Pest Fruit Flies of the World


L.E. Carroll, I.M. White, A. Freidberg, A.L. Norrbom, M.J. Dallwitz, and F.C. Thompson

Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstaecker

Mikimyia furcifera Bigot, Toxotrypana fairbatesi Munro

Papaya fruit fly.

Body. Body elongate; a balanced mixture of black and yellow.

Head. Number of frontal bristles three pairs. Number of orbital bristles one pair (weak). Anterior orbital bristle of male normal, unmodified. Posterior orbital bristles reclinate; acuminate. Ocellar bristles absent or minute, like setulae. Postocellar bristles present. With both inner and outer vertical bristles. Outer vertical, postvertical and postocellar bristles all acuminate. Postocular bristles acuminate; reduced in number and size, hardly detectable in 25x. Genal bristle present. Head higher than long. Male and female head width the same. Frontofacial angle about equal to a right angle and angular. Face concave, or undulating, convex above, concave below (?); with distinct antennal grooves and carina; about as long as frons; vertical; without dark marks, or with a transverse band, or bicolorous, with ventral part black. Parafacial spot absent. Frons and parafacial without small silvery markings. Fronto-orbital plate setulose. Frontal stripe setulose. Eye elongate, considerably higher than long. Antenna about as long as face. Scape, pedicel, and first flagellomere all relatively short. First flagellomere shorter than face; rounded apically. Arista longer than first flagellomere; pubescent, with hairs about as long as greatest aristal width; hairs both dorsal and ventral. Proboscis short, capitate.

Thorax. Inner scapular bristle absent or indistinguishable from surrounding vestiture; pale. Outer scapular bristle present and distinguishable from surrounding vestiture, or absent or indistinguishable from surrounding vestiture; dark. Postpronotal bristle absent. Presutural dorsocentral bristle absent. Presutural supra-alar bristle present (weak), or absent. Postsutural supra-alar bristle present. Acrostichal bristle absent. Postsutural dorsocentral bristle present (weak), or absent; bristles approximately aligned with or posterior to post-alar bristles. Intra-alar bristle present, well developed, similar to postalar bristle, or absent, or minute, about twice as long as nearby setulae. Intrapostalar bristles absent. Number of scutellar bristles one pair. The single pair of scutellar bristles apical. Anterior notopleural bristle present. Posterior notopleural bristle(s) acuminate. Number of outstanding anepisternal bristles one, or zero (weak). Katepisternal bristles absent. Anepisternal bristles dark, brown to black. Long, erect setulae on laterotergite absent. Scutal setulae acuminate, mixed dark and pale. Scutellum sparsely setulose. Setulae on scutellum short, decumbent; unicolorous, acuminate. Transverse suture with the lateral branches wide apart. Complete sclerotized postcoxal metathoracic bridge absent or semimembranous. Scutum yellowish, or black; without a large dark central stripe which broadens basally. Postpronotal lobe entirely pale whitish or yellowish; concolorous with lateral postsutural stripe. Posterior half of notopleuron same as ground color. Scutum dorsad of notopleuron with a pale whitish or yellowish stripe which extends from postpronotal lobe to posterior half of notopleuron, or with a pale stripe which extends from the postpronotal lobe dorsad of the anterior notopleuron, not reaching the posterior half of the notopleuron. Dark lyre-like pattern on scutum absent. Discrete shiny black spots on scutum absent. Median longitudinal black stripe on scutum absent. Number of pale whitish to yellow postsutural stripes five. Pale medial postsutural stripe of scutum linear, with posterior part expanded, ovoid or triangular. Lateral postsutural stripes of scutum ending anterior to intra-alar bristles. Scutum with blackish dorsocentral stripe. Area bordering scutoscutellar suture medially with dark brown spot. Discrete pale horizontal stripe along upper anepisternum absent or indistinct. Distinct pale vertical anepisternal stripe extending to anterior notopleural bristle, or extending halfway between anterior notopleural bristle and postpronotal lobe, or extending to postpronotal lobe. Katepisternite with pale yellowish or whitish spot present and distinct, or absent or indistinct. Transverse suture with a small pale spot anterior to suture. Katatergite with pale yellowish or whitish spot present and distinct. Anatergite with pale yellowish or whitish spot present and distinct. Subscutellum uniformly brown, or uniformly black. Mediotergite dark medially & laterally, with yellowish to orange brown spots sublaterally. Scutum microtrichia in discrete pattern due to bare areas or completely absent; microtrichia absent or at most present on or lateral to postsutural lateral white stripe, along posterior margin, and/or along transverse suture. Dorsum of scutellum flat or slightly convex, not swollen. Scutellum normal; without a dark and pale pattern (at most a narrow dark basal line); with no isolated dark spots; with lateral black marks extending apically, leaving apical area pale; marked with an orange-brown triangle, or orange-brown except lateral margins.

