spartochloeae/

7. Aristideae/

8. Eriachneae/

9. Amphipogoneae/

#484. <Tribe/assemblage of Chloridoideae (Watson & Dallwitz, 1994)>/

1. Pappophoreae/

2. Orcuttieae/

3. Triodieae/

4. main chloridoid assemblage <including Chlorideae, Cynodonteae, Eragrosteae, Sporoboleae, Aeluropodeae, Jouveae, Unioleae, Leptureae, Lappagineae, Spartineae, Trageae, Perotideae, Pommereulleae>/

#485. <Tribe of Panicoideae (Watson & Dallwitz, 1994)>/

1. Isachneae/

2. Paniceae/

3. Neurachneae/

4. Arundinelleae/

5. Andropogoneae/

6. Maydeae/

#486. <Subtribe of Andropogoneae (Watson & Dallwitz, 1994)>/

1. Andropogoninae <‘awned Andropogoneae’>/

2. Rottboelliinae <‘awnless Andropogoneae’>/

#487. Soreng et al. (2015):/

1. Anomochlooideae/

2. Pharoideae/

3. Puelioideae/

4. Oryzoideae/

5. Bambusoideae/

6. Pooideae/

7. Aristidoideae/

8. Panicoideae/

9. Arundinoideae/

10. Micrairoideae/

11. Danthonioideae/

12. Chloridoideae/

#488. <Soreng et al. supertribe>/

1. Arundinarodae/

2. Bambusodae/

3. Poodae/

4. Triticodae/

5. Panicodae/

6. Andropogonodae/

#489. <Soreng et al. tribe>/

1. Anomochloeae/

2. Streptochaeteae/

3. Phareae/

4. Atractocarpeae/

5. Guaduellieae/

6. Streptogyneae/

7. Ehharteae/

8. Oryzeae/

9. Phyllorachideae/

10. Arundinarieae/

11. Olyreae/

12. Bambuseae/

13. Brachyelytreae/

14. Nardeae/

15. Lygeae/

16. Phaenospermateae/

17. Brylkineae/

18. Meliceae/

19. Ampelodesmeae/

20. Stipeae/

21. Diarrheneae/

22. Brachypodieae/

23. Poeae/

24. Littledaleeae/

25. Bromeae/

26. Triticeae/

27. Aristideae/

28. Thysanolaeneae/

29. Cyperochloeae/

30. Centotheceae/

31. Chasmanthieae/

32. Zeugiteae/

33. Steyermarkochloeae/

34. Tristachyideae/

35. Gynerieae/

36. Paniceae/

37. Paspaleae/

38. Arundinelleae/

39. Andropogoneae/

40. Arundineae/

41. Molinieae/

42. Micraireae/

43. Eriachneae/

44. Isachneae/

45. Hubbardieae/

46. Danthonieae/

47. Centropodieae/

48. Triraphideae/

49. Eragrostideae/

50. Zoysieae/

51. Cynodonteae/

#490. <Soreng et al., subtribe of Oryzoideae>/

1. Oryzinae/

2. Zizaniinae/

#491. <Soreng et al., subtribe of Bambusoideae>/

1. Arundinariinae/

2. Buergersiochloinae/

3. Olyrinae/

4. Parianinae/

5. Melocanninae/

6. Hickeliinae/

7. Bambusinae/

8. Racemobambusinae/

9. Chusqueinae/

10. Guaduinae/

11. Arthrostylidiinae/

#492. <Soreng et al., subtribe of Pooideae>/

1. Torreyochloinae/

2. Aveninae/

3. Phalaridinae/

4. Anthoxanthinae/

5. Brizinae/

6. Calothecinae/

7. Agrostidinae/

8. Scolochloinae/

9. Sesleriinae/

10. Coleanthinae/

11. Miliinae/

12. Poinae/

13. Airinae/

14. Holcinae/

15. Loliinae/

16. Dactylidinae/

