Pest Fruit Flies of the World

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L.E. Carroll, I.M. White, A. Freidberg, A.L. Norrbom, M.J. Dallwitz, and F.C. Thompson

Monacrostichus citricola Bezzi

Body. Body elongate; a balanced mixture of black and yellow.

Head. Number of frontal bristles zero. Number of orbital bristles one pair. Anterior orbital bristle of male normal, unmodified. Posterior orbital bristles reclinate; acuminate. Ocellar bristles absent or minute, like setulae. Postocellar bristles absent. With both inner and outer vertical bristles, or with only outer vertical bristles. Outer vertical, postvertical and postocellar bristles all acuminate. Postocular bristles acuminate; reduced in number and size, hardly detectable in 25x. Genal bristle present (weak). Head higher than long. Male and female head width the same. Frontofacial angle about equal to a right angle and angular. Face undulating, convex above, concave below; with transverse sulcus, or with distinct antennal grooves and carina; shorter than frons; vertical; with a transverse band, or bicolorous, with antennal grooves entirely dark. Parafacial spot present. Frons and parafacial without small silvery markings. Fronto-orbital plate setulose. Frontal stripe setulose. Eye ratio 1.48. Antenna considerably longer than face. Scape, pedicel, and first flagellomere all relatively elongate, first flagellomere much longer than pedicel. First flagellomere longer than face; rounded apically. Arista as long as first flagellomere, or shorter than first flagellomere; bare or with hairs distinctly shorter than greatest aristal width. Proboscis short, capitate.

Thorax. Inner scapular bristle absent or indistinguishable from surrounding vestiture; dark. Outer scapular bristle present and distinguishable from surrounding vestiture; dark. Postpronotal bristle absent. Presutural dorsocentral bristle absent. Presutural supra-alar bristle absent. Postsutural supra-alar bristle present. Acrostichal bristle absent. Postsutural dorsocentral bristle absent. Intra-alar bristle present, well developed, similar to postalar bristle. Intrapostalar bristles absent. Number of scutellar bristles one pair. The single pair of scutellar bristles apical. Anterior notopleural bristle present. Posterior notopleural bristle(s) acuminate. Number of outstanding anepisternal bristles one. Katepisternal bristles absent. Anepisternal bristles dark, brown to black. Long, erect setulae on laterotergite absent. Scutal setulae acuminate and pale. Scutellum densely setulose. Setulae on scutellum short, decumbent; unicolorous, acuminate. Transverse suture almost complete. Complete sclerotized postcoxal metathoracic bridge present. Scutum fuscous; without a large dark central stripe which broadens basally. Postpronotal lobe entirely pale whitish or yellowish; concolorous with lateral postsutural stripe. Posterior half of notopleuron same as ground color. Scutum dorsad of notopleuron with a pale stripe which extends from the postpronotal lobe dorsad of the anterior notopleuron, not reaching the posterior half of the notopleuron. Dark lyre-like pattern on scutum absent. Discrete shiny black spots on scutum absent. Median longitudinal black stripe on scutum absent. Number of pale whitish to yellow postsutural stripes three. Pale medial postsutural stripe of scutum wedge-shaped. Lateral postsutural stripes of scutum extending to intra-alar bristles or beyond. Area bordering scutoscutellar suture medially without dark brown spot, light colored, or without dark brown spot, brown. Discrete pale horizontal stripe along upper anepisternum absent or indistinct. Distinct pale vertical anepisternal stripe extending to postpronotal lobe. Katepisternite with pale yellowish or whitish spot present and distinct. Transverse suture with pale transverse stripe extending medially from notopleuron anterior to suture, or covered by extension of postsutural lateral stripe. Katatergite with pale yellowish or whitish spot present and distinct. Anatergite with pale yellowish or whitish spot present and distinct. Subscutellum uniformly brown. Mediotergite uniformly brown. Scutum microtrichia in discrete pattern due to density differences (3 narrow non-microtrichose stripes). Dorsum of scutellum flat or slightly convex, not swollen. Scutellum normal; with a dark and pale pattern; with one isolated dark spot; without black mark; without mark.

Legs. Femora slender. Fore femur with spinelike bristles; with 3–4 strong black ventral spines; without major bristles. Mid femur and hind femur without spine-like bristles. Middle leg of male without feathering. Femora all entirely of one color; dark mark on fore femur 40–50–60% of length of femur; dark mark on middle femur 40–50–60% of length of femur; dark mark on hind femur 40–50–60% of length of femur.

