Classification. Polyphaga: Elateriformia.
Distribution. Dryopidae occur in all major regions of the world but are absent from the continent of Australia.
Biogeographic regions: Nearctic, Palearctic, Neotropical, Afrotropical, Oriental, Australian.
Biology. Dryopids usually occur in wetter habitats, but only the adults of Helichus, Postelichus and Elmoparnus, and all stages of Stygoparnus are known to be truly aquatic. Most dryopid larvae occur in soil or leaf litter.
Barr, C. B. and P. J. Spangler. 1992. A new genus and species of stygobiontic dryopid beetle, Stygoparnus comalensis (Coleoptera: Dryopidae), from Comal Springs, Texas. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 105: 40–54.
Besuchet, C. 1978. Description d'un dryopide terrestre nouveau de la Malasie (Coleoptera). Revue Suisse de Zoologie 85: 705–709,
Bollow, H. 1936. Monographie der palaearktischen Dryopidae, mit Berücksichtigung der eventuell transgredierenden Arten (Col.). Mitteilungen der Münchener Entomologischen Gesellschaft 26: 147–182, figs. 1–61.
Brown, H. P. 1970. A key to the dryopid genera of the New World (Coleoptera, Dryopoidea). Entomological News 81: 171–175.
Kodada, J. 1998. Franzyops longipalpis, a new genus and species of terrestrial Dryopidae from Venezuela (Coleoptera: Dryopidae). Koleopterologische Rundschau 68: 211–216.
Kodada, J. and M. A. Jäch 1995. Dryopidae: 1. Check list and bibliography of the Dryopidae of China, pp. 325–328. IN: M. A. Jäch and L. Ji (eds.), Water Beetles of China. Vol. I. Zoologisch-Botanische Gesellschaft in Österreich und Wiener Coleopterologenverein, Vienna.
Kodada, J. and M. A. Jäch 1995. Dryopidae: 2. Taxonomic review of the Chinese species of the genus Helichus Erichson, pp. 329–339. IN: M. A. Jäch and L. Ji (eds.), Water Beetles of China. Vol. I. Zoologisch-Botanische Gesellschaft in Österreich und Wiener Coleopterologenverein, Vienna.
Perkins, P. D. 1997. Momentum and Ghiselinus, new Neotropical genera of humicolous beetles with remarkable and divergent mouthparts (Coleoptera: Dryopidae). Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment 32: 100–117.
Perkins, P. D. and W. Shepard 2000. 48. Dryopidae. IN: R. H. Arnett, Jr. and M. C. Thomas (eds.), American Beetles. CRC Press, Gainesville, Florida (in press).
Spangler, P. J. 1980. Onopelmus, a new genus of dryopid beetle from Peru (Coleoptera: Dryopidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 82: 161–165.
Spangler, P. J. 1991. Guaranius carlosi, a new genus and species of dryopid beetle from Paraguay (Coleoptera: Dryopidae). Coleopterists Bulletin 45: 147–151.
Spangler, P. J. and W. E. Steiner 1983. New species of water beetles of the genera Elmoparnus and Pheneps from Suriname (Coleoptera: Dryopidae; Psephenidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 85: 826–839.
Spangler, P. J. and V. Decu 1998. Coleoptera aquatica, pp. 1031–1046. IN: C. Juberthie et V. Decu (eds.), Encyclopaedia Biospeologica. Tom II. Société de Biospéologie, Moulis, Bucarest.
Spangler, P. J. and P. D. Perkins 1986. A new species of aquatic beetle, Elmoparnus jordanorum, from Guyana (Coleoptera: Dryopidae). Coleopterists Bulletin 40: 359–365.
Steffan, A. W. 1979. 42. Familie: Dryopidae, pp. 265–294. IN: H. Freude, K. W. Harde and G. A. Lohse (eds.), Die Käfer Mitteleuropas. Band 6. Diversicornia. Goecke & Evers, Krefeld.
Ulrich, G. W. 1986. The larvae and pupae of Helichus suturalis LeConte and Helichus productus LeConte (Coleoptera: Dryopidae). Coleopterists Bulletin 40: 325–334.
Zaitzev, P. 1910. Pars 17. Dryopidae, Cyathoceridae, Georyssidae, Heteroceridae. IN: S. Schenkling (ed.), Coleopterorum Catalogus. W. Junk, Berlin, 68 pp.
