Pest Fruit Flies of the World

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L.E. Carroll, I.M. White, A. Freidberg, A.L. Norrbom, M.J. Dallwitz, and F.C. Thompson

Character List

Synonymy #1. <Synonymy:>/

#2. <Common name:>/

Body #3. Body <shape, excluding genitalia>/

1. elongate/

2. plump/

Specimens are recorded as “elongate” only if the body (excluding genitalia) is distinctly elongate (e.g. Toxotrypana, Euphranta, and Dacus (Callantra)).

Taxa which are intermediate between the two figured body forms have been left unrecorded in the dataset. This means they will not be eliminated from the taxa under consideration on the basis of how you record your specimen. We felt it would be less misleading to leave these unrecorded, than to record both states.

Other characters may not yet reflect this philosophy of leaving the character unrecorded when all states could be interpreted as applying. There is at present no way to distinguish actual variability among specimens from variability in the subjective interpretation of states when more than one state is recorded.

#4. Body <color>/

1. predominantly yellow/

2. predominantly black or dark fuscous/

3. a balanced mixture of black and yellow/

4. predominantly orangish to brown/

Our coding has attempted to reflect seasonal or geographic variation in populations, insofar as such variation could be determined. However, we have generally not taken into account age variation: teneral specimens are generally paler than fully hardened ones.

Additionally, microtomentum (particularly on tephritines) can obscure the ground color, causing the specimen to appear fuzzy gray or yellowish gray: look for the color beneath the microtomentum.

Evaluation of overall body color can also be very subjective when extensive color patterns create figure/ground perception problems: which is the ground color? If there is any doubt, or if there are any states which definitely do not apply to your specimen, then just select the states that could reasonably apply to your specimen.

Other characters deal with thorax color and abdomen color independently. If you find you are relying extensively on color characters, you may wish to use the “Set error tolerance” button to enhance the reliability of your final determination.

Head #5. Number of frontal bristles/

1. one pair/

2. two pairs/

3. three pairs/

4. four or more pairs/

5. zero/

Frontal bristles are located on the lateral part of the frons, near the eye, and are almost always acuminate and inclinate. There are usually 2–3 pairs, but there may be only 1 or as many as 5 or more. They may be modified into large, erect, often truncate bristles which arise on a ridge, giving a crown-like appearance in the males of some species (e.g., Strauzia longipennis) in several genera.

If frontal bristles are absent, check the following attributes to be sure you have a tephritid fly: 1) Subcosta incomplete, abruptly bent toward costa near apex; 2) Wing with costal vein twice-broken (at the humeral crossvein and at the end of the subcosta); 3) Cell cup usually with an extension in the postero-distal corner; 4) Ovipositor strongly sclerotized, adapted for piercing.

#6. Number of orbital bristles/

1. one pair/

2. two pairs/

3. three or more pairs/

4. zero/

Orbital bristles are located on the orbital plate, anterior to the inner vertical bristle. There are usually 1–2 pairs. They are usually acuminate and reclinate, but the posterior pair may also be inclinate (Paraterellia, Xyphosia, & Terelliini) or lanceolate (pale and “stubby”) (Tephritinae), or the anterior pair may be capitate and proclinate (males of some Ceratitis spp.).

#7. Anterior <or single> orbital bristle of male <shape>/

1. normal, unmodified/

2. modified: prolonged and apically broadened/

Capitate orbital bristles are characteristic of males of some Ceratitis species, including C. capitata (MedFly). The exact shape of the capitate part varies among the species.

#8. Posterior <or single> orbital bristles <orientation>/

1. mesoclinate <Terellinae; Paraterellia; Xyphosia>/

2. reclinate/

Orbital bristles are located on the orbital plate, anterior to the inner vertical bristle. There are usually 1–2 pair. They are usually reclinate, but the posterior pair may also be inclinate (Paraterellia, Xyphosia, and Terelliini). Males of some Ceratitis species have a single, capitate, proclinate bristle, while the female has 2 reclinate bristles.

#9. Posterior <or single> orbital bristles <shape>/

1. acuminate/

2. lanceolate and pale/

Orbital bristles are located on the orbital plate, anterior to the inner vertical bristle. There are usually 1–2 pair. They are usually acuminate, but may also be lanceolate (usually pale and “stubby”-appearing) in Tephritinae.

#10. Ocellar bristles <length>/

1. long, about as long as frontal bristles/

2. short, distinctly shorter than frontal bristles/

3. absent or minute, like setulae/

Ocellar bristles are located on or immediately adjacent to the ocellar triangle.

Frontal bristles are located on the frontal plate, near the eye, and are almost always acuminate and inclinate.

#11. Postocellar bristles <presence>/

1. present/

2. absent/

The postocellar bristles are located on the occiput behind the ocellar triangle; they are often minute and scarcely distinguishable from setulae.

#12. <Vertical bristles, position>/

1. with both inner and outer vertical bristles/

2. with only inner vertical bristles/

3. with only outer vertical bristles/

The two (inner and outer) vertical bristles are located on the vertex near the medial corner of the eye.

#13. Outer vertical, postvertical and postocellar bristles <shape>/

1. all acuminate/

2. – outer vertical bristles acuminate, postvertical and postocellar bristles lanceolate and pale/

3. all lanceolate and pale/

The postocellar bristles are located on the occiput behind the ocellar triangle; they are often minute and scarcely distinguishable from setulae.

The outer vertical bristle is located on the vertex near the medial corner of the eye, and medial to the postocular row of bristles.

The postvertical bristles are located on the occiput behind the inner vertical bristle.

“Lanceolate” bristles are distinctly stubby in appearance, rather than hair-like (acuminate).

#14. Postocular bristles <shape>/

1. acuminate/

2. lanceolate/

3. intermixed acuminate and lanceolate/

Post-ocular bristles are located in a row behind the posterior margin of the eye. The “lanceolate” bristles have a distinctly stubby appearance and are usually pale whitish; “acuminate” bristles are more hair-like and are often dark, sometimes pale, but not whitish.

#15. Postocular bristles <size>/

1. normal/

2. reduced in number and size, hardly detectable in 25x/

Postocular bristles are located in a row behind the posterior margin of the eye. In some cases, the postocular bristles have been recorded as reduced because they are extremely sparse, rather than particularly fine.

#16. Genal bristle <presence>/

1. present/

2. absent or indistinguishable/

The genal bristle is located on the gena below the eye. Tephritidae usually have a single bristle, but there may be numerous long setulae in the vicinity. Do not confuse this bristle with the posteriorly-directed gular bristle, or with the vibrissa of some non-tephritid families.

#17. Head <shape>/

1. higher than long/

2. about as long as high/

3. longer than high/

Head height is measured from vertex to genae and excludes mouthparts; head length is measured from face to occipital foramen and excludes the antenna.

#18. <Sexual dimorphism in head width>/

1. male head much wider than female head/

2. male and female head width the same/

#19. Frontofacial angle <shape>/

1. less than a right angle and strongly projected/

2. about equal to a right angle and angular/

3. much greater than a right angle and rounded/

In general the frontofacial angle is determined based on the plane of the frontal bristles and the plane of the face as defined by the point above the antenna and a point on the face at half the height of the face; however, an extremely well developed boss on the mesofrons may also give a rounded appearance.

#20. Face <profile>/

1. concave/

2. flat/

3. convex/

4. undulating, convex above, concave below/

The overall shape of the face is recorded. “Concave”, “flat”, and “convex” refer to the curvature of a vertical line at mid-face. The presence of a transverse sulcus may cause this line to be convex above and concave below.

#21. Face <shape in frontal view>/

1. with transverse sulcus/

2. with distinct antennal grooves and carina/

3. without transverse sulcus, antennal grooves, or carina/

A more or less distinct transverse sulcus or groove is often found about halfway between the antennal sockets and the oral margin, and often causes the face profile to appear convex above and more or less concave below the sulcus (see “face (profile)”), although this undulant profile is not always accompanied by a sulcus. Distinct antennal grooves are considered as setting off a median raised area or “carina” even when no actual keel-like ridge is present.

#22. Face <height>/

1. longer than frons/

2. about as long as frons/

3. shorter than frons/

Measure the face from just above the antenna to the oral margin at mid-face. Measure the frons from the lunule to the vertex.

#23. Face <orientation>/

1. with ventral part projected/

2. vertical/

3. receding/

Facial orientation as defined here is the degree to which the genal groove (marked by a row of small setulae) exceeds (“projecting”), meets (“vertical”), or fails to meet (“receding”) the projection of a line connecting the base of the antenna with the mid-face.

#24. Face <markings>/

1. without dark marks/

2. with dark spots in antennal furrows/

3. with spots on transverse sulcus extended medially/

4. with a transverse band/

5. bicolorous, with ventral part black/

6. black/

7. bicolorous, with antennal grooves entirely dark/

8. with lateral and central dark spots/

Most Trypetinae, Ceratitini, and Tephritinae have the face without dark marks, while most Dacini have dark spots in the antennal furrows. In some species there is a transverse dark band either at mid-face or at the oral margin; other species have the face entirely or almost entirely black.

#25. Parafacial spot <presence>/

1. present/

2. absent/

The parafacial is the area between the ptilinal suture and the eye. The parafacial spot is a dark spot located opposite the base of the antenna. This does NOT refer to dark spots associated with the bases of the frontal bristles.

#26. Frons and parafacial <presence of small silvery markings>/

1. with small silvery markings/

2. without small silvery markings/

These are distinct markings of silvery microtomentum.

#27. Fronto-orbital plate <vestiture>/

1. setulose/

2. non-setulose/

Parafrontal setulae are located near the eye, among the frontal bristles.

#28. Frontal stripe <vestiture>/

1. setulose/

2. non-setulose/

Mesofrontal setulae are located on the mesofrons, between the rows of frontal bristles.

#29. Eye <shape>/

1. round, about as high or slightly higher than long <height to length ratio 1–1.5>/

2. elongate, considerably higher than long <height to length ratio 1.5–2>/

Measure eye height (maximum diameter) vs. width (minimum diameter) as seen in profile.

#30. Antenna <length>/

1. considerably shorter than face <up to two-thirds>/

2. about as long as face/

3. considerably longer than face <at least 1.25x>/

Measure the antenna from the base of the scape to the tip of the first flagellomere. Measure the face from just above the antenna to the oral margin at mid-face.

#31. Scape, pedicel, and first flagellomere <length>/

1. all relatively short <relative to face>/

2. scape and pedicel short, first flagellomere elongate/

3. all relatively elongate, first flagellomere much longer than pedicel/

4. scape short, pedicel and first flagellomere elongate and subequal/

The antennal segments, from base to apex, are: scape, pedicel, and flagellum. The flagellum consists of the first flagellomere (often called the “third antennal segment” and the hair-like arista.

Most tephritids have the scape, pedicel, and first flagellomere short relative to the face (state 1). In Bactrocera, Dacus, Monacrostichus, Munromyia, and Zacerata, however, some or all of these segments are more elongate (states 2–4).

