Pest Fruit Flies of the World


L.E. Carroll, I.M. White, A. Freidberg, A.L. Norrbom, M.J. Dallwitz, and F.C. Thompson

Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann)

Dacus fraterculus Wiedemann, Anastrepha braziliensis Greene, Anastrepha costarukmanii Capoor, Anastrepha fraterculus var. soluta Bezzi, Anastrepha lambayecae Korytkowski & Ojeda, Anastrepha peruviana Townsend, Anastrepha pseudofraterculus Capoor, Anastrepha scholae Capoor, Anthomyia frutalis Weyenbergh, Tephritis mellea Walker, Trypeta unicolor Loew

South American fruit fly.

Body. Body predominantly yellow, or predominantly orangish to brown.

Head. Number of frontal bristles three pairs, or four or more pairs. Number of orbital bristles two pairs. Anterior orbital bristle of male normal, unmodified. Posterior orbital bristles reclinate; acuminate. Ocellar bristles absent or minute, like setulae. Postocellar bristles present. With both inner and outer vertical bristles. Outer vertical, postvertical and postocellar bristles all acuminate. Postocular bristles acuminate; normal. Genal bristle present. Head higher than long. Male and female head width the same. Frontofacial angle about equal to a right angle and angular, or much greater than a right angle and rounded. Face concave; with distinct antennal grooves and carina; about as long as frons, or shorter than frons; with ventral part projected; without dark marks. Parafacial spot absent. Frons and parafacial without small silvery markings. Fronto-orbital plate setulose. Frontal stripe setulose. Eye elongate, considerably higher than long. Antenna considerably shorter than face, or about as long as face. Scape, pedicel, and first flagellomere all relatively short. First flagellomere shorter than face; rounded apically. Arista longer than first flagellomere; pubescent, with hairs about as long as greatest aristal width; hairs both dorsal and ventral. Proboscis short, capitate.

Thorax. Inner scapular bristle present and distinguishable from surrounding vestiture, or absent or indistinguishable from surrounding vestiture; dark. Outer scapular bristle present and distinguishable from surrounding vestiture; dark. Postpronotal bristle present. Presutural dorsocentral bristle absent. Presutural supra-alar bristle present. Postsutural supra-alar bristle present. Acrostichal bristle present. Postsutural dorsocentral bristle present; bristles approximately aligned with or posterior to post-alar bristles. Intra-alar bristle present, well developed, similar to postalar bristle. Intrapostalar bristles absent. Number of scutellar bristles two pairs. Apical scutellar bristles as long as basals or longer, or 50%-90% as long as basals. Anterior notopleural bristle present. Posterior notopleural bristle(s) acuminate. Number of outstanding anepisternal bristles one, or two (usually). Katepisternal bristles present (usually), or absent. Anepisternal bristles dark, brown to black. Long, erect setulae on laterotergite absent. Scutellum sparsely setulose. Setulae on scutellum short, decumbent; unicolorous, acuminate. Transverse suture with the lateral branches wide apart. Complete sclerotized postcoxal metathoracic bridge absent or semimembranous. Scutum yellowish, or orange-brown; without a large dark central stripe which broadens basally. Postpronotal lobe entirely pale whitish or yellowish, or predominantly of the ground color; concolorous with lateral postsutural stripe. Posterior half of notopleuron same as ground color. Scutum dorsad of notopleuron of the ground color, not whitish or yellowish, or with a pale stripe which extends from the postpronotal lobe dorsad of the anterior notopleuron, not reaching the posterior half of the notopleuron (normally 1, all faint). Dark lyre-like pattern on scutum absent. Discrete shiny black spots on scutum absent. Median longitudinal black stripe on scutum absent. Number of pale whitish to yellow postsutural stripes three, or zero. Pale medial postsutural stripe of scutum linear, or linear, with posterior part expanded, ovoid or triangular. Lateral postsutural stripes of scutum extending to intra-alar bristles or beyond. Scutum without blackish dorsocentral stripe. Area bordering scutoscutellar suture medially with dark brown spot, or without dark brown spot, light colored. Discrete pale horizontal stripe along upper anepisternum present and distinct, extending from postpronotal lobe to wing base, or absent or indistinct. Distinct pale vertical anepisternal stripe extending to postpronotal lobe, or absent. Katepisternite with pale yellowish or whitish spot present and distinct, or absent or indistinct. Transverse suture covered by extension of postsutural lateral stripe, or without distinct stripe or spot. Katatergite with pale yellowish or whitish spot present and distinct, or absent or indistinct. Anatergite with pale yellowish or whitish spot present and distinct, or absent or indistinct. Subscutellum yellowish to orange-brown medially, with distinct dark spots laterally. Mediotergite yellowish to orange-brown medially, with distinct dark spots laterally. Scutum entirely microtrichose, microtrichia evenly distributed, or at most with small presutural, medial bare area. Dorsum of scutellum flat or slightly convex, not swollen. Scutellum normal; with no isolated dark spots; without black mark; without mark.

Legs. Femora slender. Fore femur with regular bristles; without ventral spines; with 1 to 3 posterodorsal and 1 posteroventral rows of bristles only. Mid femur and hind femur without spine-like bristles. Middle leg of male without feathering. Femora all entirely of one color; dark mark on fore femur 0% of length of femur; dark mark on middle femur 0% of length of femur; dark mark on hind femur 0% of length of femur.

