Pest Fruit Flies of the World – Larvae


L.E. Carroll, A.L. Norrbom, M.J. Dallwitz, and F.C. Thompson

Bactrocera oleae (Rossi)

Musca oleae Rossi, Dacus oleae var. asiatica Silvestri, Dacus oleae var. flaviventris Guercio, Dacus oleae var. funesta Guercio, Musca oleae Gmelin, Musca oleae Petagna

Olive fruit fly, Olive fly. Body length 6.5–7mm; slender, elongate, tapering anteriorly, or stout, elongate, tapering anteriorly (?). Integument unsclerotized, entirely whitish to yellowish. Caudal ridge present. Mature larvae able to jump.

Head. Head of normal shape; cephalic lobes slightly developed. Antenna 2-segmented. Stomal organ: primary lobe small, round (?); number of peg sensilla two, or three (?); peg sensilla unbranched; other peg-sensilla-like structures absent. Stomal region: secondary lobes present, short, leaf-like (not coded by Carroll (1999), but see Belcari (1989), figs. 17, 19); margins of secondary lobes all entire; sclerotized stomal guards absent (?). Oral ridges present; number of oral ridges 10–12 (in shallow, short rows); margins entire, or serrate, or emarginate, or occasionally incised. Accessory plates absent (LEC). Elongate, finger-like lobes arising above mandibles absent. Median oral lobe absent or not protruding. Labium broad.

Cephalopharyngeal skeleton. Mandibles: subapical teeth absent (?); base stout, nearly perpendicular to a line from ventral part of base to apex of mandible. Parastomal bars elongate, free from hypopharyngeal sclerite. Dental sclerites present, posterior to mandibles.

Spinules and creeping welts. Dorsal spinules on segments T1-A2.

Caudal segment (a8) and anal lobes. Sensilla on caudal segment 10 pairs, with at least 7 pairs visible under dissecting microscope. Ventral caudal sensilla absent or visible only with great difficulty, or obvious, but not on a papilla or tubercle (?). Anal lobes plainly visible, but not strongly protuberant, or indistinct, retracted into anal slit, or absent; simple (?).

Anterior spiracles. Anterior spiracle elevated, margin convex to straight. Anterior spiracular tubules 8–12 (10~Phillips 1946; 9~Belcari 1987); in a single uniform row, or in a single irregular row (?).

Posterior spiracles. Posterior spiracular area not distinctly set off from caudal segment. Posterior spiracles: slits 3.5–4x longer than wide. Dorsal spiracular processes with numerous trunks arising from a short or semicircular base (medium to long processes). Number of dorsal spiracular processes 6–8 (range estimated, LEC coded 7). Number of ventral spiracular processes 6–8 (range estimated, LEC coded 7). Number of lateral spiracular processes 2–4. Area between posterior spiracles smooth.

Host plants. Oleaceae.

Part of plant attacked: fruit.

Biogeographic region. Palearctic, Afrotropical, Oriental.

Specimens examined. Based specimens (n=2, NMNH) and on descriptions by Phillips (1946), Kandybina (1977) and Belcari (1989).

Sources of data and SEM numbers: 242.

Illustrations. • Cephalopharyngeal skeleton, spiracles. • Cephalopharyngeal skeleton, antenna. • Posterior spiracles. • Cephalopharyngeal skeleton, spiracles, oral ridges. • Head (anteroventral & lateral), spiracles, mandible. • Head (anteroventral) SEM. • Stomal organ SEM. • Head (lateral) SEM. • Anterior spiracle SEM. • Caudal segment (posterior) SEM. • Posterior spiracles SEM. • Caudal segment (lateral) SEM. • Anal lobes SEM.

Cite this publication as: ‘L.E. Carroll, A.L. Norrbom, M.J. Dallwitz, and F.C. Thompson. 2004 onwards. Pest fruit flies of the world – larvae. Version: 8th December 2006.’.