#32. First flagellomere <length>/

1. shorter than face/

2. as long as face/

3. longer than face/

Measure the face from just above the antenna to the oral margin at mid-face.

#33. First flagellomere <shape>/

1. rounded apically/

2. pointed dorsoapically/

The dorsoapical point of the first flagellomere may be a small tubercle not visible from a strictly lateral view, especially in Rhagoletis, Carpomya, Myiopardalis and Zonosemata; in most other genera the first flagellomere is rounded.

#34. Arista <length>/

1. as long as first flagellomere/

2. longer than first flagellomere/

3. shorter than first flagellomere/

Measure the greatest length of the first flagellomere.

#35. Arista <vestiture>/

1. bare or with hairs distinctly shorter than greatest aristal width/

2. pubescent, with hairs about as long as greatest aristal width/

3. plumose, with hairs at least half as long as first flagellomere width/

Short-plumose arista (with hairs about twice the width of the base of the arista to about half the width of the first flagellomere) are recorded as plumose.

#36. Arista hairs <placement>/

1. dorsal only/

2. both dorsal and ventral/

Check the hairs at the base of the arista.

#37. Proboscis <length>/

1. short, capitate/

2. elongate, geniculate <some Tephritinae>/

3. reduced, almost vestigial <some Oedaspidini>/

The proboscis is usually capitate, with a stout haustellum and large labella. In a few species the haustellum is greatly elongate and geniculate, in others the proboscis is reduced and nearly vestigial.

Thorax #38. Inner scapular bristle <presence>/

1. present and distinguishable from surrounding vestiture/

2. absent or indistinguishable from surrounding vestiture/

The inner scapular bristle is a small bristle located near the anterior margin of the scutum near the midline.

#39. Inner scapular bristle <color>/

1. dark/

2. pale/

The inner scapular bristle is a small bristle located near the anterior margin of the scutum near the midline. If the bristles are pale brownish, both states are recorded.

#40. Outer scapular bristle <presence>/

1. present and distinguishable from surrounding vestiture/

2. absent or indistinguishable from surrounding vestiture/

The outer scapular bristle is a small bristle located near the anterior margin of the scutum near the anterior, mesal corner of the postpronotal lobe.

#41. Outer scapular bristle <color>/

1. dark/

2. pale/

The outer scapular bristle is a small bristle located near the anterior margin of the scutum near the anterior, mesal corner of the postpronotal lobe. If the bristles are pale brownish, both states are recorded.

#42. Postpronotal bristle <presence>/

1. present/

2. absent/

The postpronotal bristle is located on the postpronotal (=humeral) lobe. In taxa where it may be present but minute, both states are recorded.

#43. Presutural dorsocentral bristle <presence>/

1. present/

2. absent/

The presutural dorsocentral bristle is located between the transverse suture and the anterior margin of the scutum, on a line lateral to the acrostichal bristle and mesal to the intra-alar bristle.

Presutural dorsocentral bristles are present in only a few tephritids; these species usually also have at least some of the bristles or setulae pale and lanceolate (stubby-appearing).

#44. Presutural supra-alar bristle <presence>/

1. present/

2. absent/

The presutural supra-alar bristle is located laterally on the scutum anterior to the transverse suture, near the level of the anterior notopleural bristle.

#45. Postsutural supra-alar bristle <presence>/

1. present/

2. absent/

The postsutural supra-alar (=anterior supra-alar) bristle is located above the base of the wing, behind the transverse suture. Occasionally there is also a supernumerary postsutural supra-alar bristle (e.g., Bactrocera tsuneonis).

Do not count the postalar bristle, which is sometimes called the posterior supra-alar bristle.

#46. Acrostichal bristle <presence>/

1. present/

2. absent/

The acrostichal bristle (=prescutellar bristle) is located anterior to the scuto-scutellar suture, near the midline.

Confusion could arise when the acrostichal bristle is absent and the dorsocentral bristle is present (as in Toxotrypana spp.), versus acrostichals present and dorsocentrals absent (many Bactrocera spp.); however, the habitus of these two groups is distinctive.

#47. Postsutural dorsocentral bristle <presence>/

1. present/

2. absent/

The postsutural dorsocentral bristle is located between the transverse suture and the scuto-scutellar suture, on a line lateral to the acrostichal bristle and mesal to the intra-alar bristle, in most Tephritidae other than Dacini (in which it is absent). The exact location of the bristle is also useful for identification purposes (see “postsutural dorsocentral bristles (position)”).

A presutural dorsocentral bristle is also present in a few species (see “presutural dorsocentral bristle (presence)”).

#48. Postsutural dorsocentral bristles <position>/

1. on or just behind transverse suture/

2. between transverse suture and postsutural supra-alar bristles/

3. aligned with postsutural supra-alar bristles or slightly behind/

4. about midway between postsutural supra-alar and post-alar bristles/

5. approximately aligned with or posterior to post-alar bristles/

The postsutural dorsocentral bristle is located on a longitudinal line between the acrostichal and intra-alar bristles. Its position on this line varies from close to the transverse suture to near the scuto-scutellar suture. It is absent in the Dacini and a few other Tephritidae. The postsutural supra-alar (=anterior supra-alar) bristle is located above the base of the wing, behind the transverse suture. The postalar bristle is the lateral-most bristle on the posterior part of the scutum, and lateral to the intra-alar bristle. State 5 includes those taxa in which the dorsocentral bristle is no farther anterior to the postalar bristles than 1/3 of the distance between the postalar bristle and the postsutural supra-alar.

If your specimen seems to fit state 5 and the acrostichal bristle appears to be absent, be sure you have not mistaken the dorsocentral bristle (red) for the acrostichal (green). Toxotrypana spp. may have the dorsocentral but not the acrostichal; females have a distinctive long curved syntergosternite. Many Bactrocera spp. have the acrostichal but all lack the dorsocentral bristle; males usually have a pecten of bristles on the third abdominal tergite.

#49. Intra-alar bristle <presence>/

1. present, well developed, similar to postalar bristle/

2. absent, or minute, about twice as long as nearby setulae/

The postalar and intra-alar bristles are located on the scutum behind the postsutural supra-alar bristle, above and behind the wing, but lateral to the dorsocentral bristle. The postalar bristle is the more lateral of the two. The intra-alar bristle has been referred to as the “inner postalar” in the some publications.

#50. Intrapostalar bristles <presence>/

1. present/

2. absent/

The intrapost-alar bristle(s) are located just anterior to the scuto-scutellar suture, slightly lateral to the line of the dorsocentral bristles, and mesal to the intra-alar bristle. If present, they are usually small.

#51. Number of scutellar bristles/

1. one pair/

2. two pairs/

3. three pairs <Acanthonevrini>/

4. four to six pairs <Xarnuta>/

Scutellar bristles (usually 1–2 pairs) are located along the margin of the scutellum. Acanthonevrini and a few species of other Trypetinae have 3–6 pairs. They are not to be confused with well developed setulae which may also occur near the margin, but which lack well developed alveoli.

#52. The single pair of scutellar bristles <position>/

1. apical/

2. basal/

Basal scutellar bristles are absent in many Dacini, while apical scutellars are absent or greatly reduced in some Tephritinae. In the event the bristles are broken off, look for well developed alveoli (sockets).

#53. Apical scutellar bristles <length>/

1. as long as basals or longer/

2. 50%-90% as long as basals/

3. less than half as long as basals/

Measure each bristle from base to tip (not by the comparative extent of their tips in relation to the apex of the scutellum).

#54. Anterior notopleural bristle <presence>/

1. present/

2. absent/

The anterior notopleural bristle is absent in Dacus arcuatus.

#55. Posterior notopleural bristle(s) <shape>/

1. acuminate/

2. lanceolate/

“Acuminate” bristles are hair-like; “lanceolate” bristles are swollen and stubby in appearance.

#56. Number of outstanding anepisternal bristles/

1. one/

2. two/

3. three to five/

4. zero/

The anepisternal (=mesopleural) bristles are located in a vertical row on the anepisternum, anterior to the wing base. Some anepisternal bristles grade into setulae; if in doubt about what constitutes an “outstanding” bristle, give a range of values.

#57. Katepisternal bristles <presence>/

1. present/

2. absent/

The katepisternal (=sternopleural) bristle is located on the katepisternum near the posteroventral corner of the anepisternum. Tephritidae have at most 1 katepisternal bristle.

#58. Anepisternal bristles <color>/

1. dark, brown to black/

2. pale, yellowish/

The anepisternal (=mesopleural) bristles are located in a vertical row on the anepisternum, anterior to the wing base. “Pale” includes both pale acuminate and pale lanceolate (stubby) bristles.

#59. Long, erect setulae on laterotergite <presence>/

1. present <Adramini>/

2. absent/

The laterotergite (= katatergite + anatergite) of Adraminae bears long, fine, erect setulae, which are difficult to see. The best view is usually obtained by looking under the wing from behind the scutellum, so the light can glint off the hairs. These long, fine hairs should not be confused with the dense, short setulae which also may occur on the laterotergite.

#60. Scutal setulae <shape and coloration>/

1. acuminate and dark/

2. acuminate and pale/

3. lanceolate and pale/

4. acuminate, mixed dark and pale/

Mixed dark and pale setulae may be difficult to discern if one color predominates, or if reflectance causes dark setulae to appear light.

#61. Scutellum <vestiture>/

1. non-setulose/

2. sparsely setulose/

3. densely setulose <similar to scutum>/

Scutal setulae should be examined in anterior as well as posterior view. Most tephritids have the scutellum sparsely setulose, while in Dacini it is as densely setulose as the scutum. The scutellum was recorded as “bare” only when there were no setulae at all, or only one or two which might be easily rubbed off.

#62. Setulae on scutellum <length>/

1. long, erect/

2. short, decumbent/

“Long, erect” setulae are distinctly longer than setulae of the scutum, and not at all decumbent. Select “short, decumbent” if scutellar setulae are similar to those of the scutum.

#63. Setulae on scutellum <color, shape>/

1. unicolorous, acuminate/

2. some strikingly pale, lanceolate/

Intermixed dark acuminate + pale lanceolate (stubby-appearing) is meant here.

#64. Transverse suture <completeness>/

1. almost complete/

2. with the lateral branches wide apart/

The transverse suture is almost complete in Monacrostichus citricola; all other known Tephritidae have the lateral branches widely separated.

#65. Complete sclerotized postcoxal metathoracic bridge <presence>/

1. present/

2. absent or semimembranous/

The presence or absence of a complete sclerotized postcoxal metathoracic bridge can be difficult to determine if the surrounding sclerotized parts of the cuticle are pale.

#66. Scutum <ground color, other than stripes, bands, or spots>/

1. yellowish <Terelliini>/

2. orange-brown/

3. red-brown/

4. fuscous/

5. black with orange to red-brown areas/

6. black/

This refers to the ground color, not to stripes, bands, or spots. If the colour seems intermediate between “orange-brown” and “red-brown”, select both states.

