Pest Fruit Flies of the World

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L.E. Carroll, I.M. White, A. Freidberg, A.L. Norrbom, M.J. Dallwitz, and F.C. Thompson

Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

Dacus dorsalis Hendel, Chaetodacus ferrugineus var. okinawanus Shiraki, Musca ferruginea Fabricius

Oriental fruit fly.

Body. Body predominantly black or dark fuscous, or a balanced mixture of black and yellow.

Head. Number of frontal bristles two pairs. Number of orbital bristles one pair. Anterior orbital bristle of male normal, unmodified. Posterior orbital bristles reclinate; acuminate. Ocellar bristles absent or minute, like setulae. Postocellar bristles present (minute). With both inner and outer vertical bristles. Outer vertical, postvertical and postocellar bristles all acuminate. Postocular bristles acuminate; reduced in number and size, hardly detectable in 25x. Genal bristle present. Head higher than long. Male and female head width the same. Frontofacial angle much greater than a right angle and rounded. Face undulating, convex above, concave below; with transverse sulcus, or with distinct antennal grooves and carina; about as long as frons; vertical; with dark spots in antennal furrows. Parafacial spot absent. Frons and parafacial without small silvery markings. Fronto-orbital plate setulose. Frontal stripe setulose. Eye elongate, considerably higher than long. Antenna about as long as face, or considerably longer than face (antennal segments 0.20, 0.35, 0.90; face length 0.53). Scape, pedicel, and first flagellomere scape and pedicel short, first flagellomere elongate. First flagellomere longer than face; rounded apically. Arista longer than first flagellomere; bare or with hairs distinctly shorter than greatest aristal width. Proboscis short, capitate.

Thorax. Inner scapular bristle present and distinguishable from surrounding vestiture; dark. Outer scapular bristle present and distinguishable from surrounding vestiture; dark. Postpronotal bristle absent. Presutural dorsocentral bristle absent. Presutural supra-alar bristle absent. Postsutural supra-alar bristle present. Acrostichal bristle present. Postsutural dorsocentral bristle absent. Intra-alar bristle present, well developed, similar to postalar bristle. Intrapostalar bristles absent. Number of scutellar bristles one pair. The single pair of scutellar bristles apical. Anterior notopleural bristle present. Posterior notopleural bristle(s) acuminate. Number of outstanding anepisternal bristles one. Katepisternal bristles absent. Anepisternal bristles dark, brown to black. Long, erect setulae on laterotergite absent. Scutal setulae acuminate and pale. Scutellum densely setulose. Setulae on scutellum short, decumbent; unicolorous, acuminate. Transverse suture with the lateral branches wide apart. Complete sclerotized postcoxal metathoracic bridge present. Scutum black with orange to red-brown areas, or black; without a large dark central stripe which broadens basally. Postpronotal lobe entirely pale whitish or yellowish; concolorous with lateral postsutural stripe. Posterior half of notopleuron pale whitish or yellowish. Scutum dorsad of notopleuron of the ground color, not whitish or yellowish. Dark lyre-like pattern on scutum absent. Discrete shiny black spots on scutum absent. Median longitudinal black stripe on scutum absent. Number of pale whitish to yellow postsutural stripes two (lateral). Lateral postsutural stripes of scutum extending to intra-alar bristles or beyond (beyond). Area bordering scutoscutellar suture medially with dark brown spot, or without dark brown spot, light colored, or without dark brown spot, brown. Distinct pale vertical anepisternal stripe extending halfway between posterior half of notopleuron and anterior notopleural bristle (/3?). Katepisternite with pale yellowish or whitish spot present and distinct. Transverse suture without distinct stripe or spot. Katatergite with pale yellowish or whitish spot present and distinct. Anatergite with pale yellowish or whitish spot present and distinct. Mediotergite uniformly black (Drew & Hancock 1994), or yellowish to orange-brown medially, with distinct dark spots laterally (~LEC). Scutum microtrichia in discrete pattern due to density differences. Dorsum of scutellum flat or slightly convex, not swollen. Scutellum normal; without a dark and pale pattern (at most a narrow dark basal line); with no isolated dark spots; without black mark; without mark.

Legs. Femora slender. Fore femur with regular bristles; without ventral spines; with 1 to 3 posterodorsal and 1 posteroventral rows of bristles only. Mid femur and hind femur without spine-like bristles. Middle leg of male without feathering. Femora all entirely of one color; dark mark on fore femur 0% of length of femur; dark mark on middle femur 0% of length of femur; dark mark on hind femur 0% of length of femur.

