Pest Fruit Flies of the World

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L.E. Carroll, I.M. White, A. Freidberg, A.L. Norrbom, M.J. Dallwitz, and F.C. Thompson

Dacus bivittatus (Bigot)

Leptoxys bivittatus Bigot, Dacus armatus var. hulstaerti Collart, Dacus bipartitus Graham, Dacus cucumarius Sack, Dacus rubiginosus Hendel, Dacus pectoralis Walker

Pumpkin fly, Greater pumpkin fly, Two spotted pumpkin fly.

Body. Body a balanced mixture of black and yellow, or predominantly orangish to brown.

Head. Number of frontal bristles two pairs. Number of orbital bristles one pair. Anterior orbital bristle of male normal, unmodified. Posterior orbital bristles reclinate; acuminate. Ocellar bristles absent or minute, like setulae. Postocellar bristles present (minute). With both inner and outer vertical bristles. Outer vertical, postvertical and postocellar bristles all acuminate. Postocular bristles acuminate; reduced in number and size, hardly detectable in 25x. Genal bristle present. Head higher than long. Male and female head width the same. Frontofacial angle about equal to a right angle and angular. Face flat; with distinct antennal grooves and carina; shorter than frons; vertical; with dark spots in antennal furrows (oval). Parafacial spot absent. Frons and parafacial without small silvery markings. Fronto-orbital plate setulose. Frontal stripe setulose. Eye ratio 1.50. Antenna considerably longer than face. Scape, pedicel, and first flagellomere all relatively elongate, first flagellomere much longer than pedicel. First flagellomere longer than face; rounded apically. Arista longer than first flagellomere; bare or with hairs distinctly shorter than greatest aristal width. Proboscis short, capitate.

Thorax. Inner scapular bristle present and distinguishable from surrounding vestiture; dark, or pale. Outer scapular bristle present and distinguishable from surrounding vestiture; dark. Postpronotal bristle absent. Presutural dorsocentral bristle absent. Presutural supra-alar bristle absent. Postsutural supra-alar bristle present. Acrostichal bristle absent. Postsutural dorsocentral bristle absent. Intra-alar bristle present, well developed, similar to postalar bristle. Intrapostalar bristles absent. Number of scutellar bristles one pair. The single pair of scutellar bristles apical. Anterior notopleural bristle present. Posterior notopleural bristle(s) acuminate. Number of outstanding anepisternal bristles one. Katepisternal bristles absent. Anepisternal bristles dark, brown to black. Long, erect setulae on laterotergite absent. Scutal setulae acuminate and pale. Scutellum densely setulose. Setulae on scutellum short, decumbent; unicolorous, acuminate. Transverse suture with the lateral branches wide apart. Complete sclerotized postcoxal metathoracic bridge present. Scutum red-brown, or black with orange to red-brown areas (slightly blackened before suture and more so posteriorly); without a large dark central stripe which broadens basally. Postpronotal lobe entirely pale whitish or yellowish, or predominantly of the ground color; concolorous with lateral postsutural stripe (occasionally), or darker than lateral postsutural stripe (reddish, mostly with anterior yellow spot). Posterior half of notopleuron pale whitish or yellowish. Scutum dorsad of notopleuron of the ground color, not whitish or yellowish. Dark lyre-like pattern on scutum absent. Discrete shiny black spots on scutum absent. Median longitudinal black stripe on scutum absent. Number of pale whitish to yellow postsutural stripes three (well developed, relatively wide). Pale medial postsutural stripe of scutum linear. Lateral postsutural stripes of scutum ending anterior to intra-alar bristles. Area bordering scutoscutellar suture medially without dark brown spot, light colored. Discrete pale horizontal stripe along upper anepisternum absent or indistinct. Distinct pale vertical anepisternal stripe extending to notopleuron, or extending halfway between posterior half of notopleuron and anterior notopleural bristle. Katepisternite with pale yellowish or whitish spot present and distinct. Transverse suture covered by extension of postsutural lateral stripe. Katatergite with pale yellowish or whitish spot present and distinct. Anatergite with pale yellowish or whitish spot present and distinct. Subscutellum uniformly brown. Mediotergite uniformly brown. Scutum entirely microtrichose, microtrichia evenly distributed, or at most with small presutural, medial bare area, or microtrichia in discrete pattern due to density differences. Dorsum of scutellum flat or slightly convex, not swollen. Scutellum normal; without a dark and pale pattern (at most a narrow dark basal line); with no isolated dark spots; without black mark; without mark.