#67. Scutum <pattern>/

1. with a large dark central stripe which broadens basally, reaching the sides of the scutum/

2. without a large dark central stripe which broadens basally/

#68. Postpronotal lobe <color>/

1. entirely pale whitish or yellowish <markedly lighter than ground color>/

2. posterior one-half to two-thirds pale whitish or yellowish/

3. predominantly of the ground color <not pale whitish or yellowish>/

4. pale whitish or yellowish, with a large central dark spot/

Generally, “pale” means distinctly bright yellowish to whitish. A fulvous postpronotal lobe with a fulvous ground color, or a dark postpronotal lobe with a dark ground color is thus recorded as “predominantly of the ground color”. A bright yellowish to whitish postpronotal lobe with a fulvous to dark ground color is recorded as one of the “pale” alternatives. However, if the postpronotal lobe is fulvous to orange-brown and the ground color is very dark, you may want to select both states, and also use the character “postpronotal lobe (color compared with lateral postsutural stripe)”, if applicable.

#69. Postpronotal lobe <color compared with lateral postsutural stripe>/

1. concolorous with lateral postsutural stripe/

2. darker than lateral postsutural stripe/

Select “concolorous” if both postpronotal lobe and lateral postsutural stripe are bright yellowish to whitish. Select “darker” if the postpronotal lobe is fulvous or darker, and the lateral postsutural stripe is bright yellowish to whitish. If the stripes on the dorsum are darker than this, it may be advisable not to use this character.

#70. Posterior half of notopleuron <color>/

1. pale whitish or yellowish <markedly lighter than ground color>/

2. same as ground color/

Generally, “pale” means distinctly bright yellowish to whitish. If the posterior part of the notopleuron is bright yellowish to whitish and the general ground color of the thorax is fulvous to dark score the specimen as “pale”. If the posterior part of the notopleuron is fulvous or darker than the thorax in general, the specimen should be scored as “same as ground color”. However, if the posterior part of the notopleuron is fulvous to orange-brown and the general ground color is very dark, it may be advisable not to use this character.

#71. Scutum dorsad of notopleuron <color>/

1. of the ground color, not whitish or yellowish/

2. with a pale whitish or yellowish stripe which extends from postpronotal lobe to posterior half of notopleuron/

3. with a pale stripe which extends from the postpronotal lobe dorsad of the anterior notopleuron, not reaching the posterior half of the notopleuron <M. citricola, A. grandis>/

4. with a pale stripe which extends from the postpronotal lobe dorsad of the darker anterior notopleuron, and over posterior part of posterior notopleuron <A. bicolor, A. daciformis, A. pallens, A. stonei>/

This pale bright yellowish to whitish mark is similar to the color of the postpronotal lobe and/or the posterior part of the notopleuron, in contrast to the yellowish-brown to dark brown or black general ground color of the thorax.

#72. Dark lyre-like pattern on scutum <presence>/

1. present <although sometimes somewhat obscure>/

2. absent/

A dark “lyre-like” pattern on the scutum is typical of Terelliini (see taxon illustrations for Craspedoxantha marginalis and Chaetorellia carthami).

#73. Discrete shiny black spots on scutum <presence>/

1. present/

2. absent/

These “discrete” spots may run into one another; they are well-defined against the ground color, in any case.

#74. Median longitudinal black stripe on scutum <presence>/

1. present/

2. absent/

This refers to a difference in ground color, and not to any apparent stripe caused by non-microtrichose areas.

#75. Number of pale whitish to yellow postsutural stripes/

1. one <medial>/

2. two (lateral) <extending toward intra-alar bristle>/

3. three <both medial and lateral>/

4. four <lateral and sublateral, extending toward dorsocentral bristle>/

5. five <lateral, sublateral, and medial (may be fused posteriorly)>/

6. two (sublateral) <often appearing as a pair of spots (which may be fused) at the scutoscutellar suture>/

7. zero <no medial, lateral, or sublateral postsutural stripes>/

These stripes are bright yellowish to whitish. The lateral stripes extend approximately from the inner part of the transverse suture posteriorly toward (but not necessarily reaching) the intra-alar bristle.

The cuticle of the stripes, in the species (of Dacini) for which this character was created, is actually transparent, and the color is due to the underlying tissues; if these have pulled away from the cuticle or have become discolored, determination of the presence of stripes, or their extent, requires close examination of the cuticle. See also characters “medial postsutural stripe of scutum (shape)” and “lateral postsutural stripes of scutum (extent)”.

#76. Pale medial postsutural stripe of scutum <shape>/

1. reduced to a small oval spot/

2. lenticular/

3. linear/

4. tear-drop shaped/

5. wedge-shaped <quadrilateral>/

6. wedge-shaped <triangular>/

7. linear, with posterior part expanded, ovoid or triangular/

8. linear, with posterior part expanded, quadrate/

9. linear, bilobed posteriorly/

The cuticle of the stripe is actually transparent, and the color is due to the underlying tissues; if these have pulled away from the cuticle or have become discolored, determination of the shape of the stripe requires close examination of the cuticle. It may be difficult to distinguish between the last three states.

#77. Lateral postsutural stripes of scutum <extent>/

1. short, ending anterior to or near level of postsutural supra-alar bristles/

2. ending anterior to intra-alar bristles/

3. extending to intra-alar bristles or beyond/

4. continuing along side of scutellum/

Taxa were recorded as “ending anterior to intra-alar bristles” only if the stripe is distinctly anterior to the intra-alar bristle.

The cuticle of the stripes is actually transparent, and the color is due to the underlying tissues; if these have pulled away from the cuticle or have become discolored, determination of the presence and extent of stripes requires close examination of the cuticle.

#78. Scutum <presence of dorsocentral stripe>/

1. with blackish dorsocentral stripe <sometimes interrupted at transverse suture>/

2. without blackish dorsocentral stripe <dorsocentral area no darker than lateral area with supra-alar and post-alar bristles>/

Select “with blackish dorsocentral stripe” only if the scutum is mostly yellow and/or redbrown, with a dark brown or black stripe aligned with the dorsocentral bristle.

#79. Area bordering scutoscutellar suture medially <presence of dark brown spot>/

1. with dark brown spot/

2. without dark brown spot, <more or less uniformly> light colored/

3. without dark brown spot, <more or less uniformly> brown/

The spot, if present, is found on the middle of the posterior margin of the scutum and the anterior margin of the scutellum and/or in the scutoscutellar suture which lies between them.

#80. Discrete pale horizontal stripe along upper anepisternum <presence>/

1. present and distinct, extending from postpronotal lobe to <or nearly to> wing base/

2. absent or indistinct/

If there is a triangular or vertical mark rather than a horizontal stripe, select “absent”, and see “distinct pale vertical anepisternal stripe (presence, forward extent)”, “katepisternite with pale yellowish or whitish spot (presence)”, and “transverse suture (color anterior to suture)”.

#81. Distinct pale vertical anepisternal stripe <presence, forward extent>/

1. extending to notopleuron/

2. extending halfway between posterior half of notopleuron and anterior notopleural bristle/

3. extending to anterior notopleural bristle/

4. extending halfway between anterior notopleural bristle and postpronotal lobe/

5. extending to postpronotal lobe/

6. absent/

This refers to the extent of a bright yellowish to whitish vertical stripe or triangular marking on the anepisternum, below the notopleuron. If the stripe is horizontal, select state “absent”, and see “discrete pale horizontal stripe along upper anepisternum (presence)”.

#82. Katepisternite with pale yellowish or whitish spot <presence>/

1. present and distinct/

2. absent or indistinct/

This spot is usually present when there is a vertical stripe on the anepisternum (see “distinct pale vertical anepisternal stripe (presence, forward extent)”).

#83. Transverse suture <color anterior to suture>/

1. with pale transverse stripe extending medially from notopleuron anterior to suture/

2. with a small pale spot anterior to suture/

3. covered by extension of postsutural lateral stripe/

4. without distinct stripe or spot/

“Pale” means a bright yellowish to whitish color, rather than yellow-brown or orange-brown. The pale transverse stripe is a narrow triangle on the scutum immediately anterior to the suture. It may be reduced to a small pale spot, which may continue posteriorly as the posterior lateral vittae.

#84. Katatergite with pale yellowish or whitish spot <presence>/

1. present and distinct/

2. absent or indistinct/

The katatergite is the lower part of the laterotergite. Select “yellow” if the katatergite is at least partly bright yellowish to whitish, while “same as general body color” includes fulvous to orange-brown, as well as darker colors. However, if the region is fulvous and the ground color is black or dark fuscous, it may be advisable not to use the character. See also character “anatergite with pale yellowish or whitish spot (presence)”: if the katatergite is pale, the anatergite may also be pale.

#85. Anatergite with pale yellowish or whitish spot <presence>/

1. present and distinct/

2. absent or indistinct/

The anatergite is the upper part of the laterotergite. Select “yellow” if the anatergite is at least partly bright yellowish to whitish, while “same as general body color” includes fulvous to orange-brown, as well as darker colors. However, if the region is fulvous and the ground color is black or dark fuscous, it may be advisable not to use the character. See also character “katatergite with pale yellowish or whitish spot (presence)”: if the anatergite is pale, the katatergite should also be pale.

#86. Subscutellum <color and markings>/

1. uniformly yellowish to pale orange-brown/

2. uniformly brown/

3. uniformly black/

4. yellowish to orange-brown medially, with distinct dark spots laterally/

5. dark medially & laterally, with yellowish to orange brown spots sublaterally <C. cosyra>/

6. yellowish to orange-brown, with medial black spot <stonei>/

The subscutellum is a narrow convex ridge immediately beneath the posterior margin of the scutellum. Teneral specimens often have the subscutellum paler than fully hardened specimens. The color of the mediotergite (the broad, convex region immediately below the subscutellum is treated as a separate character (see “mediotergite (color and markings)”).

#87. Mediotergite <color and markings>/

1. uniformly yellowish to orange-brown/

2. uniformly brown <dark brown>/

3. uniformly black/

4. yellowish to orange-brown medially, with distinct dark spots laterally/

5. dark medially & laterally, with yellowish to orange brown spots sublaterally <C. cosyra>/

6. yellowish to orange-brown, with medial black spot <E. canadensis>/

The mediotergite is a broad convex area on the posterior end of the thorax between the subscutellum and the base of the abdomen. Teneral specimens often have the mediotergite paler than fully hardened specimens. The color of the subscutellum (the narrow, convex ridge immediately beneath the posterior margin of the scutellum) is treated as a separate character (see “subscutellum (color and markings)”).

#88. Dark brown scutal setulae on dorsocentral stripe <continuity>/

1. continuous, evenly distributed, without non-setulose areas <A. bistrigata>/

2. discontinuous, with 2 non-setulose areas <A. striata>/

Recorded only for Anastrepha bistrigata and A. striata.