Wings. Wing partly bare. Cell bc microtrichia absent, or present in apical area only, or covering whole cell, or present on anterior margin only. Cell c microtrichia covering whole cell, or present except posterior or posteromedial bare area. Cell bm microtrichose only on narrow subapical streak. Cell dm bare on less than basal one-third. Cell cup with large anterior bare area (usually), or entirely microtrichose. Dense microtrichia at end of vein A1+CuA2 in male absent. Dominant wing pattern cross-banded. Crossbanded wing patterns Anastrepha-like. Wing pattern mostly yellowish, or mostly brownish. Dark longitudinal streaks through basal cells absent. Costal band colored from wing base to cell sc. Apex of costal band not distinctly expanded. Costal band all one color, or pterostigma darker. Crossvein r-m covered by a major crossband. Crossvein dm-cu covered by a major crossband which reaches posterior margin of wing. Crossveins r-m and dm-cu not both covered by a single crossband. Cell r2+3 apical to r-m with large hyaline area. Cell r1 and r2+3 with distinctly darker spots within dark areas of pattern, or without darker spots within the pattern. Intercalary band absent. Subbasal crossband absent. Subbasal and discal crossbands not joined. Marginal hyaline area in cell r1 present and distinct. Ratio of width of apical band in cell r4+5 to length of r-m 0.39–0.86 (usually less than 0.75). Anterior apical crossband contiguous with costa over entire length, without marginal hyaline band or spots apically in cells r1 and r2+3. Anterior apical band or costal band not extended to vein M. Posterior apical crossband present; not fused to subapical or anterior apical bands, or fused to subapical band. Costal and discal bands joined on vein R4+5, or not joined on vein R4+5. Discal band strongly oblique in posterobasal-anteroapical direction, extended from apex of cell cup, across r-m to middle of cell r1. Discal and apical crossbands directly joined. Discal and subapical crossbands joined along anterior wing margin or along vein R4+5, or not joined. Discal and subapical bands connected along vein R4+5, or not connected along vein R4+5. Subapical and anterior apical crossbands not joined, subapical crossband not reaching costa. Outstanding costal spine(s) at subcostal break present. Ratio of length of costal section 3 to costal section 4 0.38–0.56. Ratio of pterostigmal length to width 3–3.7. Vein R1 dorsal setation without bare section opposite end of vein Sc. Vein Rs dorsal setation setulose. Vein R2+3 generally straight. Anteriorly-directed accessory vein emerging from R2+3 absent. Vein R4+5 dorsal setation dense over at least proximal section; ventral setation present, or absent or only present on node or close thereafter. Distance between crossvein r-m and costa longer than r-m. R-m crossvein on cell dm at or near middle of cell dm, or at or near distal third of cell dm (at about two-thirds). Cell bm narrow, triangular; ratio of length to width 3; ratio of width to cell cup width 1–1.3. Vein M distally curved anterad. Cell dm widens apically gradually from base. Posterodistal corner of cell dm approximately a right angle. Cell cup extension or lobe present, vein CuA2 abruptly bent; shorter than vein A1+CuA2; triangular, or with parallel margins.

Abdomen. Abdomen ovate or parallel sided. Abdominal tergites separate. Abdomen in lateral view flatter, more flexible. Abdominal tergite 1 broader at apex than at base; without a prominent hump laterally. Pecten of dark bristles on tergite 3 of male absent. Tergal glands on tergite 5 absent. Abdominal tergite 5 normal. 6th tergite of female exposed; shorter than 5th. Abdominal setulae acuminate and dark, or acuminate and pale, or mixed dark and pale acuminate. Abdominal microtomentum uniform, or absent. Abdominal sternite 5 of male less than 2x wider than long, not longer than wide. Abdominal tergites 3–5 predominantly yellow to orange brown. Abdominal tergites without medial dark stripe; not brown with medial T-shaped yellow mark; without isolated dark areas on lateral margins of T3-T5; without dark brown transverse bands.

Male terminalia. Epandrium in posterior view with long outer surstyli, which are more than half as long as epandrium; lateral view with outer surstyli distinctly narrower than epandrium, clearly differentiated. Outer surstylus shape in posterior view long, slightly tapered, somewhat truncate apically. Aedeagus length 2.7–3.2 mm; ratio of length to mesonotum length 0.9–1.1. Distiphallus present; with basolateral membranous lobe; mostly membranous medially, with small subapical sclerites; without stout, curved, basal spine; without basal setulose rod. Sclerite of vesica of distiphallus present, isolated, T-shaped.

Female terminalia. Syntergosternite 7 straight; shorter than preabdomen; 1.65–2.15 mm; base with a laterally projecting flap; tubular. Ratio of syntergosternite 7 length to mesonotum length 0.59–0.75. Dorsobasal scales of eversible membrane numerous, very large, hook-like, in triangular pattern. Aculeus length 1.5–1.95 mm; tip length 0.21–0.3 mm; tip width 0.12–0.15 mm; shaft parallel-sided except extreme base. Aculeus tip gradually tapering, but with medial constriction; fused to main part of aculeus, not movable; 50–67% serrated; with minute serration, visible only with compound microscope, or with numerous fine to medium sized serrations. Three sclerotized spermathecae. Spermathecae ovoid.

Miscellaneous. Male attractant: none known.

Nearctic, Neotropical. Northern Mexico (Tamaulipas) S to northern Argentina, Trinidad; introduced Galapagos Is.; occasionally trapped in past in USA (southern Texas), but not currently established.

Trypetinae. Toxotrypanini. Anastrepha fraterculus appears to be a complex of several cryptic species.

Illustrations. • Habitus male (dorsal), wing. • Wing. • Wing. • Female terminalia, male terminalia.

Cite this publication as: ‘L.E. Carroll, I.M. White, A. Freidberg, A.L. Norrbom, M.J. Dallwitz, and F.C. Thompson. 2002 onwards. Pest fruit flies of the world. Version: 8th December 2006.’.