General appearance. Total length 1.5–8 mm. Ratio of body length to greatest body width 1.7–3.2. Body slightly flattened to moderately convex, or strongly convex. Sides of body not evenly curved. Body not capable of conglobation (rolling into a ball). Upper surfaces of body glabrous or subglabrous (rare), or clothed with distinct hairs, setae or scales. Vestiture of upper surfaces not including stiff, erect, dark bristles, or including stiff, erect, dark bristles; not including scales or scale-like setae. Upper surfaces of body without deep foveae. Prothorax, metathorax and-or abdomen without extrusible glands. Underside of body without hydrofuge surface(s), or with hydrofuge surface(s).
Head. Ratio of head length to its greatest width (excluding eyes) 1 or less. Head width just behind eyes not distinctly greater than prothoracic width. Head not or slightly declined, or moderately to strongly declined; not entirely concealed from above by pronotum; without elongate rostrum; not abruptly constricted posteriorly. Temples absent or not closely adpressed to prothorax; absent. Transverse occipital ridge or carina absent, or present. Occiput without stridulatory file. Longitudinal axis of head (from occipital foramen to mouth cavity) inclined at an angle of less than 45 degrees, or inclined at an angle of 45 to 90 degrees. Frontal region not to moderately, gradually declined. Occipital region without median longitudinal groove or line (endocarina). Frontal region without median groove or line (endocarina). Head without ocelli.
Compound eyes present, or absent. Eyes not or only slightly protuberant, or strongly protuberant. Vertical diameter of eye less than 2 times horizontal diameter. Eyes finely facetted; with interfacetal setae. Ommatidium of the eucone type. Eye entire. Anterior or mesal edge of eye not or only barely emarginate. Posterior edge of eye not or barely emarginate.
Antennal insertions exposed from above; moderately to widely separated, or narrowly separated, or closely approximate or contiguous. Antennae not borne on raised tubercles. Subantennal groove or cavity on head well developed. Frontoclypeal suture absent or incomplete. Clypeus not laterally emarginate. Anterior edge of clypeus or clypeolabrum straight to convex. Mouth cavity anteriorly or anteroventrally oriented. Pregular area without laterally opening cavities. Head ventrally without paired subgenal ridges. Head without anteriorly-projecting genal processes. Gular sutures widely separated or absent. Corporotentorium broad, or narrow; without median process. Cervical sclerites present.
Antennae. Number of antennomeres 3–6, or 8–11, or 13. Antennae when posteriorly extended not reaching middle of prothorax. Antennae pectinate or bipectinate, or capitate. Antennomeres 3, 4 or 5 to 10 without or with single rami (uniramose). Antennae at least partly pubescent or with obvious modifications. Antennal modifications beginning on antennomere 3 (rarely 2), or antennomere 4. First antennomere (scape) less than 3 times as long as 2nd (pedicel). Antenna not geniculate; without apical club, or with strong apical club. Antennal club 5-segmented, or with 6 or more segments; not 5-segmented or with 2nd segment subequal to or larger than 1st; loose; not lamellate; not or slightly serrate; distinctly flattened; not preceded by a cupule.
Mouthparts. Labrum at least partly visible; free, membranous or separated by suture. Major portion of labrum strongly transverse, or slightly transverse or subquadrate. Apex of labrum subtruncate to slightly convex, or slightly concave or emarginate. Labrum moderately to heavily sclerotized, except at base and-or apex. Mouthparts not forming a piercing or sucking tube. Mandibles present. Mandible short and broad. Mandibular apex moderately to strongly, gradually curved mesally, or strongly and abruptly curved mesally; bidentate or bilobed, or multidentate or multilobed. Dorsal part of mandible without tubercle; without setose cavity. Incisor edge of mandible simple, or with single tooth, or with 2 or more teeth. Mandible with well developed mola; with well developed prostheca. Prostheca absent or without articulated, sclerotized process. Maxilla with distinct galea and lacinia. Maxillary lobe(s) not stylet-like. Apex of galea or maxillary lobe densely setose or spinose; without heavily sclerotized teeth or hooks. Lacinia without hook(s) or spine(s). Apical maxillary palpomere cylindrical to fusiform; at least as wide as or longer than preapical one. Maxillary palp without complex palp organ. Apical labial palpomere cylindrical to fusiform. Ligula undivided or finely cleft.