This character concerns only the setulae on the scutum near and posterior to the transverse suture.

On the dark dorsocentral stripe (the stripe on which the dorsocentral bristle is located) there is a shiny, nonmicrotrichose area on which the setulae are dark brown or black. Lateral to it, there may be a nonsetulose area, or the setulae may continue uninterrupted to the pale sublateral stripe.

On the part of the scutum near the tranverse suture where the dark dorsocentral stripe crosses it (or the part aligned with the presutural and postsutural dark areas if the stripe is interrupted), there may be a nonsetulose area, or the setulae may be evenly distributed through this area.

#89. Scutum <microtrichia pattern)>/

1. entirely microtrichose, microtrichia evenly distributed, or at most with small presutural, medial bare area/

2. microtrichia in discrete pattern due to density differences/

3. microtrichia in discrete pattern due to bare areas or completely absent/

The line between microtrichia “evenly distributed” vs. “in discrete pattern” is not always clear. If in doubt, select both states.

#90. Scutum <pattern of nonmicrotrichose areas>/

1. mostly microtrichose, with only a presutural, medial bare area/

2. microtrichose except elongate bare areas on dorsocentral stripe and sometimes broad area anteromedially/

3. microtrichia absent or at most present on or lateral to postsutural lateral white stripe, along posterior margin, and/or along transverse suture/

Microtrichia are minute hairlike structures that can be seen only at very high magnification. They normally appear as a dustlike covering and should not be confused with scutal setulae. Microtrichial patterns are best seen in dry specimens in light projected from an angle to create a shadow on the surface of the specimen. They may be obscured on specimens collected in McPhail traps by particles from the lure material. The dorsocentral stripe is the longitudinal area more or less aligned with the dorsocentral bristle.

#91. Dorsum of scutellum <shape>/

1. flat or slightly convex, not swollen/

2. convex and swollen/

Species with a “convex and swollen” scutellum also have the posterior margin entirely convex, in addition to having the dorsal surface strongly convex. This type of scutellum is common in Ceratitini and Oedaspidini.

#92. Scutellum <shape>/

1. normal/

2. bilobed/

Bactrocera xanthodes is the only species of tephritid of economic importance with a bilobed scutellum.

#93. Scutellum <presence of dark and pale pattern>/

1. with a dark and pale pattern/

2. without a dark and pale pattern (at most a narrow dark basal line)/

These dark and pale patterns are usually quite distinct. However, in the case of a single apical fuscous spot, the spot may have indistinct margins. In other cases, an apparent fuscous spot may be caused in a normally uniformly colored scutellum by the underlying muscles being pulled away or discolored.

#94. Scutellum with <number of isolated dark spots>/

1. one isolated dark spot/

2. two isolated dark spots/

3. three isolated dark spots/

4. four isolated dark spots/

5. five isolated dark spots/

6. no isolated dark spots/

Count only isolated dark spots (even if underneath the margin), but not marks which are contiguous with the scuto-scutello suture.

#95. Scutellum <presence and extent of black mark>/

1. without black mark <other than a narrow black area at base>/

2. with a basal triangular black mark that does not extend to apex/

3. with a black mark extending to apex, leaving only lateral areas pale/

4. with a black mark confined to apex/

5. entirely black/

6. with lateral black marks extending apically, leaving apical area pale/

7. with a pair of mediolateral black marks or transverse medial band/

8. with a dark mark around margin, leaving discal area pale/

9. broadly black basally/

#96. Scutellum <presence and extent of orange-brown mark)>/

1. without mark <other than a narrow line at base>/

2. marked orange-brown in basal quarter - rest dull yellow/

3. with basal third to half darker orange or brown, and distinctly delimited laterally from yellowish apical part/

4. marked with an orange-brown triangle <B. halfordiae>/

5. orange-brown except lateral margins <B. xanthodes>/

6. with apical orange mark <B. depressa>/

Legs #97. Femora <shape>/

1. slender/

2. swollen/

“Slender” is defined by a length:width ratio of 5 or greater; “swollen” is defined by a length:width ratio of 3 or less. This character can be sexually dimorphic.

#98. Fore femur <type of posteroventral setation>/

1. with spinelike bristles/

2. with regular bristles/

3. without bristles/

Bristles are recorded as “regular” even if very fine, if they are distinctly longer than surrounding setulae; bristles are recorded as spinelike if they are exceedingly stout (e.g. Monacrostichus citricola, Munromyia nudiseta, Adrama spp.). See also “fore femur (ventral spines)” and “fore femur (setation)”.

#99. Fore femur <ventral spines>/

1. without ventral spines/

2. with 1 strong black ventral spine <A. determinata>/

3. with 3–4 strong black ventral spines <C. petioliforma>/

4. with more than 5 strong black ventral spines <7–8 in M. nudiseta>/

“Spines” are very stout, thorn-like bristles. See also characters “fore femur (type of posteroventral setation)” and “fore femur (setation)”.

#100. Fore femur <setation>/

1. with more than 4 conspicuous rows of bristles/

2. with 1 to 3 posterodorsal and 1 posteroventral rows of bristles only/

3. without major bristles/

The posterodorsal rows of bristles are generally rather irregular. See also “fore femur (type of posteroventral setation)” and “fore femur (setation)”.

#101. Mid femur and hind femur <setation>/

1. with anteroventral and posteroventral rows of small, stout, spine-like bristles/

2. without spine-like bristles/

Bristles are recorded as spinelike if they are exceedingly stout (e.g. Munromyia nudiseta, Adrama spp.).

#102. Middle leg of male <feathering>/

1. without feathering/

2. only tibia with feathering/

3. both femur and tibia with feathering/

“Feathering” refers to the rows of long, dense, feather-like setulae on the legs of the males of some Ceratitini.

#103. Femora <color>/

1. all entirely of one color/

2. at least one femur markedly darker in apical part than in basal part/

3. at least one femur markedly paler in apical part than in middle or basal part/

Select as “entirely of one color” only if all femora are all of the same color and lack any distinctly darker markings. You should also use the characters “dark mark on fore femur (extent)”, “dark mark on middle femur (extent)” and “dark mark on hind femur (extent)” if there are darker markings, or if the legs are entirely dark.

#104. Dark mark on fore femur <extent>/

% of length of femur/

Enter the extent of the dark portion or spot as a percentage of the length of the entire femur. If estimating, give a range, for example 10–20.

#105. Dark mark on middle femur <extent>/

% of length of femur/

Enter the extent of the dark portion or spot as a percentage of the length of the entire femur. If estimating, give a range, for example 10–20.

#106. Dark mark on hind femur <extent>/

% of length of femur/

Enter the extent of the dark portion or spot as a percentage of the length of the entire femur. If estimating, give a range, for example 10–20.

Wings #107. Wing <microtrichia coverage>/

1. partly bare/

2. with microtrichia covering entire wing/

Microtrichiation is sometimes difficult to determine near the base of the wing.

#108. Cell bc microtrichia <presence, coverage>/

1. absent/

2. present in apical area only/

3. covering whole cell/

4. present on anterior margin only/

5. present in apical and basal areas, or with apical microtrichose area continuing basad in the central part of the cell, with anterior and posterior margins bare <C. catoirii>/

Microtrichia are best seen under transmitted light. If microtrichia appear to be absent, check the apical and basal areas carefully, and also the anterior margin. In a few cases, the microtrichia in the apical area continue down the anterior margin for a considerable distance; these are recorded as “apical” as well.

#109. Cell c microtrichia <presence, coverage>/

1. absent/

2. present in apical area/

3. covering whole cell/

4. present except posterior or posteromedial bare area/

5. present in apical and basal areas <T. marshalli, Z. electa>/

Microtrichia are best seen under transmitted light. If microtrichia appear to be absent, check the apical and basal areas carefully, and also the anterior margin. In a few cases, the microtrichia in the apical area continue down the anterior margin for a considerable distance; these are recorded as “apical” as well.

#110. Cell bm <microtrichia, coverage>/

1. microtrichose only on narrow subapical streak/

2. with apical half microtrichose/

Wing microtrichia are best seen under transmitted light. Cell bm, the basal medial cell, is located in the middle of the wing near the base. It usually has a subapical transverse crease.

#111. Cell dm <microtrichia, coverage>/

1. entirely microtrichose/

2. bare on basal one-third to one-half/

3. bare on less than basal one-third/

Due to the irregular shape of the bare area, it may be difficult to distinguish between states 2 and 3. If in doubt, select both states.

#112. Cell cup <microtrichia, coverage>/

1. with large anterior bare area/

2. entirely microtrichose/

Wing microtrichia are best seen under transmitted light. Cell cup, the basal cubital cell, is located in the posterior, basal third of the wing. It often has a posterior, distal lobe.

#113. Dense microtrichia at end of vein A1+CuA2 in male <presence>/

1. present/

2. absent/

These modified microtrichia are usually smaller and denser than those on the remainder of the wing, and may give the appearance of slight infuscation. They occur in males of Dacini. See also “pecten of dark bristles on tergite 3 of male (presence)” for a related character which is more easily observed.

#114. Dominant wing pattern <type>/

1. cross-banded <at least one dark band crossing most of wing>/

2. costal-banded <costal border beyond Sc & usually cell cup dark>/

3. reticulate <numerous hyaline spots or marginal incisions>/

4. stellate <dark preapical spot with dark rays>/

5. mostly hyaline <with few spots and no crossbands>/

6. mostly dark <with few hyaline spots or incisions>/

Choose the lowest-numbered state which applies to your specimen. “Cross-banded” includes even very broad bands or dark areas at the wing-tip and merges into “mostly dark”. Some species may have dark longitudinal marks in basal cells which appear “reticulate”. “Costal-banded” also includes species with 2 out of three of the following: pterostigmal dark spot, apical dark spot, anal streak; and merges into “mostly hyaline” (most of these species have tergal glands). “Reticulate” includes species with numerous light spots, especially in the basal posterior quarter of the wing and merges into “stellate”. “Stellate” includes species with dark star-shaped mark in the apical half of the wing; do not record these as “cross-banded”. “Mostly hyaline” includes mostly species which lack tergal glands. “Mostly dark” includes species which could be perceived as cross-banded; select this state if the pattern consists of 2–3 anterior and 3–4 posterior marginal hyaline incisions; 2–3 small hyaline spots may be present on the wing disk.

#115. Crossbanded wing patterns <type>/

1. Anastrepha-like <S- band present>/

2. Rhagoletis-like <well defined discal, subapical & apical bands>/

3. Ceratitis-like <cross-bands plus basal longitudinal dark marks>/

4. with bands extensively fused, distorted, or greatly reduced/

Select “Anastrepha-like” if the “S-band” is present; this band is formed if the discal band is strongly oblique, extending from the apex of cell cup, across r-m to the middle of cell r1 where it is fused to the anterior apical band, which extends to the wing apex along the Costa. Select “Rhagoletis-like” if the “S” band is absent. Select “Ceratitis-like” if the basal cells are mostly hyaline with dark spots. Select state 4 for any crossbanded wing pattern which does not fit any of the above.