Wings. Wing partly bare. Cell bc microtrichia absent. Cell c microtrichia present in apical area. Cell dm entirely microtrichose. Dense microtrichia at end of vein A1+CuA2 in male present. Dominant wing pattern costal-banded. Wing pattern mostly brownish. Dark longitudinal streaks through basal cells absent. Costal band colored from Sc to beyond R4+5. Apex of costal band not distinctly expanded. Costal band not extending below R2+3, or extending below R2+3 (very slightly); all one color. Crossvein r-m hyaline. Crossvein dm-cu hyaline. Crossveins r-m and dm-cu not both covered by a single crossband. Cell r2+3 apical to r-m with large hyaline area. Anal band present, reaching nearly to wing margin along cell cup extension. Cell r1 and r2+3 without darker spots within the pattern. Intercalary band absent. Subbasal crossband absent. Marginal hyaline area in cell r1 absent or indistinct. Ratio of width of apical band in cell r4+5 to length of r-m 0.25–0.33. Anterior apical band or costal band not extended to vein M. Posterior apical crossband absent. Outstanding costal spine(s) at subcostal break absent. Ratio of length of costal section 3 to costal section 4 1.1–1.2. Ratio of pterostigmal length to width 4.25. Vein R1 dorsal setation without bare section opposite end of vein Sc. Vein Rs dorsal setation non-setulose. Vein R2+3 generally straight. Anteriorly-directed accessory vein emerging from R2+3 absent. Vein R4+5 dorsal setation dense over at least proximal section; ventral setation present. Distance between crossvein r-m and costa equal to r-m to shorter than r-m. Cell bm broad, parallel-sided; ratio of length to width 1.8–1.9; ratio of width to cell cup width 2.5. Vein M distally straight (?). Cell dm widens apically gradually from base. Posterodistal corner of cell dm approximately a right angle. Cell cup extension or lobe present, vein CuA2 abruptly bent; longer than vein A1+CuA2; with parallel margins.

Abdomen. Abdomen ovate or parallel sided. Abdominal tergites separate. Abdomen in lateral view arched, dome-like, rather rigid. Abdominal tergite 1 broader at apex than at base; without a prominent hump laterally. Pecten of dark bristles on tergite 3 of male present. Tergal glands on tergite 5 present. Abdominal tergite 5 normal. 6th tergite of female normally concealed; shorter than 5th. Abdominal setulae acuminate and pale. Abdominal microtomentum absent. Posterior margin of sternite 5 of male with deep V-shaped posterior concavity. Abdominal tergites 3–5 predominantly yellow to orange brown. Abdominal tergites with medial dark stripe on T3-T5 and a transverse dark line on T3; not brown with medial T-shaped yellow mark; with broadly contiguous dark areas on lateral margins of T3-T5 (narrow), or with separate dark areas on anterolateral margins of T3-T5 (variable); with dark brown transverse bands which may be interrupted medially.

Male terminalia. Epandrium in posterior view with moderately long outer surstyli, which are up to about half as long as epandrium, or with long outer surstyli, which are more than half as long as epandrium; lateral view with outer surstyli distinctly narrower than epandrium, clearly differentiated. Posterior lobe of surstylus short or absent.

Female terminalia. Syntergosternite 7 straight; shorter than preabdomen; 1.3–1.35 mm; base without a laterally projecting flap; flattened. Ratio of syntergosternite 7 to abdominal tergite 5 0.7–0.75 (Drew & Hancock 1994; LEC). Dorsobasal scales of eversible membrane about as large as other scales. Aculeus length 1.4–1.6 mm. Aculeus tip gradually tapering, needle-like, with flat cross-section; fused to main part of aculeus, not movable; 0% serrated; not serrate. Two sclerotized spermathecae. Spermathecae tight-set coils.

Miscellaneous. Male attractant: methyl eugenol.

Oriental, Australasian-Oceanian. India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, s. China (Sichuan, Guizhou, Hunan, Fujian, Yunnan, Guangxi, Guangdong, Hong Kong, Hainan), Burma, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, Taiwan; introduced Mauritius, Hawaii, Nauru, Guam; eradicated from Japan (Ryukyu Is.) & N. Marianas.

Dacinae. Dacini.

Illustrations. • Habitus female (dorsal), wing. • Wing.


Cite this publication as: ‘L.E. Carroll, I.M. White, A. Freidberg, A.L. Norrbom, M.J. Dallwitz, and F.C. Thompson. 2002 onwards. Pest fruit flies of the world. Version: 8th December 2006. http://delta-intkey.com’.

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