Elateriformia (Coleoptera) Larvae

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J. F. Lawrence, A. M. Hastings, M. J. Dallwitz, T. A. Paine and E. J. Zurcher

BUPRESTIDAE (major part)

Polyphaga: Elateriformia.

Buprestidae is a cosmopolitan family.

The larvae of Buprestidae usually feed on the cambium and outer wood of trees and shrubs; most species attack weakened or dead plants, but some bark borers can kill healthy plants and wood-boring larvae may even damage timber. Leaf-mining and gall forming species also occur in the family, but most of these belong to the Trachyinae and are keyed out separately. North American pest species include the bronze birch borer, Agrilus anxius Gory and the flatheaded apple tree borer, Chrysobothris femorata (Olivier).

References

Böving, A. G. and Craighead, F. C. (1931). An illustrated synopsis of the principal larval forms of the order Coleoptera. Entomologica Americana (New Series) 1: 1–351, 125 pls.

Costa, C., Vanin, S. A. and Casari-Chen, S. A. (1988). Larvas de Coleoptera do Brasil, vi + 282 pp. Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo: Sao Paulo.

Lawrence, J. F. (1991). Buprestidae (Buprestoidea), pp 386–388 in Stehr, F. W. (ed.), Immature Insects. Vol. II. Kendall Hunt: Dubuque, Iowa.

Volkovitsh, M. G. and Hawkeswood, T. J. (1990). The larvae of Agrilus australasiae Laporte & Gory and Ethon affine Laporte & Gory (Insecta: Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Spixiana 13: 43–59.

Body. Length less than 3 mm to more than 15 mm. Body not broadly ovate and strongly flattened; relatively straight or only slightly curved ventrally; slightly flattened, or strongly flattened; body, as viewed from above elongate and more or less parallel-sided. Vestiture consisting of fine hairs or setae only. Dorsal surfaces very lightly pigmented or sclerotized; generally smooth. Ventral surfaces very lightly pigmented.

Head. Head prognathous or slightly declined; strongly retracted; not concealed from above by prothorax; narrower than thorax; not forming sclerotized, serrate, wedge-like plate. Head capsule not strongly depressed and wedge-like anteriorly; posterior edge of head capsule distinctly emarginate. Median epicranial region without longitudinal furrow. Epicranial stem absent or very short. Frontal arms present; V-shaped or U-shaped; not joined anteriorly by transverse line; bases of frontal arms contiguous. Median endocarina short or long, extending between frontal arms (epicranial stem absent). Paired endocarinae located mesad of frontal arms. Number of stemmata zero. Number of antennal segments two. Ratio of antennal length to head width less than 0.15. Sensorium(a) on preapical antennal segment apparently absent in antennae (usually 1- or 2-segmented) with apical sensorium. Antennal base without eversible membranous lobe. Frontoclypeal suture distinct. Labrum separated from head capsule by complete suture. Epipharyngeal rods absent. Mouthparts not forming sucking tube. Mandibles symmetrical; opposable, at least slightly curving mesally at apex; not approximate, diverging and longitudinally divided; broad and stout or more or less wedge-like; without groove or perforation. Apex of mandible narrow when viewed from in front (parallel or oblique to plane of movement), or broad when viewed from in front (perpendicular to plane of movement); bilobed or bidentate, or trilobed or tridentate. Accessory ventral process of mandible absent. Incisor edge of mandible simple, or with 1 or 2 subapical teeth. Mesal surface of mandibular base simple or slightly expanded, or with brush of hairs or spines. Mandibular mola absent. Ventral mouthparts strongly protracted. Cardo absent, indistinct or membranous; undivided; transverse to slightly oblique. Cardines or maxillary bases separated from each other by labium. Stipes longer than wide. Maxillary articulating area absent. Maxilla with single, articulated mala. Mala or galea consisting of a single segment. Apex of mala simple, not cleft; or galea rounded or truncate; or galea setose or spinose. Inner apical angle of mala simple. Number of segments in maxillary palp two. First segment of maxillary palp without digitiform appendage. Labium consisting of prementum and postmentum. Mentum, postmentum or labial plate completely free or basally connate with maxillae, or completely or almost completely connate with maxillae. Postmentum or labial plate subquadrate or trapezoidal, with blunt posterior edge. Postmentum or labial plate not divided longitudinally. Ligula as long as or longer than labial palp. Ligula simple, not bilobed; without tooth-like sclerome. Number of segments in labial palp one. Labial palps separated by more than width of first palp segment. Hypopharyngeal bracon present. Hypopharyngeal sclerome absent. Hypostomal region present (separating labium from thorax). Hypostomal rods absent. Ventral epicranial ridges absent. Gula longer than wide; gular sutures separate. Gula or gular region fused to labium. Occipital foramen not divided by tentorial bridge.