17. Cynosurinae/

18. Ammochloinae/

19. Parapholiinae/

20. Hordeinae/

21. Triticinae/

#493. <Soreng et al., subtribe of Panicoideae-Panicodae>/

1. Anthephorinae/

2. Dichelantheliinae/

3. Boivinellinae/

4. Neurachninae/

5. Melidininae/

6. Panicinae/

7. Cenchrinae/

8. Paspalinae/

9. Otachyriinae/

10. Arthropogoninae/

#494. <Soreng et al., subtribe of Panicoideae-Andropogonodae>/

1. Arthraxoninae/

2. Tripsacinae/

3. Chionachninae/

4. Coicinae/

5. Rottboelliinae/

6. Ischaeminae/

7. Dimeriinae/

8. Germainiinae/

9. Sorghinae/

10. Saccharinae/

11. Andropogoninae/

12. Anthistiriinae/

#495. <Soreng et al., subtribe of Chloridoideae>/

1. Cotteinae/

2. Unioliinae/

3. Eragrostidinae/

4. Zoysiinae/

5. Sporobolinae/

6. Aeluropodinae/

7. Triodiinae/

8. Orcuttiinae/

9. Gouiniinae/

10. Cteniinae/

11. Trichoneurinae/

12. Perotidinae/

13. Farragininae/

14. Gymnopogoninae/

15. Eleusininae/

16. Tripogoninae/

17. Pappophorinae/

18. Traginae/

19. Hilariinae/

20. Monanthochloinae/

21. Boutelouinae/

22. Scleropogoninae/

23. Muhlenbergiinae/

Distribution, ecology, phytogeography

#496. <Number of species:>/

species/

#497. <Geographic distribution:>/

This text character has been comprehensively recorded, and incorporates ‘colloquial’ summaries of natural distribution, cf. Willis’s ‘Dictionary’.

#498. <World distribution: this ‘character’ is intended only for convenience in key-making; for more precise distributions, see ‘geographic distribution’:>/

1. Western Eurasia, U.S.S.R. <includes Iran, Iraq, Turkey>/

2. Mediterranean/

3. Eastern Asia <Japan, China to India>/

4. Africa <and Saudi Arabia>/

5. Pacific <Malaysia, Indonesia, Australasia, Pacific Islands>/

6. North America <Canada, Alaska, U.S.A., Mexico>/

7. South and Central America, West Indies/

8. Arctic/

Comprehensively encoded, and intended only for use in identification and for generating useful geographic subsets of the data. Assignments to these pragmatically defined world regions are intended to reflect likelihood of the family being encountered ‘in the field’, regardless of floristic status.

#499. <Floristic Kingdoms; after Takhtajan 1969; data deduced from information for Takhtajan’s floristic regions (q.v.), provided by B. K. Simon 1987; see Notes:>/

1. Holarctic/

2. Paleotropical/

3. Neotropical/

4. Cape/

5. Australian/

6. Antarctic/

The phytogeographical Kingdoms, Subkingdoms, Regions and Subregions are those of Takhtajan (1969). The data, which are complete, were provided by B.K.Simon (1987). They are intended to reflect ‘natural’ distributions, insofar as these are determinable.

