Pest Fruit Flies of the World

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L.E. Carroll, I.M. White, A. Freidberg, A.L. Norrbom, M.J. Dallwitz, and F.C. Thompson

Adrama determinata (Walker)

Dacus determinatus Walker, Acanthipeza maculifrons Rondani, Dacus cylindricus Wulp

Body. Body elongate; a balanced mixture of black and yellow.

Head. Number of frontal bristles two pairs, or three pairs (occasionally). Number of orbital bristles one pair, or two pairs (occasionally). Anterior orbital bristle of male normal, unmodified. Posterior orbital bristles reclinate; acuminate. Ocellar bristles absent or minute, like setulae. Postocellar bristles absent. With both inner and outer vertical bristles, or with only inner vertical bristles. Outer vertical, postvertical and postocellar bristles all acuminate. Postocular bristles acuminate; reduced in number and size, hardly detectable in 25x. Genal bristle absent or indistinguishable. Head higher than long. Male and female head width the same. Frontofacial angle about equal to a right angle and angular, or much greater than a right angle and rounded. Face concave; without transverse sulcus, antennal grooves, or carina; shorter than frons; vertical; with a transverse band, or bicolorous, with ventral part black. Parafacial spot absent. Frons and parafacial without small silvery markings. Fronto-orbital plate setulose. Frontal stripe setulose. Eye round, about as high or slightly higher than long. Antenna about as long as face. Scape, pedicel, and first flagellomere all relatively short. First flagellomere shorter than face, or as long as face; rounded apically. Arista longer than first flagellomere; plumose, with hairs at least half as long as first flagellomere width (short); hairs both dorsal and ventral. Proboscis short, capitate.

Thorax. Inner scapular bristle present and distinguishable from surrounding vestiture, or absent or indistinguishable from surrounding vestiture; dark. Outer scapular bristle present and distinguishable from surrounding vestiture, or absent or indistinguishable from surrounding vestiture; dark. Postpronotal bristle absent. Presutural dorsocentral bristle absent. Presutural supra-alar bristle absent. Postsutural supra-alar bristle present. Acrostichal bristle absent. Postsutural dorsocentral bristle absent. Intra-alar bristle present, well developed, similar to postalar bristle. Intrapostalar bristles absent. Number of scutellar bristles two pairs. Apical scutellar bristles as long as basals or longer. Anterior notopleural bristle present. Posterior notopleural bristle(s) acuminate. Number of outstanding anepisternal bristles one. Katepisternal bristles absent. Anepisternal bristles dark, brown to black. Long, erect setulae on laterotergite present. Scutal setulae acuminate, mixed dark and pale. Scutellum densely setulose. Setulae on scutellum short, decumbent; unicolorous, acuminate. Transverse suture with the lateral branches wide apart. Complete sclerotized postcoxal metathoracic bridge present. Scutum black; without a large dark central stripe which broadens basally. Postpronotal lobe entirely pale whitish or yellowish, or posterior one-half to two-thirds pale whitish or yellowish; concolorous with lateral postsutural stripe. Posterior half of notopleuron pale whitish or yellowish (orange-brown). Scutum dorsad of notopleuron of the ground color, not whitish or yellowish. Dark lyre-like pattern on scutum absent. Discrete shiny black spots on scutum absent. Median longitudinal black stripe on scutum absent. Number of pale whitish to yellow postsutural stripes one, or three (three, but lateral pair orange-brown). Pale medial postsutural stripe of scutum linear. Lateral postsutural stripes of scutum extending to intra-alar bristles or beyond. Area bordering scutoscutellar suture medially without dark brown spot, light colored. Discrete pale horizontal stripe along upper anepisternum absent or indistinct. Distinct pale vertical anepisternal stripe extending to anterior notopleural bristle. Katepisternite with pale yellowish or whitish spot present and distinct. Transverse suture with pale transverse stripe extending medially from notopleuron anterior to suture, or covered by extension of postsutural lateral stripe. Katatergite with pale yellowish or whitish spot present and distinct. Anatergite with pale yellowish or whitish spot absent or indistinct. Subscutellum uniformly black. Mediotergite uniformly black. Scutum microtrichia in discrete pattern due to bare areas or completely absent; microtrichia absent or at most present on or lateral to postsutural lateral white stripe, along posterior margin, and/or along transverse suture. Dorsum of scutellum flat or slightly convex, not swollen. Scutellum normal; with a dark and pale pattern; with no isolated dark spots; with a basal triangular black mark that does not extend to apex; without mark.

