Pest Fruit Flies of the World – Larvae


L.E. Carroll, A.L. Norrbom, M.J. Dallwitz, and F.C. Thompson

Dacus ciliatus Loew

Dacus apoxanthus var. decolor Bezzi, Dacus brevistylus Bezzi, Dacus cocciniae Premlata & Awtar Singh, Dacus insistens Curran, Dacus sigmoides Coquillett

Ethiopian fruit fly, Lesser pumpkin fly, Cucurbit fly. Body length 9–10.5mm; slender, elongate, tapering anteriorly (?). Integument unsclerotized, entirely whitish to yellowish. Caudal ridge present. Mature larvae able to jump (?).

Head. Head of normal shape. Antenna 2-segmented. Stomal organ: primary lobe small, round (?); other peg-sensilla-like structures ?. Stomal region: secondary lobes present, medial ones elongate, like oral ridges (?); sclerotized stomal guards absent (?). Oral ridges present; number of oral ridges 12–13 (some branched); margins scalloped (long, deeply serrated, parallel-sided, bluntly rounded teeth ?). Accessory plates present (numerous, long; ?); margins serrated (deeply serrated;?). Elongate, finger-like lobes arising above mandibles absent (?). Labium broad (?).

Cephalopharyngeal skeleton. Mandibles: subapical teeth present; tooth much smaller than apical tooth, and delicate, or smaller than apical tooth, and very stout, or about the same size as apical tooth (?); with a single ventral tooth (?); base elongate, forming a more oblique angle. Parastomal bars elongate, free from hypopharyngeal sclerite. Dental sclerites present, posterior to mandibles (?).

Spinules and creeping welts. Dorsal spinules on segments T1-A1.

Caudal segment (a8) and anal lobes. Sensilla on caudal segment 10 pairs, with at least 7 pairs visible under dissecting microscope (?).

Anterior spiracles. Anterior spiracle elevated, margin convex to straight. Anterior spiracular tubules 14–16; in a single uniform row, or in a single irregular row (?).

Posterior spiracles. Posterior spiracular area not distinctly set off from caudal segment. Posterior spiracles: slits 3.5–4x longer than wide. Dorsal spiracular processes with numerous trunks arising from an elongate base (long processes). Number of dorsal spiracular processes 14–19 (?). Number of ventral spiracular processes 11–14 (?). Number of lateral spiracular processes 3–9 (?). Area between posterior spiracles smooth.

Host plants. Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Malvaceae, Rosaceae, Solanaceae.

Asclepiadaceae: Calotropis procera, (Kapoor 1989), (misinterp. of Zoheiry 1950).

Part of plant attacked: fruit.

Biogeographic region. Palearctic, Afrotropical, Oriental.

Specimens examined. Based on descriptions by Malan & Giliomee (1969) and Kandybina (1977).

Sources of data and SEM numbers: 331.

Illustrations. • Cephalopharyngeal skeleton, spiracles, caudal segment. • Cephalopharyngeal skeleton, spiracles.

Cite this publication as: ‘L.E. Carroll, A.L. Norrbom, M.J. Dallwitz, and F.C. Thompson. 2004 onwards. Pest fruit flies of the world – larvae. Version: 8th December 2006.’.