#500. <Holarctic Subkingdoms:>/

1. Boreal/

2. Tethyan <ancient Mediterranean>/

3. Madrean <Sonoran>/

#501. <Paleotropical Subkingdoms:>/

1. African/

2. Madagascan/

3. Indomalesian/

4. Polynesian/

5. Neocaledonian/

#502. <Boreal Subkingdom regions:>/

1. Arctic and Subarctic/

2. Euro-Siberian/

3. Eastern Asian/

4. Atlantic North American/

5. Rocky Mountains/

#503. <Tethyan Subkingdom regions:>/

1. Macaronesian/

2. Mediterranean/

3. Irano-Turanian/

#504. <African Subkingdom regions:>/

1. Saharo-Sindian/

2. Sudano-Angolan/

3. West African Rainforest/

4. Namib-Karoo/

5. Ascension and St. Helena/

#505. <Indomalesian Subkingdom regions:>/

1. Indian/

2. Indo-Chinese/

3. Malesian <Malayan>/

4. Papuan/

#506. <Polynesian Subkingdom regions:>/

1. Hawaiian/

2. Polynesian/

3. Fijian/

#507. <Neotropical regions:>/

1. Caribbean/

2. Venezuela and Surinam/

3. Amazon/

4. Central Brazilian/

5. Pampas/

6. Andean/

7. Fernandezian/

#508. <Australian regions:>/

1. North and East Australian/

2. South-West Australian/

3. Central Australian/

#509. <Geographical occurrence in Australasia; mainly after Simon 1978, 1990:>/

1. Tasmania/

2. New South Wales/

3. Australian Capital Territory/

4. Victoria/

5. Western Australia/

6. Queensland/

7. Northern Territory/

8. South Australia/

9. New Guinea/

10. New Zealand/

11. not known in Australasia <<implicit>>/

#510. <Antarctic regions:>/

1. New Zealand/

2. Patagonian/

3. Antarctic and Subantarctic/

#511. <Euro-Siberian Subregions:>/

1. European/

2. Siberian/

#512. <Atlantic North American Subregions:>/

1. Canadian-Appalachian/

2. Southern Atlantic North American/

3. Central Grasslands/

#513. <Sudano-Angolan Subregions:>/

1. Sahelo-Sudanian/

2. Somalo-Ethiopian/

3. South Tropical African/

4. Kalaharian/

#514. <North and East Australian Subregions:>/

1. Tropical North and East Australian/

2. Temperate and South-Eastern Australian/

#515. <Antarctic and Subantarctic Subregions:>/

1. South Temperate Oceanic Islands/

2. Antarctic/

#516. <Whether commonly adventive on an intercontinental scale:>/

1. commonly adventive/

2. not commonly adventive <<implicit>>/

#517. <Habitat water requirement:>/

1. hydrophytic/

2. helophytic <i.e., in marshy places>/

3. mesophytic/

4. xerophytic/

‘Hydrophytes’: plants normally living with the vegetative parts submerged or floating in water, or only partially emergent.

‘Helophytes’: marsh plants.

‘Mesophytes’: plants avoiding extremes of moisture and drought — in habitats intermediate between those of hydrophytes and xerophytes.

‘Xerophytes’: plants which normally subsist with relatively little moisture (usually exhibiting one or more recognisable ‘xeromorphic’ features, which include extreme hairiness, thick cuticles, rolled or pungent or reduced leaves, etc.).

#518. <Habitat light requirement:>/

1. shade species/

2. species of open habitats/

#519. <Salt tolerance, etc.:>/

1. halophytic/

2. glycophytic <= not halophytic>/

#520. <Habitat notes (soil types, etc.):>/

Economic importance

#521. Significant weed species: <data not comprehensive: extended from Häfliger and Scholtz 1980>/

The species lists are obviously not comprehensive: they are intended merely to exemplify economic importance. It should also be realised that the same species may have positive or negative economic significance, depending on circumstances in different regions.

#522. Cultivated fodder:/

#523. Important native pasture species:/

#524. Grain crop species:/

#525. Lawns and/or playing fields:/

#526. Commercial essential oils:/

#527. <Miscellaneous economic/ethnic data:>/

Hybrids

#528. <Intergeneric hybrids:>/

Rusts and smuts

#529. Rusts — <genera>/

1. Dasturella/

2. Phakopsora/

3. Physopella/

4. Stereostratum/

5. Puccinia <including Uromyces>/

6. no rusts recorded <by Cummins 1971>/

Data from Cummins (1971), his classification amended by D.B.O. Savile (1975, pers. comm.). Updating beyond Cummins confined as yet to grass nomenclature. Unnamed species of Agropyron, Elymus, Panicum etc. ignored.

#530. The Puccinia species from <morphological Group; after Cummins 1971, amended by D.B.O. Savile (pers. comm.)>/

1. Group 1/

2. Group 2/

3. Group 5/

4. Group 6/

5. Group 7/

6. Group 8/

#531. The Puccinia species from <the Group 1 species, Savile’s subgroups>/

1. subgroup 1(a)/

2. subgroup 1(b)/

3. subgroup 1(c)/

4. subgroup 1(d)/

#532. The Puccinia species from <the Group 2 species, Savile’s subgroups>/

1. subgroup 2(a)/

2. subgroup 2(b)/

#533. The Puccinia species from <the Group 5 species, Savile’s subgroups>/

1. subgroup 5(a)/

2. subgroup 5(b)/

3. subgroup 5(c)/

4. subgroup 5(d)/

5. subgroup 5(e)/

6. subgroup 5(f)/

7. subgroup 5(g)/

8. subgroup 5(h)/

9. subgroup 5(i)/

10. subgroup 5(j)/

11. subgroup 5(k)/

#534. The Puccinia species from <the Group 6 species, Savile’s subgroups>/

1. subgroup 6(a)/

2. subgroup 6(b)/

3. subgroup 6(c)/

4. subgroup 6(d)/

5. subgroup 6(e)/

#535. Taxonomically wide-ranging <rust> species: <wide-ranging here = recorded on 3 or more host genera by Cummins 1971>/

