Pest Fruit Flies of the World
Dacus flaveolatus Fabricius, Stigmatothemara pterocallina Enderlein, Themarictera rufipennis Hendel, Trypeta laticeps Loew
Body. Body predominantly orangish to brown.
Head. Number of frontal bristles two pairs. Number of orbital bristles two pairs (usually), or three or more pairs. Anterior orbital bristle of male normal, unmodified. Posterior orbital bristles reclinate; acuminate. Ocellar bristles short, distinctly shorter than frontal bristles, or absent or minute, like setulae. Postocellar bristles present. With both inner and outer vertical bristles. Outer vertical, postvertical and postocellar bristles all acuminate. Postocular bristles acuminate; normal. Genal bristle present. Head higher than long. Male head much wider than female head. Frontofacial angle about equal to a right angle and angular. Face undulating, convex above, concave below; with transverse sulcus, or with distinct antennal grooves and carina; shorter than frons; vertical; without dark marks. Parafacial spot absent. Frons and parafacial without small silvery markings. Fronto-orbital plate setulose. Frontal stripe setulose. Eye round, about as high or slightly higher than long. Antenna about as long as face. Scape, pedicel, and first flagellomere all relatively short. First flagellomere shorter than face; rounded apically. Arista longer than first flagellomere; plumose, with hairs at least half as long as first flagellomere width; hairs both dorsal and ventral. Proboscis short, capitate.
Thorax. Inner scapular bristle present and distinguishable from surrounding vestiture; dark. Outer scapular bristle present and distinguishable from surrounding vestiture; dark. Postpronotal bristle present. Presutural dorsocentral bristle absent. Presutural supra-alar bristle present. Postsutural supra-alar bristle present. Acrostichal bristle present. Postsutural dorsocentral bristle present; bristles about midway between postsutural supra-alar and post-alar bristles. Intra-alar bristle present, well developed, similar to postalar bristle. Intrapostalar bristles present (minute). Number of scutellar bristles three pairs. Apical scutellar bristles as long as basals or longer. Anterior notopleural bristle present. Posterior notopleural bristle(s) acuminate. Number of outstanding anepisternal bristles one. Katepisternal bristles absent. Anepisternal bristles dark, brown to black. Long, erect setulae on laterotergite absent. Scutal setulae acuminate and pale. Scutellum sparsely setulose. Setulae on scutellum short, decumbent; unicolorous, acuminate. Transverse suture with the lateral branches wide apart. Complete sclerotized postcoxal metathoracic bridge absent or semimembranous. Scutum orange-brown; without a large dark central stripe which broadens basally. Postpronotal lobe predominantly of the ground color. Posterior half of notopleuron same as ground color. Scutum dorsad of notopleuron of the ground color, not whitish or yellowish. Dark lyre-like pattern on scutum absent. Discrete shiny black spots on scutum present (behind postpronotal lobe). Median longitudinal black stripe on scutum absent. Number of pale whitish to yellow postsutural stripes zero. Area bordering scutoscutellar suture medially without dark brown spot, light colored. Discrete pale horizontal stripe along upper anepisternum absent or indistinct. Distinct pale vertical anepisternal stripe absent. Katepisternite with pale yellowish or whitish spot absent or indistinct. Transverse suture without distinct stripe or spot. Katatergite with pale yellowish or whitish spot absent or indistinct. Anatergite with pale yellowish or whitish spot absent or indistinct. Subscutellum uniformly yellowish to pale orange-brown. Mediotergite uniformly yellowish to orange-brown. Scutum microtrichia in discrete pattern due to bare areas or completely absent; microtrichia absent or at most present on or lateral to postsutural lateral white stripe, along posterior margin, and/or along transverse suture. Dorsum of scutellum flat or slightly convex, not swollen. Scutellum normal; without a dark and pale pattern (at most a narrow dark basal line); with no isolated dark spots; without black mark; without mark.
