Elateriformia (Coleoptera) Larvae
Phyllocerus species occur in southern Europe, Asia Minor, the Caucasus, Central Asia, South Africa and Madagascar.
Larvae of Phyllocerus occur in the soil among roots and rotting plants.
Ghilarov, M. S. (1979). The larva of Phyllocerus, and the position of this genus in the system of Elateroidea (Coleoptera). Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 58: 6551663 (in Russian).
Body. Length more than 15 mm. Body not broadly ovate and strongly flattened; relatively straight or only slightly curved ventrally; slightly flattened, or strongly flattened; body, as viewed from above elongate and more or less parallel-sided. Vestiture consisting of fine hairs or setae only. Dorsal surfaces very lightly pigmented or sclerotized; generally smooth. Ventral surfaces very lightly pigmented.
Head. Head prognathous or slightly declined; protracted or slightly retracted; not concealed from above by prothorax; narrower than thorax; forming sclerotized, serrate, wedge-like plate. Head capsule strongly depressed and wedge-like anteriorly; posterior edge of head capsule not or only slightly emarginate. Median epicranial region without longitudinal furrow. Epicranial stem absent or very short. Frontal arms absent. Median endocarina absent or coincident with epicranial stem. Paired endocarinae absent or coincident with frontal arms. Number of stemmata zero. Number of antennal segments two. Ratio of antennal length to head width less than 0.15. Sensorium(a) on preapical antennal segment present; shorter than apical segment. Sensorium(a) on preapical (or apical) antennal segment conical or palpiform. Apex of preapical antennal segment truncate, so that sensorium and apical segment arise together. Antenna separated from mandibular articulation by strip of cuticle at least 2 times as wide as antennal socket. Antennal base without eversible membranous lobe. Frontoclypeal suture absent or vaguely indicated. Labrum separated from head capsule by complete suture; without crenulate emargination. Epipharyngeal rods absent. Mouthparts not forming sucking tube. Mandibles symmetrical; non-opposable, straight or curving laterally at apex; not approximate, diverging and longitudinally divided; narrow and falcate, or broad at base and narrow at apex; with open or partly closed groove. Apex of mandible narrow when viewed from in front (parallel or oblique to plane of movement); with single lobe or tooth. Accessory ventral process of mandible absent. Incisor edge of mandible simple. Mesal surface of mandibular base simple or slightly expanded. Mandibular mola absent. Ventral mouthparts retracted. Cardo absent, indistinct or membranous. Cardines or maxillary bases separated from each other by labium. Stipes longer than wide. Maxillary articulating area absent. Maxilla with single, fixed mala. Mala or galea consisting of a single segment. Apex of mala simple, not cleft; or galea falciform; or galea bearing simple seta or spine. Inner apical angle of mala simple. Number of segments in maxillary palp four. First segment of maxillary palp without digitiform appendage. Labium consisting of prementum and postmentum. Mentum, postmentum or labial plate partly or completely fused with maxillae (sutures incomplete or absent). Postmentum or labial plate subquadrate or trapezoidal, with blunt posterior edge. Postmentum or labial plate not divided longitudinally. Ligula shorter than labial palp. Ligula simple, not bilobed; without tooth-like sclerome. Number of segments in labial palp two. Labial palps separated by more than width of first palp segment. Hypopharyngeal sclerome absent. Hypostomal region absent (labium contiguous with thoracic membrane), or present (separating labium from thorax). Hypostomal rods absent. Ventral epicranial ridges absent. Gula absent, or wider than long; gular sutures absent. Gula or gular region fused to labium. Occipital foramen not divided by tentorial bridge.
Thorax. Prothorax not or only slightly wider than abdomen; not longer than meso- and metathorax combined. Thoracic terga without patches of asperities; without rows of asperities or carinae. Protergum with 1 or more sclerotized plates. Meso- and metaterga with 1 or more sclerotized plates. Thorax without well-developed lateral tergal processes. Prosternum without armature. Mesocoxae or coxal lobes separated by more than 2 basal coxal diameters. Thoracic legs articulated. Number of segments in mesothoracic leg four. Number of segments in mesothoracic leg five or fewer including pretarsus (claw). Legs highly reduced, less than 0.2 times as long as head width. Metathoracic leg about same size as mesothoracic leg. Meso- and metathoracic legs not forming stridulatory organ. Apical segment of leg acute and claw-like (or consisting of 2 claws). Number of movable pretarsal claws one. Number of setae on pretarsus zero. Thoracic spiracles biforous or bilabiate; not placed at ends of spiracular tubes.
Abdomen. Ratio of length of abdomen (without appendages) to length of thorax more than 2.0. Number of visible abdominal segments ten. Abdominal terga not extending laterally beyond edges of sterna; without patches of asperities; without rows of asperities. Abdomen without well-developed lateral processes. Abdominal tergum 3 without transverse dorsal folds or lobes; simple, not divided into transverse dorsal folds or lobes. Paired abdominal glands (openings or porous plates) absent. Dorsal, balloon-like tracheal gills absent. Long and narrow, lateral gills absent. Abdominal sterna without patches of asperities; without rows of asperities. Paired ventral prolegs (or asperity-bearing ampullae) absent. Ventral abdominal gill tufts absent. Abdominal tergum 8 without special armature. Abdominal apex without respiratory chamber. Abdominal segment 9 excluding appendages much longer than segment 8. Abdominal tergum 9 not forming articulated plate; extending onto ventral surface; without paired processes or urogomphi; without median process or terminal disc. Abdominal sternum 9 partly or entirely exposed; with row of apical asperities; not enclosed by sternum 8. Abdominal apex without hinged operculum. Abdominal segment 10 without oval lobes separated by longitudinal groove; concealed from above, sometimes membranous or more or less fused to segment 9; without asperated, tubular holdfast organs. Paired pygopods on segment 10 absent. Anal region ventrally oriented. Anal gill tufts absent. Anal hooks absent. Anterior abdominal spiracles biforous or bilabiate. Abdominal spiracles not placed at ends of spiracular tubes. Eighth abdominal spiracles functional and about the same size as others on abdomen; abdominal spiracle 8 lateral or dorsolateral, facing laterally.
The interactive key provides access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, and summaries of attributes within groups of taxa.
Cite this publication as: ‘Lawrence, J.F., Hastings, A.M., Dallwitz, M.J., Paine, T.A., and Zurcher, E.J. 1995 onwards. Elateriformia (Coleoptera) larvae: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval for families and subfamilies. Version: 9th October 2005. http://delta-intkey.com’.