Thorax. Prothorax much wider than abdomen; not longer than meso- and metathorax combined, or longer than meso- and metathorax combined. Thoracic terga without patches of asperities, or with patch(es) of asperities on prothorax only; without rows of asperities or carinae. Protergum without sclerotized plates. Meso- and metaterga without sclerotized plates. Thorax without well-developed lateral tergal processes. Prosternum with rod-like sclerotization, or with patch of asperities and rod-like sclerotisation. Mesocoxae or coxal lobes separated by more than 2 basal coxal diameters. Thoracic legs absent or represented by non-articulated lobes or processes, or articulated (rare). Number of segments in mesothoracic leg one, or two (rare), or zero. Number of segments in mesothoracic leg five or fewer including pretarsus (claw). Legs highly reduced, less than 0.2 times as long as head width. Metathoracic leg about same size as mesothoracic leg. Meso- and metathoracic legs not forming stridulatory organ. Apical segment of leg acute and claw-like (or consisting of 2 claws). Number of movable pretarsal claws one. Number of setae on pretarsus zero. Thoracic spiracles cribriform; not placed at ends of spiracular tubes.

Abdomen. Ratio of length of abdomen (without appendages) to length of thorax more than 2.0. Number of visible abdominal segments ten. Abdominal terga not extending laterally beyond edges of sterna; without patches of asperities; without rows of asperities. Abdomen without well-developed lateral processes. Abdominal tergum 3 without transverse dorsal folds or lobes; simple, not divided into transverse dorsal folds or lobes. Paired abdominal glands (openings or porous plates) absent. Dorsal, balloon-like tracheal gills absent. Long and narrow, lateral gills absent. Abdominal sterna without patches of asperities; without rows of asperities. Paired ventral prolegs (or asperity-bearing ampullae) absent. Ventral abdominal gill tufts absent. Abdominal tergum 8 without special armature. Abdominal apex without respiratory chamber. Abdominal segment 9 excluding appendages shorter than segment 8. Abdominal tergum 9 not forming articulated plate; completely dorsal; without paired processes or urogomphi; without median process or terminal disc. Abdominal sternum 9 partly or entirely exposed; simple or apparently absent; not enclosed by sternum 8. Abdominal apex without hinged operculum. Abdominal segment 10 without oval lobes separated by longitudinal groove; distinct and visible from above; without asperated, tubular holdfast organs. Paired pygopods on segment 10 absent. Anal region posteriorly or terminally oriented. Anal gill tufts absent. Anal hooks absent. Anterior abdominal spiracles cribriform. Abdominal spiracles not placed at ends of spiracular tubes. Eighth abdominal spiracles functional and about the same size as others on abdomen; abdominal spiracle 8 lateral or dorsolateral, facing laterally.

Illustrations. • Buprestidae: Genus ?.


The interactive key provides access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, and summaries of attributes within groups of taxa.

Cite this publication as: ‘Lawrence, J.F., Hastings, A.M., Dallwitz, M.J., Paine, T.A., and Zurcher, E.J. 1995 onwards. Elateriformia (Coleoptera) larvae: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval for families and subfamilies. Version: 9th October 2005. http://delta-intkey.com’.

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