#116. Wing pattern <color>/

1. mostly yellowish/

2. mostly brownish/

3. mostly blackish/

This character refers only to the colored parts of the wing (not including the hyaline parts).

#117. Dark longitudinal streaks through basal cells <presence>/

1. present/

2. absent/

The presence of dark longitudinal streaks in the basal cells of the wing is characteristic of many Ceratitini, including Medfly.

#118. Costal band <length>/

1. with only cell sc colored/

2. with only cell sc and apex of vein R4+5 colored/

3. with only cells sc, r1, and apex of vein R4+5 colored/

4. with only cells sc and r1 colored/

5. colored from Sc to beyond R4+5/

6. complete from wing base to beyond R4+5/

7. colored from wing base to cell sc <or if cells bc and c are nearly hyaline, then colored from base of cell br to cell sc>/

“Costal band” is the traditional term for the coloration on the costal margin of the wing of Dacini - even though it may be reduced or discontinuous or very faint. Other species which have a continuous band from cell sc to the apex of vein R4+5 and lack crossbands have this character recorded as well.

#119. Apex of costal band <whether expanded>/

1. distinctly expanded into a spot/

2. not distinctly expanded/

Select “expanded at apex” if it gives the appearance of a spot (due to this expansion), or if the greatest depth of the band in the vicinity of vein R4+5 is about twice its depth in cell r1. If the appearance of a spot is caused by color differences, see “costal band (color)”.

#120. Costal band <depth just beyond end of R1>/

1. not extending below R2+3/

2. extending below R2+3/

3. reaching R4+5/

4. extending below R4+5/

Ignore infuscation on the r-m crossvein, if any: select a state according to the overall extent of the costal band only.

#121. Costal band <color>/

1. all one color/

2. pale, but darker at apex giving appearance of an apical spot/

3. pterostigma darker/

Select “all one color” unless the dark parts are markedly darker. If both the apex and the pterostigma are darker, select states 2 and 3.

#122. Crossvein r-m <infuscation>/

1. hyaline <occasionally may be covered anteriorly by costal band>/

2. covered by short, diffuse infuscation <may be costal band spur>/

3. covered by short, well-defined infuscation <may be costal band spur>/

4. covered by a major crossband <discal crossband>/

5. covered or mostly covered by broad costal band/

A “major crossband” is defined as one which reaches at least half way across the wing, or to the wing margin.

#123. Crossvein dm-cu <infuscation>/

1. hyaline/

2. infuscated along entire length, but not reaching posterior margin of wing/

3. infuscated at posterior end/

4. covered by a major crossband <subapical crossband> which reaches posterior margin of wing/

A “major crossband” is defined as one which reaches at least half way across the wing. Sometimes the infuscation on the dm-cu crossvein is very faint.

#124. Crossveins r-m and dm-cu <in single crossband>/

1. both covered by a single crossband/

2. not both covered by a single crossband/

Select “not covered by a single crossband” if only one of the veins is covered by a crossband and the other is hyaline, or if both are covered by separate crossbands, or if these bands are joined, if there is a hyaline incision extending between the crossveins.

Select “covered by a single crossband” if both crossveins lie within a single crossband (even though other crossbands may be present which cross one of the crossveins), and there is no hyaline incision extending between the crossveins.

#125. Cell r2+3 apical to r-m <infuscation>/

1. with large hyaline area/

2. entirely infuscated <pattern sometimes diffuse yellowish, but no distinct hyaline area>/

Cell r2+3 is an elongate cell in the anterior apical half of the wing between veins R2+3 and R4+5. This character refers to that part of it apical to the level of crossvein r-m. In most species of Anastrepha, there is a large hyaline area between the discal band and anterior apical bands and vein R4+5 (state 1). But in some species (e.g. A. grandis), the anterior apical band is broad and occupies all of this part of the cell. This character was developed primarily for Anastrepha species, however, other taxa have been recorded against it as well.

#126. Cell r2+3 subapical hyaline area <width>/

1. broad, extending to vein R2+3/

2. narrowed, not extending to vein R2+3/

#127. Anal band <infuscation of cell cup>/

1. present, reaching nearly to wing margin along cell cup extension/

2. absent, or not reaching nearly to wing margin/

The anal streak occurs in Dacini, and consists of a dark band extending from cell cup posteriorly along the cell cup extension and reaching or nearly reaching the posterior margin of the wing.

If a dark band extends anteriorly from cell cup to the wing margin, select “absent”, and see “subbasal crossband (presence)”.

#128. Cell r1 and r2+3 <pattern>/

1. with distinctly darker spots within dark areas of pattern/

2. without darker spots within the pattern/

This character applies especially to darker spots within a different-hued pattern: e.g. dark brown spots in a fulvous band, such as occurs in many Ceratitini and Terellini.

#129. Intercalary <accessory costal> band/

1. present, distinct from apical band/

2. present, but fused with apical band <R. turanica>/

3. absent/

The intercalary band (= accessory costal band) is here considered to be a crossband originating on the costal margin at the level of the discal cell, but which does not cross the r-m or dm-cu crossveins. When present, it is separate from the apical band except in Rhagoletis turanica.

#130. Subbasal crossband <presence>/

1. present/

2. absent/

The sub-basal crossband is in the region from the hm crossvein to cell cup.

#131. Subbasal and discal crossbands <whether joined>/

1. joined/

2. not joined/

The sub-basal crossband is in the region from the hm crossvein to cell cup. The discal crossband is the crossband which includes the r-m crossvein; it usually crosses at least partway into the discal cell.

#132. Marginal hyaline area in cell r1 <presence>/

1. present and distinct/

2. absent or indistinct/

Cell r1 is between veins R1 and R2+3 and occupies most of the anterior magin of the apical half of the wing. This character refers to that part of it immediately apical to the apex of vein R1.

#133. Ratio of width of apical band in cell r4+5 to length of r-m/

The anterior apical band borders the costa along the anteroapical margin of the wing. Measure its width perpendicular to its inner margin at the apex of vein R4+5.

In the Lucid versions of the key, always enter a range of values; for example, enter “.8–1” instead of “.9”

#134. Anterior apical crossband <separation from costa>/

1. contiguous with costa over entire length, without marginal hyaline band or spots apically in cells r1 and r2+3/

2. partly to entirely separated from costa by marginal hyaline band or spots/

This character concerns the separation of the anterior apical band from the costal margin by a narrow hyaline area; ignore any hyaline incision in the basal half of cell R1. The anterior apical band is the band along the costal margin in the apical part of the wing, in species considered “crossbanded” (see “dominant wing pattern”).

#135. Anterior apical band or costal band <whether extended to vein M>/

1. extended to vein M/

2. not extended to vein M/

The anterior apical band (or the apical portion of the costal band) borders the costa along the anteroapical margin of the wing, and sometimes extends to the apex of vein M.

#136. Posterior apical crossband <presence>/

1. present <may be fused to subapical and/or apical bands or reduced to an isolated spot between them>/

2. absent/

The apical band is the band along the costal margin in the apical part of the wing, in species considered “crossbanded” (see “dominant wing pattern”). The apical band may be forked into anterior and posterior apical crossbands. The posterior apical crossband may actually arise from the subapical band (to form the “V” band), as well as from the from the anterior apical crossband, or it may be an isolated spot on the wing margin. If present, see also “posterior apical crossband (fusion to other bands)”.

#137. Posterior apical crossband <fusion to other bands>/

1. not fused to subapical or anterior apical bands/

2. fused to subapical band <forming an inverted-V band, Anastrepha>/

3. fused to anterior apical band/

4. fused to discal band but not subapical band <A. nigrifascia>/

Select “isolated” if there is a dark spot or band touching the posterior margin of the wing between the anterior apical crossband and the subapical crossband that is not connected to either of them. Select “fused to subapical band” if it is connected to the subapical band to form an inverted V-shape. Select “fused to apical band” if it is connected to the anterior apical crossband. If it arises at the juncture of the subapical and apical bands, select both states.

#138. Costal and discal bands <whether joined on vein R4+5>/

1. joined on vein R4+5/

2. not joined on vein R4+5/

The costal band borders the anterior margin of the wing from the base to at least the apex of vein R1). The discal band is the crossband covering crossvein r-m. This character was developed primarily for Anastrepha species, however, other taxa have been recorded against it as well.

#139. Discal band <angle>/

1. strongly oblique in posterobasal-anteroapical direction, extended from apex of cell cup, across r-m to middle of cell r1/

2. transverse, or oblique in anterobasal-posteroapical direction, or absent/

The discal band is the crossband covering crossvein r-m. When present, it usually is perpendicular to the long axis of the wing or runs in an anterior- basal to posterior-apical direction (state 1). In most species of Anastrepha it is oblique in the other direction, from the posterior-basal part of the wing (at the apex of cell cup) to the anterior apical part, where it usually fuses with the anterior apical band.

#140. Discal and apical crossbands <whether joined>/

1. directly joined/

2. not directly joined/

The discal crossband is the crossband which includes the r-m crossvein; it usually crosses at least partway into the discal cell. The anterior apical band is the band along the costal margin in the apical part of the wing, in species considered “crossbanded” (see “dominant wing pattern”).

#141. Discal and subapical crossbands <whether joined>/

1. joined along anterior wing margin or along vein R4+5/

2. joined along vein M <G. diffusa etc.>/

3. joined along posterior wing margin/

4. not joined/

The discal crossband is the crossband which includes the r-m crossvein; it usually crosses at least partway into the discal cell.

The subapical crossband is the crossband which includes the dm-cu crossvein.

#142. Discal and subapical bands <whether connected along vein R4+5>/

1. connected along vein R4+5/

2. not connected along vein R4+5/

The discal band is the crossband that covers crossvein r-m. The subapical band is the crossband that covers crossvein dm-cu.

#143. Subapical and anterior apical crossbands <whether joined>/

1. joined/

2. not joined, subapical crossband not reaching costa/

3. not joined, subapical crossband reaching costa/

The subapical crossband is the crossband which includes the dm-cu crossvein. The anterior apical band is the band along the costal margin in the apical part of the wing, in species considered “crossbanded” (see “dominant wing pattern”).

#144. Outstanding costal spine(s) at subcostal break <presence>/

1. present/

2. absent/

Select “present” if any costal bristles immediately basad of the subcostal break are distinguishable from other costal bristles in their length OR stoutness.

#145. Ratio of length of costal section 3 to costal section 4/

This ratio is an approximation.

In the Lucid versions of the key, always enter a range of values; for example, enter “.8–1” instead of “.9”

#146. Ratio of pterostigmal length to width/

This ratio is an approximation.

