Pest Fruit Flies of the World – Larvae
Body elongate-cylindrical, or short-cylindrical or barrel-shaped, or pear-shaped. Integument unsclerotized, entirely whitish to yellowish, or partially sclerotized; sclerotization covering entire caudal segment, or covering part of caudal segment, or covering part of dorsum, or covering part of dorsum and caudal segment; sclerotized process(es) on caudal segment absent, or present, weakly forked, or present as two separate processes (not 2?). Caudal ridge absent. Mature larvae unable to jump.
Head. Cephalic lobes not developed. Antenna 1-segmented. Stomal organ: primary lobe small, round; number of peg sensilla one (?), or two (?), or three, or four or more, or none apparent; peg sensilla unbranched; other peg-sensilla-like structures absent. Stomal region: secondary lobes embedded in overall reticulation; margins of secondary lobes all entire; sclerotized stomal guards absent. Oral ridges present, or absent; margins entire, or rounded, more like reticulation than ridges (?). Elongate, finger-like lobes arising above mandibles present, or absent (?). Median oral lobe absent or not protruding (?). Labium narrow (?).
Cephalopharyngeal skeleton. Mandibles: subapical teeth present; tooth about the same size as apical tooth; with a single ventral tooth, or with a single medial tooth, or with a single lateral tooth, or with medial and lateral teeth; base stout, nearly perpendicular to a line from ventral part of base to apex of mandible. Parastomal bars short and stout, or apparently absent.
Caudal segment (a8) and anal lobes. Sensilla on caudal segment 6 or fewer pairs visible. Dorsal caudal sensilla absent or visible only with great difficulty. Intermediate caudal sensillum I3 absent or visible only with great difficulty. Lateral caudal sensillum absent or visible only with great difficulty. Intermediate caudal sensilla I1a&b absent or visible only with great difficulty. Intermediate caudal sensillum I2 absent or visible only with great difficulty. Intermediate caudal sensilla I1a&b and I2 on separate papillae or tubercles. Ventral caudal sensilla absent or visible only with great difficulty. Anal lobes indistinct, retracted into anal slit, or absent.
Anterior spiracles. Anterior spiracle elevated, margin convex to straight. Anterior spiracular tubules 2–10 (+?); in a single uniform row.
Posterior spiracles. Posterior spiracular area not distinctly set off from caudal segment. Dorsal spiracular processes with numerous trunks arising from a short or semicircular base, or with a few trunks radiating from a short or semicircular base, or with only 1 or 2 trunks.
Host plants. Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Verbenaceae.
Part of plant attacked: stem, root crown or stem base, capitulum (of Asteraceae), receptacle (see also capitulum), multiple seeds (including achenes; see also capitulum), single seed (including achene; see also capitulum).
Biogeographic region. Nearctic, Neotropical, Palearctic, Afrotropical, Oriental, Australasian-Oceanian.
Cite this publication as: ‘L.E. Carroll, A.L. Norrbom, M.J. Dallwitz, and F.C. Thompson. 2004 onwards. Pest fruit flies of the world – larvae. Version: 8th December 2006. http://delta-intkey.com’.