Pest Fruit Flies of the World
Tephritis capitata Wiedemann, Ceratitis citriperda MacLeay, Ceratitis hispanica Breme, Pardalaspis asparagi Bezzi
Mediterranean fruit fly, Med fly.
Body. Body plump; a balanced mixture of black and yellow.
Head. Number of frontal bristles two pairs. Number of orbital bristles one pair (some males), or two pairs. Anterior orbital bristle of male modified: prolonged and apically broadened (dark). Posterior orbital bristles reclinate; acuminate. Ocellar bristles long, about as long as frontal bristles. Postocellar bristles present. With both inner and outer vertical bristles. Outer vertical, postvertical and postocellar bristles all acuminate. Postocular bristles acuminate; normal. Genal bristle present. Head higher than long. Male and female head width the same. Frontofacial angle about equal to a right angle and angular. Face concave; without transverse sulcus, antennal grooves, or carina; about as long as frons; vertical; without dark marks. Parafacial spot present (usually). Frons and parafacial without small silvery markings. Fronto-orbital plate setulose. Frontal stripe setulose. Eye round, about as high or slightly higher than long. Antenna considerably shorter than face. Scape, pedicel, and first flagellomere all relatively short. First flagellomere shorter than face; rounded apically. Arista longer than first flagellomere; bare or with hairs distinctly shorter than greatest aristal width, or pubescent, with hairs about as long as greatest aristal width; hairs both dorsal and ventral. Proboscis short, capitate.
Thorax. Inner scapular bristle present and distinguishable from surrounding vestiture; pale. Outer scapular bristle present and distinguishable from surrounding vestiture; pale. Postpronotal bristle present. Presutural dorsocentral bristle absent. Presutural supra-alar bristle present. Postsutural supra-alar bristle present. Acrostichal bristle present. Postsutural dorsocentral bristle present; bristles aligned with postsutural supra-alar bristles or slightly behind. Intra-alar bristle present, well developed, similar to postalar bristle. Intrapostalar bristles absent. Number of scutellar bristles two pairs. Apical scutellar bristles 50%-90% as long as basals. Anterior notopleural bristle present. Posterior notopleural bristle(s) acuminate. Number of outstanding anepisternal bristles one. Katepisternal bristles present. Anepisternal bristles dark, brown to black. Long, erect setulae on laterotergite absent. Scutal setulae acuminate and pale. Scutellum sparsely setulose. Setulae on scutellum long, erect; unicolorous, acuminate. Transverse suture with the lateral branches wide apart. Complete sclerotized postcoxal metathoracic bridge absent or semimembranous. Scutum fuscous, or black; without a large dark central stripe which broadens basally. Postpronotal lobe pale whitish or yellowish, with a large central dark spot. Posterior half of notopleuron pale whitish or yellowish. Scutum dorsad of notopleuron of the ground color, not whitish or yellowish. Dark lyre-like pattern on scutum absent. Discrete shiny black spots on scutum present. Median longitudinal black stripe on scutum absent. Number of pale whitish to yellow postsutural stripes five. Pale medial postsutural stripe of scutum wedge-shaped, or linear, bilobed posteriorly (median stripe fused posteriorly to short sublateral (dorsocentral) stripes). Lateral postsutural stripes of scutum short, ending anterior to or near level of postsutural supra-alar bristles. Area bordering scutoscutellar suture medially without dark brown spot, light colored. Discrete pale horizontal stripe along upper anepisternum present and distinct, extending from postpronotal lobe to wing base, or absent or indistinct. Distinct pale vertical anepisternal stripe absent. Katepisternite with pale yellowish or whitish spot absent or indistinct. Transverse suture covered by extension of postsutural lateral stripe. Katatergite with pale yellowish or whitish spot present and distinct. Anatergite with pale yellowish or whitish spot present and distinct. Mediotergite uniformly brown, or yellowish to orange-brown medially, with distinct dark spots laterally. Scutum microtrichia in discrete pattern due to density differences, or microtrichia in discrete pattern due to bare areas or completely absent. Dorsum of scutellum convex and swollen. Scutellum normal; with a dark and pale pattern; with one isolated dark spot (1 apical (=fusion of 3 spots) + 4 basal); with a basal triangular black mark that does not extend to apex, or with a black mark extending to apex, leaving only lateral areas pale.
Legs. Femora slender (male), or swollen (female). Fore femur with regular bristles; without ventral spines; with more than 4 conspicuous rows of bristles. Mid femur and hind femur without spine-like bristles. Middle leg of male without feathering. Femora all entirely of one color; dark mark on fore femur 0% of length of femur; dark mark on middle femur 0% of length of femur; dark mark on hind femur 0% of length of femur.