In the Lucid versions of the key, always enter a range of values; for example, enter “1.9–2.3” instead of “2.1”

#147. Vein R1 dorsal setation <presence of bar section>/

1. with bare <non-setulose> section opposite end of vein Sc <sometimes very short>/

2. without bare section opposite end of vein Sc/

Select “bare” if about 4 or more bristles are absent on vein R1 dorsally, opposite the end of vein Sc.

#148. Vein Rs dorsal setation <whether setulose>/

1. setulose/

2. non-setulose/

“Bare” means absence of setulae; fine microtrichia may be present, however.

#149. Vein R2+3 <shape>/

1. generally straight/

2. strongly sinuous/

Vein R2+3 is strongly undulant in Themarictera flaveolata (the bends rounded), usually somewhat undulant in Toxotrypana spp. (the bends abrupt), and slightly undulant in Zacerata asparagi.

#150. Anteriorly-directed accessory vein emerging from R2+3 <presence>/

1. present/

2. absent/

This vein need not reach the costa, and in Toxotrypana may also be associated with a posteriorly directed accessory vein.

#151. Vein R4+5 dorsal setation <presence, position>/

1. absent/

2. on node only/

3. sparse, over proximal section only/

4. sparse over both sections/

5. dense over at least proximal section/

There may be only 1–2 bristles “on node only” and these may be easily lost or overlooked; check both wings. The proximal and distal sections of vein R4+5 are bounded by the location of the r-m crossvein. “Sparse” means bristles are separated by a distance much greater than their length; “dense” means bristles are separated by a distance about equal to their length (or less).

#152. Vein R4+5 ventral setation <presence>/

1. present/

2. absent or only present on node or close thereafter/

Ventral setation of vein R4+5 is more difficult to observe than dorsal setation. It is helpful to look from as close to the plane of the wing as possible, especially from the posterior edge.

#153. Distance between crossvein r-m and costa <relative to r-m>/

1. longer than r-m/

2. equal to r-m/

3. shorter than r-m <about half the length of r-m>/

Measure the shortest distance from the r-m crossvein to the costa, and the actual length of the r-m crossvein.

#154. R-m crossvein on cell dm <position>/

1. at or near proximal third of cell dm/

2. at or near middle of cell dm/

3. at or near distal third of cell dm/

“Mid-discal cell” is interpreted as the middle third of the cell. In many species the r-m crossvein is nearly in the distal third of the cell and has been recorded as in the distal third. If in doubt, select states 2 and 3.

#155. Cell bm <shape>/

1. broad, parallel-sided/

2. narrow, triangular/

Taxa are recorded as having cell bm “parallel sided” if the cell is nearly as wide near the base as at the apex, and vein M curves strongly down to vein Cu basally. Taxa are recorded as having cell bm “narrowed basally” if the cell is much narrower near the base than at the apex, and vein M is mostly straight.

#156. Cell bm ratio of length to width/

This ratio is an approximation.

In the Lucid versions of the key, always enter a range of values; for example, enter “1.9–2.3” instead of “2.1”

#157. Cell bm ratio of width to cell cup width/

This ratio is an approximation.

In the Lucid versions of the key, always enter a range of values; for example, enter “1.9–2.3” instead of “2.1”

#158. Vein M distally <orientation>/

1. curved anterad/

2. straight/

3. curved posterad/

Consider the only the apical-most portion of vein M, and whether it curves anteriorly into the costa (e.g. Anastrepha spp.).

#159. Cell dm widens apically <suddenly or gradually>/

1. suddenly and strongly, just before crossvein r-m/

2. gradually from base/

This is caused by the strong anterior curvature (or lack thereof) of vein M.

#160. Posterodistal corner of cell dm <angle>/

1. distinctly acute/

2. approximately a right angle <or about = angle of anterior corner>/

3. distinctly obtuse/

Select “acute” if the posterodistal corner of cell d is more acute than the anterodistal corner of cell d. Select “right angle” if the dm-cu crossvein is perpendicular to vein Cu. It may also be advisable to select “right angle” if not distinctly acute or obtuse, or if the posterodistal corner is equal to the angle of the anterodistal corner of cell d. Select “obtuse” if the posterodistal corner of cell d is more obtuse than the anterodistal corner of cell d.

#161. Cell cup extension or lobe <presence>/

1. present, vein CuA2 abruptly bent/

2. absent, vein CuA2 not abruptly bent/

The posterodistal extension of cell cup is caused by an abrupt bend in vein closing the distal end of the cell. This extension is absent, and the vein convexly curved, in Myopitini. The posterodistal corner is acute, but the vein is not bent, in Rivelliomimini. In a few other species, the extension may be virtually absent.

If cell cup has no extension, check the following characters to be sure you have a tephritid fly: frontal bristles usually present; subcosta incomplete, not actually reaching the costa, and abruptly bent toward costa near apex; wing with costal vein twice-broken (at the humeral crossvein and at the end of the subcosta); ovipositor strongly sclerotized, adapted for piercing.

Otitidae and Pyrgotidae are other common families having such an extension of cell cup, but they usually lack frontal bristles; the subcosta is complete, clearly reaching the costa, and not abruptly bent; and the costa is not broken at the subcosta.

#162. Cell cup extension <length>/

1. longer than vein A1+CuA2/

2. shorter than vein A1+CuA2/

Measure the extension of cell cup from the bend in vein CuA2 to the tip of the extension. Vein A1+CuA2 is the vein which continues from the postero- apical corner of cell cup toward the wing margin.

#163. Cell cup extension <shape>/

1. triangular/

2. constricted in the middle/

3. with parallel margins/

Cell cup is recorded as parallel-sided if it is extremely long and thin, even if it is slightly constricted at the base.

Abdomen #164. Abdomen <shape>/

1. petiolate/

2. ovate or parallel sided/

Select “petiolate” if the fly is distinctly “wasp-waisted”, with terga 1+2 more or less parallel-sided.

#165. Abdominal tergites <fusion>/

1. separate <at least tergites 3–5 separate>/

2. fused/

Fusion of tergites III-V is a diagnostic character for species of Dacus. In Bactrocera and all other tephritids, these tergites are separate.

Fusion of these tergites can be difficult to determine. Species in this expert system have been scored on the basis of whether they appear fused on the very margin of the tergites, when examined in ventral view.

#166. Abdominal petiole <structure>/

1. made of 1st tergite only/

2. made of 1st+2nd tergites together/

The 1st and 2nd terga are fused in all tephritids. The petiole is here considered to be only the part of terga 1+2 which is more or less parallel- sided. Select state 1 if the outline of tergite 2 is a continuation of the outline of tergites 3–5, and state 2 if it is a continuation of the outline of tergite 1.

#167. Abdomen in lateral view <shape>/

1. arched, dome-like, rather rigid/

2. flatter, more flexible/

Select “flatter, more flexible” unless the dorsum of the abdomen forms a rather rigid structure like an inverted bowl (e.g. Dacini). If the specimen is teneral, do not use this character.

#168. Abdominal tergite 1 <shape>/

1. broader at apex than at base/

2. parallel-sided/

3. narrower at apex than at base/

Measure the apical width of tergite 1 at its line of fusion with tergite 2.

#169. Abdominal tergite 1 <presence of prominent hump laterally>/

1. with a prominent hump laterally <Callantra>/

2. without a prominent hump laterally/

Most tephritids have a slight swelling at the lateral margins of the base of tergite 1+2. Select “prominent” if this swelling is knob-like and hemispherical (or nearly so) (e.g. Dacus (Callantra) petioliforma and other members of this subgenus).

#170. Pecten of dark bristles on tergite 3 of male <presence>/

1. present <most Dacini>/

2. absent <bristles not different from those of other segments>/

A comb-like row of dark stridulatory bristles is present on the postero-lateral margin of the third tergite of males of most species of Bactrocera and Dacus. These bristles are distinguished from others which occur on the posterior margin of the third tergite by their density, more or less uniform length, and dark color. The exact mechanism of their action has not been well studied, but they are presumed to rub against the microtrichia of the wing margin in the vicinity of vein A1+CuA2.

#171. Tergal glands on tergite 5 <presence>/

1. present <Dacini>/

2. absent/

Tergal glands are more or less rounded regions of matte texture and of the same or contrasting color as the color of the tergite, and occur on the apparent last segment before the genitalia in both sexes (the 6th tergite of the female being concealed beneath the 5th). They occur in all Bactrocera and Dacus (and no other genera), and are usually well-delimited and easy to observe.

Shining black, convex bullae on the fifth tergite occur only in the species belonging to the tribe Rivelliomimini (none of which are considered to be of economic importance), and although their function is unknown, they are not considered to be tergal glands. Some species of Tephritidae have black spots on the abdomen which are not bullae.

#172. Abdominal tergite 5 <presence of large hump, in profile>/

1. normal/

2. with a large hump/

#173. 6th tergite of female <exposure>/

1. normally concealed/

2. exposed/

In order to count abdominal segments correctly, remember that tergites 1 and 2 are fused; thus the first apparent segment counts as 2. The ovipositor sheath always represents segment 7. Thus, select “concealed” if there are only 4 apparent tergites before the ovipositor, or if the margin of tergite 6 extends only very slightly beyond tergite 5, with most of the tergite concealed.

#174. 6th tergite of female <length relative to 5th>/

1. shorter than 5th/

2. as long as 5th/

3. longer than 5th/

In order to count abdominal segments correctly, remember that tergites 1 and 2 are fused, thus the first apparent segment counts as 2. The ovipositor sheath always represents segment 7. Measure the length of the tergites along the midline.

#175. Abdominal setulae <shape and color against tergal background>/

1. acuminate and dark/

2. acuminate and pale/

3. lanceolate and pale/

4. mixed dark and pale acuminate/

Mixed dark and pale setulae may be difficult to discern if one color predominates, or if reflectance causes dark setulae to appear light.

#176. Abdominal microtomentum <pattern>/

1. uniform/

2. in bands/

3. a delicate reticulation/

4. absent <or indistinct>/

Select “uniform” if the microtrichia give a uniform silvery sheen or matte-like texture to the abdomen. Select “in bands” if any bands are present which are due to microtrichia (check the margin of tergite 1+2 especially). This could easily be confused with the presence of light-colored bands on the margins of the tergites themselves. Select “a delicate reticulation” if the microtrichia are in distinct small patches. Select “absent” if the abdomen lacks any silvery sheen and is more or less shiny. If in doubt, select all the states that might apply.

#177. Abdominal sternite 5 of male <width relative to length>/

1. broad, at least 2x wider than long/

2. less than 2x wider than long, not longer than wide/

3. narrow, longer than wide/

#178. Posterior margin of sternite 5 of male <depth of cavity>/

1. with deep V-shaped posterior concavity <as defined by Drew, 1989>/

2. with shallow posterior concavity/

The shape of the fifth sternite of the males of the genera Bactrocera and Dacus is important for identification of subgenera Bactrocera (Bactrocera), B. (Trypetidacus), B. (Gymnodacus), B. (Notodacus), B. (Afrodacus), B. (Tetradacus), and Dacus (Semicallantra) (with deep concavity); and B. (Zeugodacus), B. (Hemisurstylus), B. (Hemizeugodacus), B. (Melanodacus), Dacus (Callantra), D. (Dacus), D. (Didacus) (with shallow concavity).