Prothorax. Ratio of pronotal length to greatest pronotal width 0.54–1.05. Prothorax widest at middle, or posteriorly. Sides of prothorax more or less straight, or moderately to strongly curved. Prothorax not laterally compressed to form cavities for legs. Sides of prothorax not or slightly explanate. Base of prothorax not or slightly narrower than elytral bases. Greatest prothoracic width not or slightly narrower than greatest elytral width. Lateral pronotal carinae complete; simple, or finely crenulate or denticulate; visible for their entire lengths from above; without a raised margin, or with a raised margin or narrow bead. Lateral portion of prothorax without deep pit. Pronotum without anterolateral callosities. Anterior angles of pronotum distinctly produced forward; produced and broadly rounded or obtusely angulate. Posterior angles of pronotum obtuse or right, or moderately to strongly acute; not produced and acute. Posterior edge of pronotum moderately to strongly produced forming mesal lobe, or distinctly sinuate or variously lobed; simple, or distinctly crenulate; not or vaguely margined. Discal carinae of pronotum absent, or basal but mesad of posterior angles, or extending beyond middle of disc. Pronotal disc without paired basal impressions. Pronotum without median longitudinal groove or line. Hypomeron without pit.
Anterior portion of prosternum at midline longer than prosternal process. Lateral portion of prosternum in front of coxae longer than mid length of procoxal cavity. Anterior edge of prosternum distinctly produced forming chin piece. Prosternum in front of coxae strongly convex without carina. Prosternum in front of coxae without paired lines or carinae. Anterior edge of prosternum without mesal excavation. Anterolateral or ventrolateral portions of prothorax without cavities or grooves. Prothoracic cavities absent. Prothoracic grooves absent. Prosternal process complete; narrowed apically, or parallel-sided; slightly to strongly elevated but not curved behind; moderately to strongly overlapping mesoventrite, or concealing most or all of mesoventrite. Apex of prosternal process acute or narrowly rounded. Prosternal process without transverse groove. Accessory (mesal) procoxal articulation absent. Ventral portion of prothorax on each side with notosternal suture only. Propleuron not extending to anterior edge of prothorax. Propleuron or pleurotrochantin not extending behind coxa. Procoxae not or slightly projecting below prosternum. Procoxa without or with short concealed lateral extension. Procoxal cavity strongly transverse. Procoxal cavities at middle moderately to widely separated. Procoxal cavities externally open; broadly open. Postcoxal projection absent or very short. Procoxal cavities without narrow lateral extensions. Procoxal cavities internally open. Prothoracic trochantin or pleurotrochantin at least partly exposed. Promesothoracic clicking mechanism absent.
Elytra. Elytra present. Ratio of elytral length to greatest elytral width 1.1–2.3. Ratio of elytral length to pronotal length 2–3.6. Elytra apunctate, irregularly punctate, or with 5 or fewer distinct puncture rows or striae, or with more than 5 distinct puncture rows; without scutellary striole. Number elytral puncture rows or striae 9. Sutural stria absent or not deeply impressed near apex. Abdominal tergites exposed by elytra none or apex of 1. Elytral apices meeting or almost meeting at the suture. Elytral suture not deflected near apex. Elytral apex without internal interlocking tongue. Epipleuron complete; not or gradually narrowed, or abruptly narrowed or excavated. Lateral edge of elytron straight or weakly sinuate.
Pterothorax. Scutellum well developed, or absent or not visible; abruptly elevated; anteriorly simple; posteriorly narrowly rounded or acute, or broadly rounded or obtusely angulate. Mesoscutum without stridulatory file. Mesoventrite with paired procoxal rests. Paired mesoventral procoxal rests absent, horizontal or slightly oblique, or moderately to strongly oblique. Anterior edge of mesoventrite without prosternal rest. Mesoventrite not divided by longitudinal groove or discrimen. Anterior edge of mesoventrite at midline on same plane as metaventrite. Mesoventral cavity moderately large and shallow, or moderately to very large and deep. Mesocoxa not conical and projecting. Mesocoxal cavities at middle moderately to widely separated. Mesocoxae separated by less than shortest diameter of coxal cavity, or more than shortest diameter of coxal cavity. Mesocoxal cavities circular to slightly transverse; not or slightly oblique. Mesoventrite separated by complete sutures from mesepisterna. Mesepisterna distinctly separated at midline; without deep pockets. Mesepimeron not visible from above. Mesocoxal cavities open laterally; not partly closed by metepisterna. Mesoventral process absent or not extending to middle of mesocoxal cavity, or extending at least to middle of mesocoxal cavity. Mesometaventral junction a posteriorly curved, angulate or acute line, or an anteriorly curved, angulate or acute line, or absent due to fusion. Mesoventral and metaventral processes at midline separated by gap, groove, or suture, or solidly fused or separated at most by weakly impressed line.
