Pest Fruit Flies of the World – Larvae


L.E. Carroll, A.L. Norrbom, M.J. Dallwitz, and F.C. Thompson

Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)

Tephritis capitata Wiedemann, Ceratitis citriperda MacLeay, Ceratitis hispanica Breme, Pardalaspis asparagi Bezzi

Mediterranean fruit fly, Med fly. Body length 6.5–9mm; slender, elongate, tapering anteriorly, or stout, elongate, tapering anteriorly (?). Integument unsclerotized, entirely whitish to yellowish. Caudal ridge present. Mature larvae able to jump.

Head. Head of normal shape; cephalic lobes moderately developed, or slightly developed. Antenna 2-segmented. Stomal organ: primary lobe small, round; number of peg sensilla three (small, peg-like); peg sensilla unbranched; other peg-sensilla-like structures absent. Stomal region: secondary lobes present, short, leaf-like (4–5 preoral lobes); margins of secondary lobes all entire (?); sclerotized stomal guards absent (?). Oral ridges present; number of oral ridges 8–13 (8–12~LEC, n=30; 9–13~WEH); margins serrate, or scalloped (short, bluntly rounded teeth). Accessory plates absent. Elongate, finger-like lobes arising above mandibles absent. Median oral lobe absent or not protruding. Labium broad.

Cephalopharyngeal skeleton. Mandibles: subapical teeth absent (usually), or present; tooth minute, visible only in slide mounts or by SEM, or much smaller than apical tooth, and delicate; with a single ventral tooth; base elongate, forming a more oblique angle. Parastomal bars elongate, free from hypopharyngeal sclerite. Dental sclerites present, posterior to mandibles.

Spinules and creeping welts. Dorsal spinules on segments T1-A1.

Caudal segment (a8) and anal lobes. Sensilla on caudal segment 10 pairs, with at least 7 pairs visible under dissecting microscope. Ventral caudal sensilla absent or visible only with great difficulty, or obvious, but not on a papilla or tubercle (?). Anal lobes plainly visible, but not strongly protuberant; simple (/2;?).

Anterior spiracles. Anterior spiracle elevated, margin convex to straight. Anterior spiracular tubules 7–11 (~Cals-Uscati 1972 & LEC, n=30; 8–10~WEH); in a single uniform row, or in a single irregular row (?).

Posterior spiracles. Posterior spiracular area not distinctly set off from caudal segment. Posterior spiracles: slits 2.5–3x longer than wide (about). Dorsal spiracular processes with numerous trunks arising from a short or semicircular base (medium processes). Number of dorsal spiracular processes 6–9. Number of ventral spiracular processes 6–9. Number of lateral spiracular processes 4–6.

Host plants. Actinidiaceae, Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Apocynaceae, Arecaceae, Bignoniaceae, Cactaceae, Caricaceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Clusiaceae, Combretaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Ebenaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Ericaceae, Fabaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Juglandaceae, Lauraceae (damaged avocados), Loganiaceae, Malpighiaceae, Malvaceae, Meliaceae, Moraceae, Musaceae (damaged bananas), Myrtaceae, Oleaceae, Oxalidaceae, Passifloraceae, Podocarpaceae, Punicaceae, Rhamnaceae, Rosaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae, Santalaceae, Sapindaceae, Sapotaceae, Solanaceae, Sterculiaceae, Vitaceae.

Bromeliaceae: Ananas comosus, (Doss 1989), prob. error, (White & Elson-Harris 1992.

Part of plant attacked: fruit.

Biogeographic region. Nearctic, Neotropical, Palearctic, Afrotropical, Oriental, Australasian-Oceanian.

Specimens examined. Based on specimens from Hawaii and Chiapas (lab. colonies), and on descriptions by White and Elson-Harris (1992; Western Australia: lab colony; Hawaii: lab. colonies) and Cals-Uscati (1972).

Sources of data and SEM numbers: 295SEM.

Illustrations. • Cephalopharyngeal skeleton, spiracles. • Head (lateral). • Head (anteroventral) SEM. • Stomal organ SEM. • Head (lateral) SEM. • Anterior spiracle SEM. • Caudal segment (posterior) SEM. • Posterior spiracles SEM. • Caudal segment (lateral) SEM. • Anal lobes SEM.

Cite this publication as: ‘L.E. Carroll, A.L. Norrbom, M.J. Dallwitz, and F.C. Thompson. 2004 onwards. Pest fruit flies of the world – larvae. Version: 8th December 2006.’.