1. Dasturella divina/

2. Phakopsora incompleta/

3. Physopella clemensiae/

4. Stereostratum corticoides/

5. Puccinia chaetochloae/

6. Puccinia stenotaphri/

7. Puccinia microspora/

8. Puccinia polysora/

9. Puccinia miscanthae/

10. Puccinia nakanishikii/

11. Puccinia longicornis/

12. Puccinia kusanoi/

13. Puccinia eritraeensis/

14. Puccinia graminella/

15. Puccinia dolosa/

16. Puccinia orientalis/

17. Puccinia graminis/

18. Puccinia levis/

19. Puccinia substriata/

20. ‘Uromycessetariae-italicae/

21. ‘Uromycesschoenanthi/

22. Puccinia emaculata/

23. Puccinia cacabata/

24. Puccinia coronata/

25. Puccinia striiformis/

26. Puccinia montanensis/

27. Puccinia pygmaea/

28. Puccinia brachypodii-phoenicoidis/

29. Puccinia brachypodii/

30. Puccinia praegracilis/

31. Puccinia poarum/

32. Puccinia hordei/

33. Puccinia recondita/

34. ‘Uromycesturcomanicum/

35. ‘Uromycesfragilipes/

36. ‘Uromycesdactylidis/

37. ‘Uromyceshordeinus/

38. Puccinia monoica/

39. Puccinia versicolor/

40. Puccinia boutelouae/

41. Puccinia chloridis/

42. Puccinia schedonnardi/

43. ‘Uromycesclignyi/

44. ‘Uromyceseragrostidis/

45. Puccinia miyoshiana/

46. Puccinia cesatii/

47. Puccinia esclavensis/

48. Puccinia aristidae/

49. no wide-ranging rust species <i.e. the positive records limited to rusts with restricted host ranges, as given by Cummins 1971> <<implicit>>/

#536. Smuts <families>/

1. from Tilletiaceae/

2. from Ustilaginaceae/

3. not recorded <<implicit, but see qualification>>/

Data not yet updated from Watson 1972. Panicum, Danthonia, Agropyron, Elymus, etc., omitted pending nomenclatural checking of records.

#537. <Smut genera> Tilletiaceae —/

1. Entyloma/

2. Melanotaenium/

3. Neovossia/

4. Tilletia/

5. Urocystis/

#538. <Smut genera> Ustilaginaceae —/

1. Sorosporium/

2. Sphacelotheca/

3. Tolyposporella/

4. Tolyposporium/

5. Ustilago/

References, etc.

#539. Morphological/taxonomic: <references>/

Articles of special interest listed here have only rarely provided most of the morphological descriptive data. The latter reflect compilations from the sources listed in the References, plus original observations by Watson and associates (notably S.G. Aiken, H.T. Clifford, C.R. Frylink, G.E. Gibbs Russell, T.D. Macfarlane and C.M Weiller).

#540. Leaf anatomical: <references>/

‘This project’ denotes original leaf anatomical observations by Watson, or for Pooideae by Macfarlane (1979) subsequently supplemented by Watson. Taxonomic realignments have been pursued in detail and accounted for when quoting Metcalfe (1960). The species recorded anatomically by us are listed in the file sample.doc which accompanies this package.

Special comments

#541. <Special comments:>/

#542. <Adequacy of> fruit data <for reliability of ‘implicit states’>/

1. more or less satisfactory <<implicit>>/

2. wanting <totally or seriously lacking>/

#543. <Adequacy of> anatomical data <for reliability of ‘implicit states’>/

1. more or less satisfactory <<implicit>>/

2. epidermal only/

3. for ts only/

4. wanting <totally or seriously lacking>/

Illustrations

#544. <Illustrations; see Notes:>/

No information is recorded against this ‘character’; it is a placeholder for links to the illustrations in HTML descriptions.

Miscellaneous

#545. Abbreviated taxon name:/


We advise against extracting comparative information from the descriptions. This is much more easily achieved using the DELTA data files or the interactive key, which allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting or lacking specified attributes, distributions of character states within any set of taxa, geographical distribution, and classifications. See also Guidelines for using data taken from Web publications.


Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., Macfarlane, T.D., and Dallwitz, M.J. 1992 onwards. The grass genera of the world: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval; including synonyms, morphology, anatomy, physiology, phytochemistry, cytology, classification, pathogens, world and local distribution, and references. Version: 13th November 2017. delta-intkey.com/grass’.

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