Wings. Wing partly bare. Cell bc microtrichia covering whole cell. Cell c microtrichia covering whole cell. Cell dm bare on less than basal one-third. Dense microtrichia at end of vein A1+CuA2 in male absent. Dominant wing pattern costal-banded, or mostly hyaline. Wing pattern mostly yellowish, or mostly brownish. Dark longitudinal streaks through basal cells absent. Costal band complete from wing base to beyond R4+5. Apex of costal band not distinctly expanded. Costal band extending below R4+5; all one color. Crossvein r-m hyaline. Crossvein dm-cu hyaline. Crossveins r-m and dm-cu not both covered by a single crossband. Cell r2+3 apical to r-m entirely infuscated. Anal band absent, or not reaching nearly to wing margin. Cell r1 and r2+3 without darker spots within the pattern. Intercalary band absent. Subbasal crossband absent. Marginal hyaline area in cell r1 absent or indistinct. Ratio of width of apical band in cell r4+5 to length of r-m 0.25–0.5. Anterior apical band or costal band not extended to vein M. Posterior apical crossband absent. Outstanding costal spine(s) at subcostal break absent. Ratio of length of costal section 3 to costal section 4 2. Ratio of pterostigmal length to width 6–7. Vein R1 dorsal setation without bare section opposite end of vein Sc. Vein Rs dorsal setation non-setulose. Vein R2+3 generally straight. Anteriorly-directed accessory vein emerging from R2+3 absent. Vein R4+5 dorsal setation sparse over both sections; ventral setation present. Distance between crossvein r-m and costa shorter than r-m. R-m crossvein on cell dm at or near distal third of cell dm. Cell bm broad, parallel-sided; ratio of length to width 3; ratio of width to cell cup width 1.5. Vein M distally curved anterad. Cell dm widens apically suddenly and strongly, just before crossvein r-m. Posterodistal corner of cell dm approximately a right angle (but anterodistal corner acute). Cell cup extension or lobe present, vein CuA2 abruptly bent; longer than vein A1+CuA2; with parallel margins.

Abdomen. Abdomen petiolate. Abdominal tergites separate. Abdominal petiole made of 1st+2nd tergites together. Abdomen in lateral view flatter, more flexible. Abdominal tergite 1 parallel-sided; without a prominent hump laterally. Pecten of dark bristles on tergite 3 of male absent. Tergal glands on tergite 5 absent. Abdominal tergite 5 normal. 6th tergite of female exposed; shorter than 5th. Abdominal setulae acuminate and pale. Abdominal microtomentum uniform, or absent. Abdominal sternite 5 of male broad, at least 2x wider than long, or less than 2x wider than long, not longer than wide. Posterior margin of sternite 5 of male with deep V-shaped posterior concavity. Abdominal tergites 3–5 predominantly yellow to orange brown. Abdominal tergites without medial dark stripe; not brown with medial T-shaped yellow mark; without isolated dark areas on lateral margins of T3-T5; with dark brown transverse bands which may be interrupted medially.

Male terminalia. Epandrium in posterior view with moderately long outer surstyli, which are up to about half as long as epandrium; lateral view with outer surstyli distinctly narrower than epandrium, clearly differentiated. Distiphallus present; with extensive medial sclerotization; without stout, curved, basal spine; without basal setulose rod. Sclerite of vesica of distiphallus absent.

Female terminalia. Syntergosternite 7 straight; shorter than preabdomen; 1 mm; base without a laterally projecting flap; flattened. Ratio of syntergosternite 7 to abdominal tergite 5 2. Dorsobasal scales of eversible membrane about as large as other scales. Aculeus length 1.2 mm. Aculeus tip gradually tapering, needle-like, with flat cross-section, or trilobed; fused to main part of aculeus, not movable; 0% serrated; not serrate. Two sclerotized spermathecae. Spermathecae tight-set coils.

Miscellaneous. Male attractant: none known.

Oriental. Thailand, w. Malaysia, Philippines.

Dacinae. Dacini.

Illustrations. • Habitus female (dorsal), wing.


Cite this publication as: ‘L.E. Carroll, I.M. White, A. Freidberg, A.L. Norrbom, M.J. Dallwitz, and F.C. Thompson. 2002 onwards. Pest fruit flies of the world. Version: 8th December 2006. http://delta-intkey.com’.

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