Metaventral discrimen or median line moderately to very long. Paired postcoxal lines of metaventrite absent. Postcoxal lines of metaventrite absent. Metaventrite longer than first abdominal ventrite, or not longer than first abdominal ventrite. Postcoxal pits of metaventrite absent. Metaventrite flat to slightly convex, or moderately to strongly convex. Transverse groove of metaventrite present. Anterior edge of metaventrite without transverse carina between mesocoxal cavities. Exposed portion of metepisternum short and broad, or moderately elongate, or very long and narrow or absent. Metacoxae contiguous or narrowly separated; not extending laterally to meet elytra or sides of body; completely separated from metaventrite by suture. Metacoxal plates well developed mesally, weak laterally, or weakly developed, or absent; not concealing most of basal abdominal ventrite. Metacoxae not greatly enlarged; horizontally oriented. Lateral arms of metendosternite short or absent, or moderately to very long (rare). Metendosternal laminae absent. Ventrolateral processes of metendosternite absent or weakly developed. Anterior process of metendosternite short or absent. Anterior tendons of metendosternite widely separated but not on lateral arms, or on lateral arms or not apparent (?). Apical portion of metendosternite not or only slightly emarginate.
Hind wing. Hind wing well developed, or highly reduced or absent; with normal transverse folds. Radial cell of hind wing highly reduced or absent; incomplete or absent. Radial cell not forming equilateral triangle. Ratio of length of apical area to total wing length 0.20–0.35, or 0.36–0.5. Medial bar of hind wing not crossed by fold. Free veins in medial area of hind wing 5 or 6, or 4, or 3 or fewer. Oblongum cell of hind wing absent. Medial fleck of hind wing absent; absent or not partly bisected by a vein. Wedge cell of hind wing well developed, or absent. Anal lobe of hind wing absent. Posterior edge of hind wing without fringe of long hairs.
Legs. Femoral attachment of mid trochanter strongly oblique with base of femur separate from coxa. Mesotrochanter not reduced or concealed from below. Metafemur not much wider than mesofemur. Mesotibia not strongly widened. Outer edge of mesotibia simple, crenulate or denticulate. Outer subapical edge of mesotibia without antenna cleaner. Preapical surfaces of mesotibia without ridges or combs. Outer apical angle of mesotibia simple or slightly produced, without lobe, teeth or spines. Mesotibial spurs glabrous or absent. Mesotarsus with 5 distinct tarsomeres (pentamerous). Tarsomeres on hind leg at least as many as on mid leg. Tarsomeres on fore leg at least as many as on mid leg. Mesotarsomere 1 well developed and visible. Preapical mesotarsomeres together longer than apical one, or shorter than apical one. Penultimate mesotarsomere not distinctly shorter than antepenultimate. Ventral mesotarsal lobes absent. Mesotarsal claws paired; subequal in length and similar in form and angle of inclination; simple. Appendage on each tarsal claw absent. Mesotarsal claws without setae near base. Mesotarsal empodium absent or with 2 or fewer setae. Inner subapical edge of protibia without antenna cleaner. Hind legs without swimming hairs. Preapical surfaces of metatibia without ridges or combs.
Abdomen. Number of abdominal ventrites 5. Number of basal ventrites connate two. Abdominal sternite 2 apparently absent. First ventrite not completely divided by metacoxae. Suture between ventrites 1 and 2 distinct. Suture between ventrites 2 and 3 distinct. Ventrite 4 articulated with or connate with both 3 and 5. Postcoxal lines on ventrite 1 absent. Ventrite 1 not much longer than 2. Abdominal process acute or narrowly rounded, or broadly rounded or angulate. Ventrite 5 in female without circular depression. Posterior edge of ventrite 5 not crenulate. Last visible tergite and-or sternite (7 or 8) not forming terminal spine. Subapical abdominal luminous organ absent. Ventrites without setose patches or foveae. Functional spiracles on abdominal segment 8 present. Anterior edge of sternite 8 in male without median strut. Anterior edge of sternite 9 in male without median strut, or with median strut (spiculum gastrale). Tergite 9 in male completely fused to tergite 10. Tergite 10 in male completely membranous or fused to tergite 9.
Aedeagus trilobate; asymmetrical. Anterior edge of tegmen or phallobase without struts, or with single strut. Parameres individually articulated to phallobase or base of penis; not outwardly hooked. Penis without dorsal and ventral lobes. Anterior edge of penis without struts.
Illustrations. • Parnida. Parnida agrestis (Broun). Locality: New Zealand. Artist: D. Helmore. Courtesy of Landcare Research New Zealand Ltd. Reference: Watt 1983.
The interactive key provides access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, and summaries of attributes within groups of taxa.
Cite this publication as: ‘Lawrence, J.F., Hastings, A.M., Dallwitz, M.J., Paine, T.A., and Zurcher, E.J. 2000 onwards. Elateriformia (Coleoptera): descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval for families and subfamilies. Version: 9th October 2005. http://delta-intkey.com’.