#179. Abdominal tergites 3–5 <color>/

1. predominantly yellow to orange brown <may have stripes>/

2. predominantly black <other than due to stripes>/

#180. Abdominal tergites <presence and location of medial dark stripe>/

1. with medial dark stripe on T3-T5 and a transverse dark line on T3 <forming T-mark>/

2. with medial dark stripe, usually on T3-T5/

3. with medial dark stripe on T5 only/

4. without medial dark stripe/

The T-shaped dark mark is usually distinct; however it may be less obvious when the transverse dark mark on segment 3 covers the entire segment and there are broad lateral dark marks as well.

The medial black stripe occurs most often on abdominal segments 3–5, but occasionally occurs on segments 2–5, or 4–5.

#181. Abdominal tergites <presence of T-shaped yellow mark>/

1. brown, with medial T-shaped yellow mark/

2. not brown with medial T-shaped yellow mark <unicolorous or with other pattern>/

Abdominal color patterns may be obscured by darkened internal tissues. This character refers only to cuticular color.

#182. Abdominal tergites <presence of lateral dark areas>/

1. with broadly contiguous dark areas on lateral margins of T3-T5/

2. with separate dark areas on anterolateral margins of T3-T5/

3. without isolated dark areas on lateral margins of T3-T5 <abdomen may be entirely dark, or banded>/

“Broadly contiguous” means that the lateral dark marks on any of the abdominal segments 3–5 extend to the posterior margin of that segment, and are confluent with the lateral marks of the succeeding segment.

“Separate” means that the lateral dark marks are largely on the anterior lateral margins of the tergite(s) and usually do not extend to the posterior margin.

All species with a pattern of distinct, medially uninterrupted dark bands (even though they reach the lateral margin) or with lateral spots not reaching the lateral margin of the tergites, have been recorded as having no “lateral” dark marks.

Vague and diffuse markings may be difficult to record reliably. Poorly preserved specimens may also appear to have dark markings due to the degradation of internal tissues.

#183. Abdominal tergites <presence of transverse bands>/

1. with dark brown transverse bands <not due to microtrichia> which may be interrupted medially/

2. without dark brown transverse bands/

Abdominal color patterns may be obscured by dark internal tissues. This character refers only to cuticular color.

Male terminalia #184. Epandrium in posterior view <shape>/

1. rounded or oval, including the short, undifferentiated outer surstyli/

2. with moderately long outer surstyli, which are up to about half as long as epandrium/

3. with long outer surstyli, which are more than half as long as epandrium/

Measure the outer surstyli from the point where they emerge from the general outline of the epandrium in posterior view.

#185. Epandrium in lateral view <shape>/

1. with outer surstyli a continuation of the epandrium/

2. with outer surstyli distinctly narrower than epandrium, clearly differentiated/

If the outer surstyli are parallel-sided and distinctly narrower than the epandrium, select state 2.

#186. Posterior lobe of surstylus <presence, length>/

1. short or absent/

2. long <about 6x as long as anterior lobe>/

The length of the posterior lobe of the surstylus of the males of the genus Bactrocera is important for identification of subgenera.

Dacini having the posterior lobe short (at most twice as long as the anterior lobe) are: Bactrocera (Bactrocera), B. (Trypetidacus), B. (Gymnodacus), B. (Notodacus), B. (Afrodacus), B. (Tetradacus), B. (Hemisurstylus), B. (Hemizeugodacus), B. (Melanodacus), Dacus (Callantra), D. (Dacus), D. (Didacus), and D. (Semicallantra).

Dacini having the posterior lobe long (at least 6 times as long as the anterior lobe) are: B. (Zeugodacus), B. (Javadacus), B. (Niuginidacus), B. (Sinodacus), B. (Austrodacus), B. (Paratridacus), B. (Hemiparatridacus), B. (Diplodacus), B. (Heminotodacus), B. (Papuodacus), B. and (Paradacus), and B. (Queenslandacus).

#187. Outer surstylus shape in posterior view /

1. very short, barely extended beyond prensisetae, rounded apically/

2. short, somewhat boot-shaped, truncate and with apex slightly laterally projected <leptozona shape>/

3. short, acute apically <schultzi shape>/

4. short, rounded apically <bezzii/grandis shape>/

5. short and narrow, posterolaterally projected, rounded apically <punctata shape>/

6. long, inner side concave apically <nunezae shape>/

7. long, slightly tapered, somewhat truncate apically <fraterculus shape>/

8. long, inner side convex, outer side concave <spatulata shape>/

9. long, inner side convex, outer side projected medially, extreme apex sharply curved posteriorly <striata shape>/

10. long, more or less acute apically <serpentina shape>/

11. long, somewhat paddle-shaped, broad and truncate apically <ornata shape>/

12. long, rounded apically <chiclayae shape>/

In the male, the outer surstylus is fused to the ventral end of the epandrium. Dissection is often necessary to see it properly. This character refers to its shape in posterior view.

#188. Aedeagus length/

mm/

The aedeagus is the intromittent organ of the male. In tephritids it is usually very long and slender. It emerges near the bases of the outer surstyli and is coiled at rest in a membranous area between tergite 5 and the postabdomen. Dissection is usually necessary to find it. It is difficult to measure with precision, but should be uncoiled and stretched with two pairs of forceps for measurement. The swollen, apical distiphallus should be included in this measurement.

In the Lucid versions of the key, always enter a range of values; for example, enter “1.9–2.3” instead of “2.1”

#189. Aedeagus ratio of length to mesonotum length/

The aedeagus is the intromittent organ of the male. In tephritids it is usually very long and slender. It emerges near the bases of the outer surstyli and is coiled at rest in a membranous area between tergite 5 and the postabdomen. Dissection is usually necessary to find it. It is difficult to measure with precision, but should be uncoiled and stretched with two pairs of forceps for measurement. The swollen, apical distiphallus should be included in this measurement.

The length of the mesonotum is the length of the scutum plus the scutellum measured in dorsal view.

In the Lucid versions of the key, always enter a range of values; for example, enter “.8–1” instead of “.9”

#190. Distiphallus <presence>/

1. present/

2. absent/

In the male, the distiphallus is the swollen, apical part of the aedeagus. It normally is located in a membranous area between tergite 5 and the postabdomen, and dissection is usually necessary to observe it.

#191. Distiphallus <presence of basolateral membranous lobe>/

1. with basolateral membranous lobe <Anastrepha, Toxotrypana, most dacines, some ceratitines>/

2. without basolateral membranous lobe/

In the male, the distiphallus is the swollen, apical part of the aedeagus. It normally is located in a membranous area between tergite 5 and the postabdomen, and dissection is usually necessary to observe it. It often has a basolateral membranous lobe. This character should be checked carefully because the lobe may be difficult to see if not inflated.

#192. Distiphallus <sclerotization>/

1. with extensive medial sclerotization <M. pardalina, P. poeciloptera, C. savastani, M. citricola>/

2. mostly membranous medially, with small subapical sclerites <Toxotrypana>/

In the male, the distiphallus is the enlarged, apical part of the aedeagus. It normally is located in a membranous area between tergite 5 and the postabdomen, and dissection is usually necessary to observe it. In most fruit flies, it has extensive internal sclerites (state 1). In Anastrepha and Toxotrypana, only a slender basal sclerite, a small involuted subapical sclerite, and a T-shaped apical sclerite are strongly sclerotized (state 2) and most of the medial part appears membranous.

#193. Distiphallus <presence of stout, curved, basal spine>/

1. with stout, curved, basal spine <Acanthiophilus, Trupanea>/

2. without stout, curved, basal spine/

In the male, the distiphallus is the enlarged, apical part of the aedeagus. It normally is located in a membranous area between tergite 5 and the postabdomen, and dissection is usually necessary to observe it. In a few genera, there is a large, dark, strongly sclerotized spine near the base.

#194. Distiphallus <presence of basal setulose rod>/

1. with basal setulose rod <Acanthiophilus>/

2. without basal setulose rod/

In the male, the distiphallus is the enlarged, apical part of the aedeagus. It normally is located in a membranous area between tergite 5 and the postabdomen, and dissection is usually necessary to observe it. In Acanthiophilus helianthi, there is an isolated, setulose rod which arises in the basal half of the distiphallus.

#195. Sclerite of vesica of distiphallus <presence, shape>/

1. present, an isolated rod <C. marginalis, C. carthami>/

2. present, isolated, T-shaped <Anastrepha, Toxotrypana>/

3. absent <M. pardalina, P. poeciloptera, C. savastani, M. citricola>/

In the male, the distiphallus is the enlarged, apical part of the aedeagus. It normally is located in a membranous area between tergite 5 and the postabdomen, and dissection is usually necessary to observe it. The vesica is the membranous, apical baglike part. In many genera, there is an isolated rodlike sclerite in the vesica.

Female terminalia #196. Syntergosternite 7 <curvature>/

1. straight/

2. strongly curved/

This refers to overall curvature of syntergosternite 7, not to its shape. See the taxon figure for Toxotrypana curvicauda for an example of “strongly curved”. No other genus of Tephritidae is known to have a syntergosternite 7 of this type. See also “syntergosternite 7 (shape)”.

#197. Syntergosternite 7 <relative length>/

1. longer than rest of body/

2. shorter than rest of body, but longer than preabdomen/

3. shorter than preabdomen/

Measure the length of a part in dorsal view with respect to that part.

#198. Syntergosternite 7 <length in ventral view>/

mm/

Measure the length of syntergosternite 7 in ventral view.

In the Lucid versions of the key, always enter a range of values; for example, enter “1.9–2.3” instead of “2.1”

#199. Syntergosternite 7 base <presence of flap>/

1. with a laterally projecting flap <usually also with a black spot on it between tergite and sternite 6> <Toxotrypana, Anastrepha>/

2. without a laterally projecting flap/

In the female, the tergite and sternite of abdominal segment 7 are fused to form syntergosternite 7. In Anastrepha and Toxotrypana its base has a small, laterally projecting, flaplike lobe on each side, but they often are hidden between tergite 6 and sternite 6. If the specimen is fresh or in fluid, you may be able to pull syntergosternite 7 outward to better expose the base. In dried specimens, dissection of the abdomen may be necessary. There usually is a dark spot on the lobe that may be visible even if the lobe itself is not distinct.

