Pest Fruit Flies of the World


L.E. Carroll, I.M. White, A. Freidberg, A.L. Norrbom, M.J. Dallwitz, and F.C. Thompson

Toxotrypana littoralis Blanchard

Body. Body elongate; a balanced mixture of black and yellow.

Head. Number of frontal bristles three pairs. Number of orbital bristles two pairs. Anterior orbital bristle of male normal, unmodified. Posterior orbital bristles reclinate; acuminate. Ocellar bristles absent or minute, like setulae. Postocellar bristles present. With only inner vertical bristles. Outer vertical, postvertical and postocellar bristles all acuminate. Postocular bristles acuminate; reduced in number and size, hardly detectable in 25x. Genal bristle present. Head higher than long. Male and female head width the same. Frontofacial angle about equal to a right angle and angular. Face concave, or undulating, convex above, concave below (?); with distinct antennal grooves and carina; about as long as frons; vertical; with dark spots in antennal furrows, or with a transverse band, or bicolorous, with antennal grooves entirely dark, or with lateral and central dark spots. Parafacial spot absent. Frons and parafacial without small silvery markings. Fronto-orbital plate setulose. Frontal stripe setulose. Eye elongate, considerably higher than long. Antenna considerably shorter than face. Scape, pedicel, and first flagellomere all relatively short. First flagellomere shorter than face; rounded apically. Arista longer than first flagellomere; pubescent, with hairs about as long as greatest aristal width; hairs both dorsal and ventral. Proboscis short, capitate.

Thorax. Inner scapular bristle absent or indistinguishable from surrounding vestiture. Outer scapular bristle present and distinguishable from surrounding vestiture; dark. Postpronotal bristle absent. Presutural dorsocentral bristle absent. Presutural supra-alar bristle present (weak), or absent. Postsutural supra-alar bristle present. Acrostichal bristle absent. Postsutural dorsocentral bristle present (weak), or absent; bristles approximately aligned with or posterior to post-alar bristles. Intra-alar bristle present, well developed, similar to postalar bristle, or absent, or minute, about twice as long as nearby setulae. Intrapostalar bristles absent. Number of scutellar bristles one pair, or two pairs (basal pr. very weak). The single pair of scutellar bristles apical. Apical scutellar bristles less than half as long as basals. Anterior notopleural bristle present. Posterior notopleural bristle(s) acuminate. Number of outstanding anepisternal bristles one (weak), or zero. Katepisternal bristles absent. Anepisternal bristles dark, brown to black. Long, erect setulae on laterotergite absent. Scutal setulae acuminate, mixed dark and pale. Scutellum sparsely setulose. Setulae on scutellum short, decumbent; unicolorous, acuminate. Transverse suture with the lateral branches wide apart. Complete sclerotized postcoxal metathoracic bridge absent or semimembranous. Scutum yellowish, or orange-brown, or black; without a large dark central stripe which broadens basally. Postpronotal lobe entirely pale whitish or yellowish. Posterior half of notopleuron same as ground color (dark). Scutum dorsad of notopleuron with a pale whitish or yellowish stripe which extends from postpronotal lobe to posterior half of notopleuron, or with a pale stripe which extends from the postpronotal lobe dorsad of the anterior notopleuron, not reaching the posterior half of the notopleuron. Dark lyre-like pattern on scutum absent. Discrete shiny black spots on scutum absent (marks not shiny). Median longitudinal black stripe on scutum absent. Number of pale whitish to yellow postsutural stripes five. Pale medial postsutural stripe of scutum linear. Lateral postsutural stripes of scutum ending anterior to intra-alar bristles. Scutum with blackish dorsocentral stripe. Area bordering scutoscutellar suture medially with dark brown spot, or without dark brown spot, brown. Discrete pale horizontal stripe along upper anepisternum absent or indistinct. Katatergite with pale yellowish or whitish spot present and distinct (yellow), or absent or indistinct. Anatergite with pale yellowish or whitish spot present and distinct (yellow), or absent or indistinct. Subscutellum yellowish to orange-brown medially, with distinct dark spots laterally. Mediotergite dark medially & laterally, with yellowish to orange brown spots sublaterally. Scutum microtrichia in discrete pattern due to bare areas or completely absent; microtrichia absent or at most present on or lateral to postsutural lateral white stripe, along posterior margin, and/or along transverse suture. Dorsum of scutellum flat or slightly convex, not swollen. Scutellum normal; with a dark and pale pattern; with one isolated dark spot, or no isolated dark spots (?); with a dark mark around margin, leaving discal area pale; without mark.

