Pest Fruit Flies of the World – Larvae


L.E. Carroll, A.L. Norrbom, M.J. Dallwitz, and F.C. Thompson

Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Mexico & Costa Rica)

Dacus fraterculus Wiedemann, Anastrepha braziliensis Greene, Anastrepha costarukmanii Capoor, Anastrepha fraterculus var. soluta Bezzi, Anastrepha lambayecae Korytkowski & Ojeda, Anastrepha peruviana Townsend, Anastrepha pseudofraterculus Capoor, Anastrepha scholae Capoor, Anthomyia frutalis Weyenbergh, Tephritis mellea Walker, Trypeta unicolor Loew

South American fruit fly. Body length 5–9.3mm; stout, elongate, tapering anteriorly (?). Integument unsclerotized, entirely whitish to yellowish. Caudal ridge absent. Mature larvae unable to jump.

Head. Head of normal shape; cephalic lobes moderately developed. Antenna 2-segmented. Stomal organ: primary lobe large, elongate-rounded; number of peg sensilla three; peg sensilla unbranched; other peg-sensilla-like structures absent. Stomal region: secondary lobes absent; sclerotized stomal guards absent. Oral ridges present; number of oral ridges 7–10; margins scalloped, or emarginate. Accessory plates present; number of accessory plates 8 (~~); margins serrated. Elongate, finger-like lobes arising above mandibles absent. Median oral lobe absent or not protruding. Labium broad (?).

Cephalopharyngeal skeleton. Mandibles: subapical teeth absent; base stout, nearly perpendicular to a line from ventral part of base to apex of mandible. Parastomal bars elongate, free from hypopharyngeal sclerite. Dental sclerites apparently absent, not visible in lateral view.

Spinules and creeping welts. Dorsal spinules on segments T1-T2.

Caudal segment (a8) and anal lobes. Sensilla on caudal segment 10 pairs, with at least 7 pairs visible under dissecting microscope. Intermediate caudal sensillum I2 obvious. Intermediate caudal sensilla I1a&b and I2 on separate papillae or tubercles. Ventral caudal sensilla absent or visible only with great difficulty, or obvious, but not on a papilla or tubercle (?). Anal lobes plainly visible, but not strongly protuberant; simple, or grooved (usu./3?).

Anterior spiracles. Anterior spiracle elevated, margin concave medially, appearing bilobed. Anterior spiracular tubules 9–15; in a single uniform row, or in a single irregular row (?).

Posterior spiracles. Posterior spiracular area not distinctly set off from caudal segment. Posterior spiracles: slits 2.7–3.8x longer than wide. Dorsal spiracular processes with numerous trunks arising from an elongate base, or with numerous trunks arising from a short or semicircular base (medium to long processes). Dorsal and ventral spiracular processes: average number of tips 22–37. Dorsal and ventral spiracular processes: ratio of number of tips to number of trunks 1.7–2.9. Area between posterior spiracles smooth.

Linear discriminant functions. Anastrepha fraterculus vs. A. obliqua: C = 22.70log(BAS) – 0.45(LTH) – 0.99(ANS) + 24.00: C greater than 0. Anastrepha fraterculus vs. A. suspensa: C = 24.20log(BAS) + 26.67log(RTO2) – 40.52: C greater than 0. Anastrepha suspensa vs. A. fraterculus vs. A. obliqua: Cf = 186.07log(BAS) + 13.01(ORL) + 39.58log(RTO2) + 8.63(ANS) + 1.10(LTH) – 294.42; Cs = 151.06log(BAS) + 17.23(ORL) – 5.62log(RTO2) + 8.51(ANS) + 1.25(LTH) – 285.19; Co = 161.23log(BAS) + 14.17(ORL) + 27.96log(RTO2) + 9.77(ANS) + 1.58(LTH) – 326.32: Cf is largest value.

Host plants. Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Combretaceae, Ebenaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Juglandaceae, Lauraceae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae, Olacaceae, Oxalidaceae, Punicaceae, Rosaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae, Sapotaceae, Solanaceae, Staphyleaceae, Sterculiaceae, Vitaceae.

Part of plant attacked: fruit.

Biogeographic region. Nearctic, Neotropical.

Specimens examined. Based on Steck et al. (1990 and unpublished data; Chiapas (n=15, progeny of single females) and Costa Rica: ex Terminalia cattappa (n=10).

Illustrations. • Cephalopharyngeal skeleton, spiracles. • Head (anteroventral) SEM. • Stomal organ SEM. • Head (lateral) SEM. • Anterior spiracle SEM. • Caudal segment (posterior) SEM. • Posterior spiracles. • Caudal segment (posterior) SEM. • Anal lobes SEM.

Cite this publication as: ‘L.E. Carroll, A.L. Norrbom, M.J. Dallwitz, and F.C. Thompson. 2004 onwards. Pest fruit flies of the world – larvae. Version: 8th December 2006.’.