Pest Fruit Flies of the World – Larvae


L.E. Carroll, A.L. Norrbom, M.J. Dallwitz, and F.C. Thompson

Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstaecker

Mikimyia furcifera Bigot, Toxotrypana fairbatesi Munro

Papaya fruit fly. Body length 12–17mm (range estimated, LEC coded as 13–15); stout, elongate, tapering anteriorly (?). Integument unsclerotized, entirely whitish to yellowish. Caudal ridge absent. Mature larvae unable to jump.

Head. Head of normal shape; cephalic lobes slightly developed. Antenna 2-segmented. Stomal organ: primary lobe large, elongate-rounded; number of peg sensilla two; peg sensilla unbranched; other peg-sensilla-like structures absent. Stomal region: secondary lobes absent; sclerotized stomal guards absent. Oral ridges present; number of oral ridges 13–16 (prominent;13–15~WEH, -16~LEC); margins entire. Accessory plates present; number of accessory plates 7–15 (~~); margins unserrated. Elongate, finger-like lobes arising above mandibles absent. Median oral lobe absent or not protruding. Labium broad.

Cephalopharyngeal skeleton. Mandibles: subapical teeth absent; base stout, nearly perpendicular to a line from ventral part of base to apex of mandible. Parastomal bars elongate, free from hypopharyngeal sclerite. Dental sclerites apparently absent, not visible in lateral view.

Spinules and creeping welts. Dorsal spinules on segments T1-T3.

Caudal segment (a8) and anal lobes. Sensilla on caudal segment 10 pairs, with at least 7 pairs visible under dissecting microscope, or 6 or fewer pairs visible (minute, difficult to observe). Intermediate caudal sensillum I2 absent or visible only with great difficulty. Intermediate caudal sensilla I1a&b and I2 on separate papillae or tubercles. Ventral caudal sensilla absent or visible only with great difficulty. Anal lobes plainly visible, but not strongly protuberant; simple.

Anterior spiracles. Anterior spiracle elevated, margin concave medially, appearing bilobed (large, fanshaped, constricted in middle of outer margin~WEH). Anterior spiracular tubules 22–28 (18–22~Benjamin 1934); in a single uniform row, or in a single irregular row, or in two rows (?"usually with some [tubules] in a partial secondary row").

Posterior spiracles. Posterior spiracular area not distinctly set off from caudal segment. Posterior spiracles: slits 4–5x longer than wide (about). Dorsal spiracular processes with numerous trunks arising from a short or semicircular base, or with a few trunks radiating from a short or semicircular base (short processes). Number of dorsal spiracular processes 4–6 (range estimated, LEC coded 5). Number of ventral spiracular processes 4–6 (range estimated, LEC coded 5). Number of lateral spiracular processes 3–4. Area between posterior spiracles smooth.

Host plants. Caricaceae.

Anacardaceae: Mangifera indica, Heppner 1986 (poss. based on trap data, White & Elson-Harris 1992); Apocynaceae: Tabernaemontana sp., Bates 1933 (prob. misid., White and Elson-Harris).

Part of plant attacked: fruit.

Biogeographic region. Nearctic, Neotropical.

Specimens examined. Based on descriptions by Heppner (1986) and Phillips (1946).

Sources of data and SEM numbers: 390.

Illustrations. • Cephalopharyngeal skeleton, spiracles. • Head (anteroventral) SEM. • Stomal organ SEM. • Head (lateral) SEM. • Anterior spiracle SEM. • Caudal segment (posterior) SEM. • Posterior spiracles SEM. • Caudal segment (lateral) SEM. • Anal lobes SEM.

Cite this publication as: ‘L.E. Carroll, A.L. Norrbom, M.J. Dallwitz, and F.C. Thompson. 2004 onwards. Pest fruit flies of the world – larvae. Version: 8th December 2006.’.