Legs. Femora slender. Fore femur with regular bristles; without ventral spines; with 1 to 3 posterodorsal and 1 posteroventral rows of bristles only. Mid femur and hind femur without spine-like bristles. Middle leg of male without feathering. Femora all entirely of one color; dark mark on fore femur 0% of length of femur; dark mark on middle femur 0% of length of femur; dark mark on hind femur 0% of length of femur.
Wings. Wing partly bare. Cell bc microtrichia absent. Cell c microtrichia covering whole cell. Cell dm entirely microtrichose. Dense microtrichia at end of vein A1+CuA2 in male absent. Dominant wing pattern cross-banded, or mostly dark. Crossbanded wing patterns with bands extensively fused, distorted, or greatly reduced. Dark longitudinal streaks through basal cells absent. Costal band complete from wing base to beyond R4+5. Costal band extending below R4+5; all one color. Crossvein r-m covered by a major crossband. Crossvein dm-cu covered by a major crossband which reaches posterior margin of wing. Crossveins r-m and dm-cu both covered by a single crossband. Anal band absent, or not reaching nearly to wing margin. Cell r1 and r2+3 without darker spots within the pattern. Intercalary band absent. Subbasal crossband present. Subbasal and discal crossbands joined. Anterior apical crossband contiguous with costa over entire length, without marginal hyaline band or spots apically in cells r1 and r2+3. Posterior apical crossband present, or absent. Discal and apical crossbands not directly joined. Discal and subapical crossbands joined along anterior wing margin or along vein R4+5. Subapical and anterior apical crossbands joined. Outstanding costal spine(s) at subcostal break present, or absent. Ratio of length of costal section 3 to costal section 4 0.8–1.67 (laticeps). Ratio of pterostigmal length to width 3–4. Vein R1 dorsal setation without bare section opposite end of vein Sc. Vein Rs dorsal setation setulose. Vein R2+3 strongly sinuous. Anteriorly-directed accessory vein emerging from R2+3 absent. Vein R4+5 dorsal setation dense over at least proximal section; ventral setation present. Distance between crossvein r-m and costa longer than r-m. R-m crossvein on cell dm at or near distal third of cell dm. Cell bm narrow, triangular; ratio of length to width 5; ratio of width to cell cup width 0.75–0.8. Vein M distally straight. Cell dm widens apically gradually from base. Posterodistal corner of cell dm approximately a right angle, or distinctly obtuse. Cell cup extension or lobe present, vein CuA2 abruptly bent; shorter than vein A1+CuA2; triangular.
Abdomen. Abdomen ovate or parallel sided. Abdominal tergites separate. Abdomen in lateral view flatter, more flexible. Abdominal tergite 1 broader at apex than at base; without a prominent hump laterally. Pecten of dark bristles on tergite 3 of male absent. Tergal glands on tergite 5 absent. Abdominal tergite 5 normal. 6th tergite of female exposed; shorter than 5th. Abdominal setulae acuminate and dark. Abdominal microtomentum uniform, or absent. Abdominal sternite 5 of male less than 2x wider than long, not longer than wide. Posterior margin of sternite 5 of male with deep V-shaped posterior concavity. Abdominal tergites 3–5 predominantly yellow to orange brown. Abdominal tergites without medial dark stripe; without isolated dark areas on lateral margins of T3-T5.
Male terminalia. Epandrium in posterior view with long outer surstyli, which are more than half as long as epandrium; lateral view with outer surstyli distinctly narrower than epandrium, clearly differentiated.
Female terminalia. Syntergosternite 7 straight; shorter than preabdomen; base without a laterally projecting flap; flattened. Ratio of syntergosternite 7 to abdominal tergite 5 4–5. Dorsobasal scales of eversible membrane about as large as other scales (?). Three sclerotized spermathecae.
Miscellaneous. Male attractant: none known.
Afrotropical. Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, South Africa.
Illustrations. • Habitus male (dorsal), wing, female head.
Cite this publication as: ‘L.E. Carroll, I.M. White, A. Freidberg, A.L. Norrbom, M.J. Dallwitz, and F.C. Thompson. 2002 onwards. Pest fruit flies of the world. Version: 8th December 2006. http://delta-intkey.com’.