Legs. Femora slender. Fore femur without bristles; without ventral spines; without major bristles. Mid femur and hind femur without spine-like bristles. Middle leg of male without feathering. Femora at least one femur markedly darker in apical part than in basal part, or at least one femur markedly paler in apical part than in middle or basal part; dark mark on fore femur 30% of length of femur (spot); dark mark on middle femur 40–50% of length of femur (not reaching apex); dark mark on hind femur 50–100% of length of femur (extending ventrally to base, but not extending to apex).

Wings. Wing partly bare. Cell bc microtrichia absent, or present in apical area only. Cell c microtrichia present in apical area, or covering whole cell (at most a small bare area at base). Cell dm bare on less than basal one-third. Dense microtrichia at end of vein A1+CuA2 in male absent. Dominant wing pattern costal-banded. Wing pattern mostly brownish. Dark longitudinal streaks through basal cells absent. Costal band complete from wing base to beyond R4+5. Apex of costal band not distinctly expanded. Costal band extending below R4+5; all one color. Crossvein r-m hyaline. Crossvein dm-cu hyaline. Crossveins r-m and dm-cu not both covered by a single crossband. Cell r2+3 apical to r-m with large hyaline area (?). Anal band present, reaching nearly to wing margin along cell cup extension. Cell r1 and r2+3 without darker spots within the pattern. Intercalary band absent. Subbasal crossband absent. Marginal hyaline area in cell r1 absent or indistinct. Posterior apical crossband absent. Outstanding costal spine(s) at subcostal break absent. Ratio of length of costal section 3 to costal section 4 1. Ratio of pterostigmal length to width 6. Vein R1 dorsal setation without bare section opposite end of vein Sc. Vein Rs dorsal setation non-setulose. Vein R2+3 strongly sinuous. Anteriorly-directed accessory vein emerging from R2+3 present. Vein R4+5 dorsal setation sparse over both sections; ventral setation absent or only present on node or close thereafter. Distance between crossvein r-m and costa longer than r-m. R-m crossvein on cell dm at or near distal third of cell dm. Cell bm narrow, triangular; ratio of length to width 3.5; ratio of width to cell cup width 1–1.2. Vein M distally curved anterad (slightly). Cell dm widens apically gradually from base. Posterodistal corner of cell dm distinctly obtuse. Cell cup extension or lobe present, vein CuA2 abruptly bent; longer than vein A1+CuA2; triangular, or with parallel margins.

Abdomen. Abdomen petiolate. Abdominal tergites separate. Abdominal petiole made of 1st tergite only. Abdomen in lateral view flatter, more flexible. Abdominal tergite 1 narrower at apex than at base; without a prominent hump laterally. Pecten of dark bristles on tergite 3 of male absent. Tergal glands on tergite 5 absent. Abdominal tergite 5 normal. 6th tergite of female exposed; shorter than 5th (posteriorly emarginate). Abdominal setulae acuminate and pale, or mixed dark and pale acuminate. Abdominal microtomentum uniform, or absent. Abdominal tergites 3–5 predominantly yellow to orange brown. Abdominal tergites without medial dark stripe; not brown with medial T-shaped yellow mark; with dark brown transverse bands which may be interrupted medially.

Male terminalia. Epandrium in posterior view ?; lateral view with outer surstyli a continuation of the epandrium. Distiphallus present; with basolateral membranous lobe; mostly membranous medially, with small subapical sclerites; without stout, curved, basal spine; without basal setulose rod. Sclerite of vesica of distiphallus present, isolated, T-shaped.

Female terminalia. Syntergosternite 7 strongly curved; longer than rest of body; 11–20 mm; base with a laterally projecting flap; tubular. Ratio of syntergosternite 7 to abdominal tergite 5 35 (approx.). Dorsobasal scales of eversible membrane numerous, very large, hook-like, in triangular pattern (?). Aculeus length 11–20 mm; shaft parallel-sided except extreme base. Aculeus tip triangular. Three sclerotized spermathecae. Spermathecae spherical.

Miscellaneous. Male attractant: none known.

Neotropical. Guatemala to Venezuela, following Andes to Argentina.

Trypetinae. Toxotrypanini.

Illustrations. • Habitus female (lateral), head, thorax (dorsal). • Thorax (dorsal (2), lateral, posterior).

Cite this publication as: ‘L.E. Carroll, I.M. White, A. Freidberg, A.L. Norrbom, M.J. Dallwitz, and F.C. Thompson. 2002 onwards. Pest fruit flies of the world. Version: 8th December 2006.’.