Legs. Femora slender. Fore femur with spinelike bristles, or without bristles; without ventral spines, or with 1 strong black ventral spine; without major bristles. Mid femur and hind femur with anteroventral and posteroventral rows of small, stout, spine-like bristles. Middle leg of male without feathering. Femora all entirely of one color; dark mark on fore femur 0% of length of femur; dark mark on middle femur 0% of length of femur; dark mark on hind femur 0% of length of femur.

Wings. Wing partly bare. Cell bc microtrichia absent. Cell c microtrichia present in apical area. Cell dm entirely microtrichose. Dense microtrichia at end of vein A1+CuA2 in male absent. Dominant wing pattern cross-banded. Crossbanded wing patterns with bands extensively fused, distorted, or greatly reduced. Wing pattern mostly brownish. Dark longitudinal streaks through basal cells absent. Crossvein r-m covered by a major crossband. Crossvein dm-cu covered by a major crossband which reaches posterior margin of wing. Crossveins r-m and dm-cu not both covered by a single crossband. Cell r2+3 apical to r-m with large hyaline area. Anal band absent, or not reaching nearly to wing margin. Cell r1 and r2+3 without darker spots within the pattern. Intercalary band absent. Subbasal crossband absent. Marginal hyaline area in cell r1 present and distinct. Ratio of width of apical band in cell r4+5 to length of r-m 3–4. Anterior apical crossband contiguous with costa over entire length, without marginal hyaline band or spots apically in cells r1 and r2+3. Anterior apical band or costal band extended to vein M. Posterior apical crossband absent. Discal band transverse, or oblique in anterobasal-posteroapical direction, or absent. Discal and apical crossbands not directly joined. Discal and subapical crossbands not joined. Discal and subapical bands not connected along vein R4+5. Subapical and anterior apical crossbands joined. Outstanding costal spine(s) at subcostal break absent. Ratio of length of costal section 3 to costal section 4 0.25. Ratio of pterostigmal length to width 3. Vein R1 dorsal setation without bare section opposite end of vein Sc. Vein Rs dorsal setation non-setulose. Vein R2+3 generally straight. Anteriorly-directed accessory vein emerging from R2+3 absent. Vein R4+5 dorsal setation sparse, over proximal section only; ventral setation absent or only present on node or close thereafter. Distance between crossvein r-m and costa longer than r-m. R-m crossvein on cell dm at or near middle of cell dm. Cell bm narrow, triangular; ratio of length to width 5; ratio of width to cell cup width 0.8–1. Vein M distally curved anterad, or straight. Cell dm widens apically gradually from base. Posterodistal corner of cell dm distinctly acute, or approximately a right angle. Cell cup extension or lobe present, vein CuA2 abruptly bent; shorter than vein A1+CuA2; triangular.

Abdomen. Abdomen petiolate, or ovate or parallel sided. Abdominal tergites separate. Abdominal petiole made of 1st+2nd tergites together. Abdomen in lateral view flatter, more flexible. Abdominal tergite 1 broader at apex than at base (female), or parallel-sided (male); without a prominent hump laterally. Pecten of dark bristles on tergite 3 of male absent. Tergal glands on tergite 5 absent. Abdominal tergite 5 normal. 6th tergite of female exposed; shorter than 5th. Abdominal setulae acuminate and dark, or acuminate and pale. Abdominal microtomentum uniform, or absent. Abdominal sternite 5 of male narrow, longer than wide. Posterior margin of sternite 5 of male with shallow posterior concavity. Abdominal tergites 3–5 predominantly yellow to orange brown. Abdominal tergites without medial dark stripe; not brown with medial T-shaped yellow mark; without isolated dark areas on lateral margins of T3-T5; without dark brown transverse bands.

Male terminalia. Epandrium in posterior view with moderately long outer surstyli, which are up to about half as long as epandrium; lateral view with outer surstyli a continuation of the epandrium.

Female terminalia. Syntergosternite 7 straight; shorter than preabdomen; 2.6 mm; base without a laterally projecting flap; conical. Ratio of syntergosternite 7 to abdominal tergite 5 2. Dorsobasal scales of eversible membrane about as large as other scales (?). Aculeus tip pointed, with preapical shoulder; fused to main part of aculeus, not movable. Three sclerotized spermathecae. Spermathecae ovoid.

Miscellaneous. Male attractant: none known.

Oriental. Malaysia (w., Sabah, Sarawak), Singapore, Philippines, Indonesia (E to Sulawesi).

Trypetinae. Adramini.

Illustrations. • Habitus male (dorsal), wing. • Head. • Wing. • Wing. • Female terminalia. • Female terminalia. • Male terminalia.


Cite this publication as: ‘L.E. Carroll, I.M. White, A. Freidberg, A.L. Norrbom, M.J. Dallwitz, and F.C. Thompson. 2002 onwards. Pest fruit flies of the world. Version: 8th December 2006. http://delta-intkey.com’.

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