#200. Syntergosternite 7 <shape>/

1. conical/

2. flattened <with lateral keel>/

3. bottle-shaped <with distinct apical neck>/

4. tubular/

We have recorded all taxa based on dried specimens. It is possible that dried specimens which have syntergosternite 7 flattened may have had a conical syntergosternite 7 when fresh, and that the keel in at least some species is simply an artifact of the drying process. If your specimen is fresh and has a conical syntergosternite 7, it may be advisable to select both "conical" and "flattened". “Bottle-shaped” means conical or cylindrical basally but abruptly narrowed into a tubular neck apically, as in Bactrocera tsuneonis and B. minax. “Tubular” means the tubular portion forms by far the greater part of the syntergosternite, as in Toxotrypana curvicauda.

#201. Ratio of syntergosternite 7 to abdominal tergite 5/

Measure the lengths of the exposed syntergosternite 7 and abdominal tergite 5 along the midline in dorsal view.

In the Lucid versions of the key, always enter a range of values; for example, enter “1.9–2.3” instead of “2.1”

#202. Ratio of syntergosternite 7 length to mesonotum length/

In the female, the tergite and sternite of abdominal segment 7 are fused to form syntergosternite 7. Its length is measured ventrally, and may be underestimated if the base is hidden by sternite 6. The length of the mesonotum is the length of the scutum plus the scutellum measured in dorsal view.

In the Lucid versions of the key, always enter a range of values; for example, enter “.8–1” instead of “.9”

#203. Dorsobasal scales of eversible membrane <size, shape, number>/

1. about as large as other scales <non-Anastrepha, Toxotrypana>/

2. somewhat enlarged <bezzi, dentata, sagittata>/

3. numerous, very large, hook-like, in triangular pattern <grandis>/

4. apical row very large, stout, divided medially <bicolor, daciformis, macrura, pallens, stonei>/

5. apical row with 3–5 very large, slender, strongly sclerotized scales <punctata>/

6. apical row with 6–10 very large, hooklike scales <nigrifascia, robusta>/

In the female, the eversible membrane is the long, mostly membranous, tubular part connecting syntergosternite 7 and the aculeus. It and the aculeus are normally retracted inside syntergosternite 7, and dissection may be necessary to see it. Normally, it is gradually tapered, with a pair of dark, striplike basal areas (taenia) dorsally and ventrally, followed by areas of tiny scalelike or toothlike sclerites (state 1). In Anastrepha and Toxotrypana, the basal part is distinctly broader, and dorsally it usually has very large, hooklike sclerites (states 2–6).

#204. Aculeus length/

mm/

Measure the length of the aculeus only, not syntergosternite 7 nor the eversible membrane. If the specimen is fresh, the aculeus is easily exserted by gently squeezing the abdomen near syntergosternite 7 with a pair of forceps. The entire aculeus can then be completely extended by pulling gently on the aculeus shaft with the forceps. However, grasping the aculeus tip with forceps can easily break the tip, and great care should be used if it is necessary to grasp the tip.

In the Lucid versions of the key, always enter a range of values; for example, enter “1.9–2.3” instead of “2.1”

#205. Aculeus tip length/

mm/

In the female, the aculeus is the long, apical, sclerotized part of the terminalia, composed of the sclerites of the eighth and more apical segments. It and the eversible membrane normally are retracted inside syntergosternite 7, and dissection may be necessary to see it. Its tip is the part apical to the membranous ventromedial area where the egg emerges. The length of the tip is measured in ventral view.

In the Lucid versions of the key, always enter a range of values; for example, enter “.45-.55” instead of “.5”

#206. Aculeus tip width/

mm/

In the female, the aculeus is the long, apical, sclerotized part of the terminalia, composed of the sclerites of the eighth and more apical segments. It and the eversible membrane normally are retracted inside syntergosternite 7, and dissection may be necessary to see it. Its tip is the part apical to the membranous ventromedial area where the egg emerges. The width of the tip is measured in dorsal or ventral view (but it should be level)

In the Lucid versions of the key, always enter a range of values; for example, enter “.09-.11” instead of “.1”

#207. Aculeus shaft <shape>/

1. parallel-sided except extreme base/

2. tapering gradually in basal half <A. montei>/

In the female, the aculeus is the long, apical, sclerotized part of the terminalia, composed of the sclerites of the eighth and more apical segments. It and the eversible membrane normally are retracted inside syntergosternite 7, and dissection may be necessary to see it. It normally is parallel sided except for the apex and sometimes the base (state 1).

#208. Aculeus tip <shape>/

1. blunt/

2. gradually tapering, needle-like, with flat cross-section/

3. slender, needle-like, with circular cross-section/

4. bilobed or apically emarginate/

5. pointed, with preapical shoulder/

6. trilobed/

7. triangular/

8. spatulate/

9. gradually tapering, but with medial constriction/

10. slender, with extreme apex sagittate/

11. laterally compressed/

12. with 2 V-shaped ridges, 1 dorsal and 1 ventral/

“Blunt” includes both rounded and truncate-appearing tips. “Gradually tapering” includes the aculeus tips of most tephritids; these tips are dorsoventrally flattened and needle-like, with the outline of the tip continuing the outline of the shaft as a smooth curve. “Slender, needle- like, with circular cross-section” includes tips which are not dorsoventrally flattened. “Bilobed or apically emarginate” tips may require very high magnification. “Pointed, with preapical shoulder” refers to tips which have preapical shoulders or lobes which are well removed from the apex or markedly different in size from the more distal parts of the tip. “Trilobed” includes tips which have three equal-sized lobes, with the lateral lobes close to the middle lobe. “Triangular” includes tips which have a distinctly triangular shape distinct from the outline of the shaft, but which lack well-defined preapical shoulders. “Spatulate” includes tips which are expanded and shovel-like. “Gradually tapering, but with medial contriction” includes aculeus tips similar to that of Anastrepha fraterculus. “Sagittate” refers to tips which are abruptly wider than the shaft. “laterally compressed” tips have a medial ridge. “2 V-shaped ridges, 1 dorsal and 1 ventral” are best seen in lateral view of the tip and may require a compound microscope; otherwise the tip may appear to be as in State 2. This state is present in Anastrepha grandis.

Various degrees of serration on the aculeus tip are recorded under other characters.

#209. Aculeus tip <fusion of cerci>/

1. fused to main part of aculeus, not movable/

2. not fused to main part of aculeus, movable <‘tactile’>/

In the female, the aculeus is the long, apical, sclerotized part of the terminalia, composed of the sclerites of the eighth and more apical segments. It and the eversible membrane normally are retracted inside syntergosternite 7, and dissection may be necessary to see it. Its tip is the part apical to the membranous ventromedial area where the egg emerges. In most tephritids, the tip is fused to the main part of the aculeus (state 2), but sometimes it is free and movable (state 1).

#210. Aculeus tip <extent of serration>/

% serrated/

In the female, the aculeus is the long, apical, sclerotized part of the terminalia, composed of the sclerites of the eighth and more apical segments. It and the eversible membrane normally are retracted inside syntergosternite 7, and dissection may be necessary to see it. Its tip is the part apical to the membranous ventromedial area where the egg emerges. The tip may have lateral teeth or serrations which sometimes can be seen only under a compound microscope. This character can be observed in dorsal or ventral view, but the aculeus tip must be level.

Occasionally the serration extends past the base of the aculeus tip, and the ratio will exceed 100%.

#211. Aculeus tip <serration presence, size>/

1. not serrate/

2. with minute serration, visible only with compound microscope/

3. with numerous fine to medium sized serrations/

4. with large, coarse serrations <5 or fewer>/

In the female, the aculeus is the long, apical, sclerotized part of the terminalia, composed of the sclerites of the eighth and more apical segments. It and the eversible membrane normally are retracted inside syntergosternite 7, and dissection may be necessary to see it. Its tip is the part apical to the membranous ventromedial area where the egg emerges. The tip may have lateral teeth or serrations that can be observed in dorsal or ventral view, but the tip must be level.

#212. <Number of sclerotized spermathecae>/

1. one sclerotized spermatheca/

2. two sclerotized spermathecae/

3. three sclerotized spermathecae/

4. without sclerotized spermathecae <spermathecae membranous>/

Most tephritids have either two or three sclerotized spermathecae which appear in a variety of shapes, e.g. grape-cluster-like, more or less rounded or mushroom-shaped, or narrow and elongate. If all spermathecae are unsclerotized (Myopitini), select “without sclerotized spermathecae”.

It is necessary to dissect the abdomen to observe the spermathecae; having done that, you may want to use the character “spermathecae (shape)” as well.

#213. Spermathecae <shape>/

1. tight-set coils/

2. spherical/

3. ovoid/

4. elongate/

“Tight-set coils” includes lumpy, somewhat elongate spermathecae which resemble a cluster of grapes. “Spherical” also includes spermathecae which are somewhat mushroom-shaped. “Ovoid” includes egg-shaped or elongate-oval spermathecae. “Elongate” includes rod-like spermathecae.

Miscellaneous #214. <Sex:>/

1. male/

2. female/

Sexes are easily distinguished by the presence of syntergosternite 7 in the female, which is easily visible without a microscope in most species; females also have a sclerotized aculeus, which is normally withdrawn in synterosternite 7. In some species (e.g. many Rhagoletis spp.) syntergosternite 7 is very short and a microscope is necessary to see it or the knot-like genitalia of the male.

#215. Male attractant: <see Notes>/

1. none known/

2. Cue-Lure/

3. methyl eugenol/

4. Tri-Med-Lure/

5. Vert-Lure/

6. terpinyl acetate/

7. Willison's lure/

8. isoeugenol/

9. propyl-p-hydroxybenzoate/

10. fresh paint/

Do not use this character for identification. State 1 (no known lures) has been recorded for taxa included in this system, but no distinction has been made between “does not respond” and “no published record of response”. New lure records or results from contaminated lures will cause incorrect elimination of taxa.

#216. <Biogeographic region:>/

1. Nearctic/

2. Neotropical/

3. Palearctic/

4. Afrotropical/

5. Oriental/

6. Australasian-Oceanian/

#217. <Distribution:>/

#218. <Subfamily:>/

1. Dacinae/

2. Phytalmiinae/

3. Tephritinae/

4. Trypetinae/

#219. <Tribe of Dacinae:>/

1. Ceratitidini/

2. Dacini/

#220. <Tribe of Phytalmiinae:>/

1. Acanthonevrini/

#221. <Tribe of Tephritinae:>/

1. Eutretini/

2. Noeetini/

3. Tephritini/

4. Terelliini/

5. Xyphosiini/

#222. <Tribe of Trypetinae:>/

1. Adramini/

2. Carpomyini/

3. Toxotrypanini/

4. Trypetini/

5. Zaceratini/

#223. <Taxonomic notes:>/

#224. Abbreviated taxon name:/

#225. <Illustrations>/


Cite this publication as: ‘L.E. Carroll, I.M. White, A. Freidberg, A.L. Norrbom, M.J. Dallwitz, and F.C. Thompson. 2002 onwards. Pest fruit flies of the world. Version: 8th December 2006. http://delta-intkey.com’.

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