Wings. Wing partly bare. Cell bc microtrichia covering whole cell. Cell c microtrichia covering whole cell. Cell dm entirely microtrichose. Dense microtrichia at end of vein A1+CuA2 in male absent. Dominant wing pattern cross-banded. Crossbanded wing patterns Ceratitis-like. Wing pattern mostly yellowish, or mostly brownish. Dark longitudinal streaks through basal cells present. Crossvein r-m covered by a major crossband. Crossvein dm-cu covered by a major crossband which reaches posterior margin of wing. Crossveins r-m and dm-cu not both covered by a single crossband. Cell r2+3 apical to r-m with large hyaline area. Anal band absent, or not reaching nearly to wing margin. Cell r1 and r2+3 with distinctly darker spots within dark areas of pattern. Intercalary band absent. Subbasal crossband present. Subbasal and discal crossbands not joined. Marginal hyaline area in cell r1 present and distinct. Ratio of width of apical band in cell r4+5 to length of r-m 0.75–1. Anterior apical crossband partly to entirely separated from costa by marginal hyaline band or spots. Anterior apical band or costal band not extended to vein M. Posterior apical crossband absent. Discal band transverse, or oblique in anterobasal-posteroapical direction, or absent. Discal and apical crossbands not directly joined. Discal and subapical crossbands not joined. Discal and subapical bands not connected along vein R4+5. Subapical and anterior apical crossbands not joined, subapical crossband not reaching costa. Outstanding costal spine(s) at subcostal break present. Ratio of length of costal section 3 to costal section 4 0.35–0.4. Ratio of pterostigmal length to width 1.5–1.75. Vein R1 dorsal setation without bare section opposite end of vein Sc. Vein Rs dorsal setation non-setulose. Vein R2+3 generally straight. Anteriorly-directed accessory vein emerging from R2+3 absent. Vein R4+5 dorsal setation sparse over both sections; ventral setation absent or only present on node or close thereafter. Distance between crossvein r-m and costa longer than r-m. R-m crossvein on cell dm at or near middle of cell dm. Cell bm narrow, triangular; ratio of length to width 2.2–2.5; ratio of width to cell cup width 1. Vein M distally straight. Cell dm widens apically gradually from base. Posterodistal corner of cell dm distinctly acute. Cell cup extension or lobe present, vein CuA2 abruptly bent; shorter than vein A1+CuA2; constricted in the middle.
Abdomen. Abdomen ovate or parallel sided. Abdominal tergites separate. Abdomen in lateral view flatter, more flexible. Abdominal tergite 1 broader at apex than at base; without a prominent hump laterally. Pecten of dark bristles on tergite 3 of male absent. Tergal glands on tergite 5 absent. Abdominal tergite 5 normal. 6th tergite of female normally concealed, or exposed (strap-like); shorter than 5th. Abdominal setulae mixed dark and pale acuminate. Abdominal microtomentum in bands. Abdominal sternite 5 of male less than 2x wider than long, not longer than wide. Posterior margin of sternite 5 of male with shallow posterior concavity. Abdominal tergites 3–5 predominantly yellow to orange brown. Abdominal tergites without medial dark stripe; not brown with medial T-shaped yellow mark; without isolated dark areas on lateral margins of T3-T5; without dark brown transverse bands.
Male terminalia. Epandrium in posterior view with moderately long outer surstyli, which are up to about half as long as epandrium; lateral view with outer surstyli distinctly narrower than epandrium, clearly differentiated. Distiphallus present; without basolateral membranous lobe; with extensive medial sclerotization; without stout, curved, basal spine; without basal setulose rod. Sclerite of vesica of distiphallus absent.
Female terminalia. Syntergosternite 7 straight; shorter than preabdomen; base without a laterally projecting flap; flattened. Ratio of syntergosternite 7 to abdominal tergite 5 1. Dorsobasal scales of eversible membrane about as large as other scales. Aculeus tip gradually tapering, needle-like, with flat cross-section; fused to main part of aculeus, not movable; 0% serrated; not serrate. Two sclerotized spermathecae. Spermathecae tight-set coils.
Miscellaneous. Male attractant: Tri-Med-Lure, terpinyl acetate.
Neotropical, Palearctic, Afrotropical, Australasian-Oceanian. Widespread tropical Africa, Madagascar; introduced Mauritius, Reunion, Seychelles, North Africa, s. Europe, Middle East, Neotropics (Guatemala to Argentina), w. Australia, Hawaii.
Illustrations. • Habitus male (dorsal), wing. • Wing. • Thorax (dorsal).
Cite this publication as: ‘L.E. Carroll, I.M. White, A. Freidberg, A.L. Norrbom, M.J. Dallwitz, and F.C. Thompson. 2002 onwards. Pest fruit flies of the world. Version: 8th December 2006. http://delta-intkey.com’.