Legs. Femora slender. Fore femur without bristles; without ventral spines; without major bristles. Mid femur and hind femur without spine-like bristles. Middle leg of male without feathering. Femora at least one femur markedly darker in apical part than in basal part; dark mark on fore femur 30–100% of length of femur (spot); dark mark on middle femur 40–50% of length of femur; dark mark on hind femur 40–60% of length of femur.

Wings. Wing partly bare. Cell bc microtrichia present in apical area only. Cell c microtrichia covering whole cell. Cell bm microtrichose only on narrow subapical streak (?). Cell dm bare on basal one-third to one-half, or bare on less than basal one-third. Cell cup with large anterior bare area. Dense microtrichia at end of vein A1+CuA2 in male absent. Dominant wing pattern costal-banded. Wing pattern mostly brownish. Dark longitudinal streaks through basal cells absent. Costal band complete from wing base to beyond R4+5. Apex of costal band not distinctly expanded. Costal band extending below R4+5; all one color. Crossvein r-m hyaline, or covered by short, diffuse infuscation. Crossvein dm-cu hyaline. Crossveins r-m and dm-cu not both covered by a single crossband. Cell r2+3 apical to r-m entirely infuscated. Anal band present, reaching nearly to wing margin along cell cup extension. Cell r1 and r2+3 without darker spots within the pattern. Intercalary band present, but fused with apical band. Subbasal crossband absent. Ratio of width of apical band in cell r4+5 to length of r-m 0.75–1.2. Anterior apical crossband contiguous with costa over entire length, without marginal hyaline band or spots apically in cells r1 and r2+3. Anterior apical band or costal band extended to vein M, or not extended to vein M. Posterior apical crossband absent. Outstanding costal spine(s) at subcostal break absent. Ratio of length of costal section 3 to costal section 4 1. Ratio of pterostigmal length to width 5–8. Vein R1 dorsal setation without bare section opposite end of vein Sc. Vein Rs dorsal setation non-setulose. Vein R2+3 strongly sinuous. Anteriorly-directed accessory vein emerging from R2+3 present. Vein R4+5 dorsal setation sparse over both sections; ventral setation absent or only present on node or close thereafter. Distance between crossvein r-m and costa longer than r-m. R-m crossvein on cell dm at or near proximal third of cell dm. Cell bm narrow, triangular; ratio of length to width 3.5; ratio of width to cell cup width 1–1.5. Vein M distally curved anterad (slightly). Cell dm widens apically gradually from base. Posterodistal corner of cell dm approximately a right angle, or distinctly obtuse. Cell cup extension or lobe present, vein CuA2 abruptly bent; longer than vein A1+CuA2; with parallel margins.

Abdomen. Abdomen petiolate. Abdominal tergites separate. Abdominal petiole made of 1st tergite only. Abdomen in lateral view flatter, more flexible. Abdominal tergite 1 narrower at apex than at base; without a prominent hump laterally. Pecten of dark bristles on tergite 3 of male absent. Tergal glands on tergite 5 absent. Abdominal tergite 5 normal. 6th tergite of female exposed; shorter than 5th. Abdominal setulae acuminate and pale. Abdominal microtomentum uniform, or absent. Abdominal sternite 5 of male narrow, longer than wide. Posterior margin of sternite 5 of male with shallow posterior concavity. Abdominal tergites 3–5 predominantly yellow to orange brown. Abdominal tergites without medial dark stripe; not brown with medial T-shaped yellow mark; without isolated dark areas on lateral margins of T3-T5; with dark brown transverse bands which may be interrupted medially.

Male terminalia. Epandrium in posterior view rounded or oval, including the short, undifferentiated outer surstyli; lateral view with outer surstyli a continuation of the epandrium. Distiphallus present; with basolateral membranous lobe; mostly membranous medially, with small subapical sclerites; without stout, curved, basal spine; without basal setulose rod. Sclerite of vesica of distiphallus present, isolated, T-shaped.

Female terminalia. Syntergosternite 7 strongly curved; longer than rest of body; 11–20 mm; base with a laterally projecting flap; tubular. Ratio of syntergosternite 7 to abdominal tergite 5 20 (?). Dorsobasal scales of eversible membrane numerous, very large, hook-like, in triangular pattern. Aculeus length 11–20 mm; shaft parallel-sided except extreme base. Aculeus tip triangular; fused to main part of aculeus, not movable. Three sclerotized spermathecae. Spermathecae spherical (?).

Miscellaneous. Male attractant: none known.

Nearctic, Neotropical. USA (s. Texas) S to Colombia & Venezuela, West Indies, Bahamas; introduced USA (Florida).

Trypetinae. Toxotrypanini.

Illustrations. • Habitus female (lateral), head, thorax (dorsal). • Thorax (dorsal, lateral, posterior). • Wing.

Cite this publication as: ‘L.E. Carroll, I.M. White, A. Freidberg, A.L. Norrbom, M.J. Dallwitz, and F.C. Thompson. 2002 onwards. Pest fruit flies of the world. Version: 8th December 2006.’.