Pest Fruit Flies of the World
Musca helianthi Rossi, Trypeta eluta Meigen
Body. Body plump; predominantly black or dark fuscous.
Head. Number of frontal bristles two pairs to three pairs. Number of orbital bristles two pairs. Anterior orbital bristle of male normal, unmodified. Posterior orbital bristles reclinate; lanceolate and pale. Ocellar bristles long, about as long as frontal bristles. Postocellar bristles present. With both inner and outer vertical bristles. Outer vertical, postvertical and postocellar bristles all lanceolate and pale. Postocular bristles lanceolate; normal. Genal bristle present. Head about as long as high. Male and female head width the same. Frontofacial angle about equal to a right angle and angular. Face concave; without transverse sulcus, antennal grooves, or carina; shorter than frons; vertical; without dark marks. Parafacial spot absent. Frons and parafacial without small silvery markings. Fronto-orbital plate setulose. Frontal stripe non-setulose. Eye round, about as high or slightly higher than long. Antenna considerably shorter than face. Scape, pedicel, and first flagellomere all relatively short. First flagellomere as long as face; pointed dorsoapically. Arista longer than first flagellomere; pubescent, with hairs about as long as greatest aristal width; hairs both dorsal and ventral. Proboscis short, capitate.
Thorax. Inner scapular bristle absent or indistinguishable from surrounding vestiture; pale. Outer scapular bristle absent or indistinguishable from surrounding vestiture; pale. Postpronotal bristle present. Presutural dorsocentral bristle absent. Presutural supra-alar bristle present. Postsutural supra-alar bristle present. Acrostichal bristle present. Postsutural dorsocentral bristle present; bristles on or just behind transverse suture. Intra-alar bristle present, well developed, similar to postalar bristle. Intrapostalar bristles absent. Number of scutellar bristles two pairs. Apical scutellar bristles less than half as long as basals. Anterior notopleural bristle present. Posterior notopleural bristle(s) acuminate (anterior), or lanceolate (posterior). Number of outstanding anepisternal bristles one. Katepisternal bristles present. Anepisternal bristles pale, yellowish (very light brown). Long, erect setulae on laterotergite absent. Scutal setulae acuminate and pale, or lanceolate and pale. Scutellum sparsely setulose. Setulae on scutellum short, decumbent; unicolorous, acuminate. Transverse suture with the lateral branches wide apart. Complete sclerotized postcoxal metathoracic bridge absent or semimembranous. Scutum black; without a large dark central stripe which broadens basally. Postpronotal lobe entirely pale whitish or yellowish. Posterior half of notopleuron same as ground color. Scutum dorsad of notopleuron of the ground color, not whitish or yellowish. Dark lyre-like pattern on scutum absent. Discrete shiny black spots on scutum tiny, associated with alveoli. Median longitudinal black stripe on scutum absent. Number of pale whitish to yellow postsutural stripes zero. Scutum without blackish dorsocentral stripe. Area bordering scutoscutellar suture medially without dark brown spot, light colored, or without dark brown spot, brown. Discrete pale horizontal stripe along upper anepisternum absent or indistinct. Distinct pale vertical anepisternal stripe absent. Katepisternite with pale yellowish or whitish spot absent or indistinct. Transverse suture without distinct stripe or spot. Katatergite with pale yellowish or whitish spot absent or indistinct. Anatergite with pale yellowish or whitish spot absent or indistinct. Subscutellum uniformly black. Mediotergite uniformly black. Scutum entirely microtrichose, microtrichia evenly distributed, or at most with small presutural, medial bare area. Dorsum of scutellum flat or slightly convex, not swollen. Scutellum normal; without a dark and pale pattern (at most a narrow dark basal line); with no isolated dark spots; entirely black.
Legs. Femora slender. Fore femur with regular bristles; without ventral spines; with 1 to 3 posterodorsal and 1 posteroventral rows of bristles only. Mid femur and hind femur without spine-like bristles. Middle leg of male without feathering. Femora all entirely of one color; dark mark on fore femur 0% of length of femur; dark mark on middle femur 0% of length of femur; dark mark on hind femur 0% of length of femur.