Legs. Femora slender. Fore femur without bristles; without ventral spines; without major bristles. Mid femur and hind femur without spine-like bristles. Middle leg of male without feathering. Femora at least one femur markedly darker in apical part than in basal part; dark mark on fore femur 40–60% of length of femur; dark mark on middle femur 50–60% of length of femur; dark mark on hind femur 30–40% of length of femur.

Wings. Wing partly bare. Cell bc microtrichia present in apical area only. Cell c microtrichia covering whole cell. Cell dm bare on less than basal one-third. Dense microtrichia at end of vein A1+CuA2 in male present. Dominant wing pattern costal-banded. Wing pattern mostly brownish. Dark longitudinal streaks through basal cells absent. Costal band complete from wing base to beyond R4+5. Costal band extending below R4+5; all one color. Crossvein r-m covered by short, diffuse infuscation, or covered or mostly covered by broad costal band. Crossvein dm-cu hyaline. Crossveins r-m and dm-cu not both covered by a single crossband. Cell r2+3 apical to r-m entirely infuscated. Anal band present, reaching nearly to wing margin along cell cup extension. Cell r1 and r2+3 without darker spots within the pattern. Intercalary band absent. Subbasal crossband absent. Marginal hyaline area in cell r1 absent or indistinct. Ratio of width of apical band in cell r4+5 to length of r-m 0.5–1.5. Anterior apical crossband contiguous with costa over entire length, without marginal hyaline band or spots apically in cells r1 and r2+3. Anterior apical band or costal band extended to vein M, or not extended to vein M. Posterior apical crossband absent. Discal band transverse, or oblique in anterobasal-posteroapical direction, or absent. Outstanding costal spine(s) at subcostal break absent. Ratio of length of costal section 3 to costal section 4 0.9. Ratio of pterostigmal length to width 6. Vein R1 dorsal setation without bare section opposite end of vein Sc. Vein Rs dorsal setation non-setulose. Vein R2+3 generally straight. Anteriorly-directed accessory vein emerging from R2+3 absent. Vein R4+5 dorsal setation dense over at least proximal section; ventral setation present. Distance between crossvein r-m and costa equal to r-m. R-m crossvein on cell dm at or near distal third of cell dm. Cell bm broad, parallel-sided; ratio of length to width 2.5; ratio of width to cell cup width 2. Vein M distally curved anterad. Cell dm widens apically gradually from base. Posterodistal corner of cell dm approximately a right angle, or distinctly obtuse. Cell cup extension or lobe present, vein CuA2 abruptly bent; longer than vein A1+CuA2; with parallel margins.

Abdomen. Abdomen ovate or parallel sided. Abdominal tergites fused. Abdomen in lateral view arched, dome-like, rather rigid. Abdominal tergite 1 broader at apex than at base; without a prominent hump laterally. Pecten of dark bristles on tergite 3 of male present. Tergal glands on tergite 5 present. Abdominal tergite 5 normal. 6th tergite of female normally concealed; shorter than 5th. Abdominal setulae acuminate and pale. Abdominal microtomentum uniform. Abdominal sternite 5 of male less than 2x wider than long, not longer than wide. Posterior margin of sternite 5 of male with shallow posterior concavity. Abdominal tergites 3–5 predominantly yellow to orange brown, or predominantly black. Abdominal tergites with medial dark stripe on T3-T5 and a transverse dark line on T3 (marks are faint, brown & diffuse if present), or with medial dark stripe, usually on T3-T5, or without medial dark stripe; with broadly contiguous dark areas on lateral margins of T3-T5 (diffuse, brown), or without isolated dark areas on lateral margins of T3-T5.

Male terminalia. Epandrium in posterior view with long outer surstyli, which are more than half as long as epandrium; lateral view with outer surstyli distinctly narrower than epandrium, clearly differentiated. Posterior lobe of surstylus short or absent.

Female terminalia. Syntergosternite 7 straight; shorter than preabdomen; base without a laterally projecting flap; flattened. Ratio of syntergosternite 7 to abdominal tergite 5 0.8. Dorsobasal scales of eversible membrane about as large as other scales. Aculeus tip gradually tapering, needle-like, with flat cross-section; fused to main part of aculeus, not movable; 0% serrated; not serrate. Two sclerotized spermathecae. Spermathecae tight-set coils.

Miscellaneous. Male attractant: Cue-Lure.

Afrotropical. Senegal E to Kenya, S to South Africa.

Dacinae. Dacini.

Illustrations. • Habitus male (dorsal), wing. • Wing.


Cite this publication as: ‘L.E. Carroll, I.M. White, A. Freidberg, A.L. Norrbom, M.J. Dallwitz, and F.C. Thompson. 2002 onwards. Pest fruit flies of the world. Version: 8th December 2006. http://delta-intkey.com’.

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