Wings. Wing with microtrichia covering entire wing. Cell bc microtrichia covering whole cell. Cell c microtrichia covering whole cell. Cell dm entirely microtrichose. Dense microtrichia at end of vein A1+CuA2 in male absent. Dominant wing pattern reticulate, or stellate, or mostly hyaline. Crossbanded wing patterns with bands extensively fused, distorted, or greatly reduced. Wing pattern mostly brownish, or mostly blackish. Dark longitudinal streaks through basal cells absent. Crossvein r-m covered by short, diffuse infuscation, or covered by short, well-defined infuscation, or covered by a major crossband. Cell r2+3 apical to r-m with large hyaline area. Anal band absent, or not reaching nearly to wing margin. Cell r1 and r2+3 without darker spots within the pattern. Intercalary band absent. Subbasal crossband absent. Marginal hyaline area in cell r1 present and distinct. Posterior apical crossband absent. Discal band transverse, or oblique in anterobasal-posteroapical direction, or absent. Outstanding costal spine(s) at subcostal break present. Ratio of length of costal section 3 to costal section 4 0.5. Ratio of pterostigmal length to width 3. Vein R1 dorsal setation with bare section opposite end of vein Sc (usually), or without bare section opposite end of vein Sc. Vein Rs dorsal setation non-setulose. Vein R2+3 generally straight. Anteriorly-directed accessory vein emerging from R2+3 absent. Vein R4+5 dorsal setation absent; ventral setation absent or only present on node or close thereafter. Distance between crossvein r-m and costa longer than r-m. R-m crossvein on cell dm at or near distal third of cell dm. Cell bm narrow, triangular; ratio of length to width 3.5–4; ratio of width to cell cup width 1. Vein M distally straight. Cell dm widens apically gradually from base. Posterodistal corner of cell dm approximately a right angle. Cell cup extension or lobe present, vein CuA2 abruptly bent; shorter than vein A1+CuA2; triangular.
Abdomen. Abdomen ovate or parallel sided. Abdominal tergites separate. Abdomen in lateral view flatter, more flexible. Abdominal tergite 1 broader at apex than at base; without a prominent hump laterally. Pecten of dark bristles on tergite 3 of male absent. Tergal glands on tergite 5 absent. Abdominal tergite 5 normal. 6th tergite of female exposed; longer than 5th. Abdominal setulae acuminate and pale, or lanceolate and pale. Abdominal microtomentum uniform. Abdominal sternite 5 of male less than 2x wider than long, not longer than wide. Posterior margin of sternite 5 of male with shallow posterior concavity. Abdominal tergites 3–5 predominantly black. Abdominal tergites without medial dark stripe; not brown with medial T-shaped yellow mark; without isolated dark areas on lateral margins of T3-T5; without dark brown transverse bands.
Male terminalia. Epandrium in posterior view rounded or oval, including the short, undifferentiated outer surstyli, or with moderately long outer surstyli, which are up to about half as long as epandrium. Distiphallus present; without basolateral membranous lobe; mostly membranous medially, with small subapical sclerites; with stout, curved, basal spine; with basal setulose rod. Sclerite of vesica of distiphallus absent.
Female terminalia. Syntergosternite 7 straight; shorter than rest of body, but longer than preabdomen; 5 mm; base without a laterally projecting flap; flattened. Ratio of syntergosternite 7 to abdominal tergite 5 5. Dorsobasal scales of eversible membrane about as large as other scales. Aculeus tip gradually tapering, needle-like, with flat cross-section; fused to main part of aculeus, not movable; 0% serrated; not serrate. Two sclerotized spermathecae.
Miscellaneous. Male attractant: none known.
Palearctic, Afrotropical, Oriental. Europe, Russia, Central Asia, Mongolia, China (Xinjiang, Beijing), Madeira Is., Canary Is., Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Israel, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Thailand.
Illustrations. • Habitus female (lateral and dorsal). • Habitus female (dorsal), wing. • Wing.
Cite this publication as: ‘L.E. Carroll, I.M. White, A. Freidberg, A.L. Norrbom, M.J. Dallwitz, and F.C. Thompson. 2002 onwards. Pest fruit flies of the world. Version: 8th December 2006. http://delta-intkey.com’.