Elateriformia (Coleoptera)

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J. F. Lawrence, A. M. Hastings, M. J. Dallwitz, T. A. Paine and E. J. Zurcher

CALLIRHIPIDAE

Classification. Polyphaga: Elateriformia.

Distribution. Callirhipidae occur throughout the warmer parts of the world and are present on all continents, Madagascar, and some Pacific Islands, but not New Zealand.

Biogeographic regions: Nearctic, Palearctic, Neotropical, Afrotropical, Oriental, Australian.

Biology. Larval callirhipids feed in dead wood and adults may be attracted to lights at night.

Notes. Callirhipidae were traditionally included in the same family as Rhipiceridae (Sandalidae of Emden), but Böving and Craighead (1931) considered the Zenoa larva to be quite distinct from that of Sandalus and placed the two genera in different families. Forbes (1926) placed the callirhipids in the family Eulichadidae (as Lichadidae) based on wing venation. Crowson (1950, 1955) recognized a superfamily Rhipiceroidea which included both Rhipiceridae and Callirhipidae, but later (1971, 1973) united the former with Dascillidae and placed the latter in a new superfamily Artematopidae, along with two other basal elateroids of doubtful affinity. Recent cladistic studies have not really clarified the position of Callirhipidae. Costa et al. (1999) considered both callirhipids and eulichadids to be incertae sedis within Elateriformia, and Beutel (1995) found that Eulichadidae (combined with Ptilodactylidae excluding Araeopidiinae and Cladotominae) and Callirhipidae formed two basal clades at the base of a group consisting of most of the remaining elateriforms (taxa usually comprising the Dryopoidea, Elateroidea and Cantharoidea). The latter analysis was based only on larvae.

References

Beutel, R. G. 1995. Phylogenetic analysis of Elateriformia (Coleoptera: Polyphaga) based on larval characters. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 33: 145–171.

Böving, A. G. and F. C. Craighead 1931. An illustrated synopsis of the principal larval forms of the order Coleoptera. Entomologica Americana (N.S.) 11(1930): 1–351.

Costa, C. and S. A. Vanin 1985. Larvae of Neotropical Coleoptera XI: Callirhipidae, Artematopoidea. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 2(6): 351–355.

Crowson, R. A. 1950. The classification of the families of British Coleoptera (part). Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 86: 327–344 (Scarabaeoidea, Dascilloidea, Byrrhoidea, Dryopoidea and Rhipiceroidea).

Crowson, R. A. 1955. The Natural Classification of the Families of Coleoptera. Nathaniel Lloyd, London, 187 pp.

Crowson, R. A. 1971. Observations on the superfamily Dascilloidea (Coleoptera: Polyphaga), with the inclusion of Karumiidae and Rhipiceridae. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 50: 11–19.

Crowson, R. A. 1973. On a new superfamily Artematopoidea of polyphagan beetles, with the definition of two new fossil genera from the Baltic Amber. Journal of Natural History 7: 225–238.

Emden, F. I. van 1931. Zur Kenntnis der Sandalidae XI-XVI. Entomologische Blätter 27: 49–59, 107–116, 145–152, pl. 1.

Emden, F. I. van 1933. Die Philippinischen Arten der Untergattung Callirhipis (Coleoptera). Philippine Journal of Science 51: 331–356.

Emden, F. I. van 1934. Die Callirhipis-Untergattung Helleriola Emden, 1931 (Coleoptera; Sandalidae). Philippine Journal of Science 53: 421–427.

Emden, F. I. van 1942. Die Larven der Callirhipini, eine mutmassliche Cerophytum-Larve und Familien-Bestimmungstabelle der Larven der Malacodermata-Sternoxia-Reihe (Coleoptera). Bulletin et Annales de la Société Royale Entomologique de Belgique 72: 199–259.

Forbes, W. T. M. 1926. The wing folding patterns of the Coleoptera. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 34: 42–115, pls. 7–18.

Lawrence, J. F. 1988. Rhinorhipidae, a new beetle family from Australia, with comments on the phylogeny of the Elateriformia. Invertebrate Taxonomy 2: 1–53.

Pic, M. 1925. Pars 81. Rhipiceridae. IN: S. Schenkling (ed.), Coleopterorum Catalogus. W. Junk, Berlin, 13 pp.

Young, D. K. 2000. 57. Callirhipidae. IN: R. H. Arnett, Jr., Jr. and M. C. Thomas (eds.), American Beetles. CRC Press, Gainesville, Florida (in press).

Zimmerman, E. C. 1942. Rhipiceridae of Guam. Bulletin of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum 172: 45–46, pl. 1.

General appearance. Total length 9–23 mm. Ratio of body length to greatest body width 2.85–3.25. Body slightly flattened to moderately convex. Sides of body not evenly curved. Body not capable of conglobation (rolling into a ball). Upper surfaces of body glabrous or subglabrous, or clothed with distinct hairs, setae or scales. Vestiture of upper surfaces not including stiff, erect, dark bristles; not including scales or scale-like setae. Upper surfaces of body without deep foveae. Prothorax, metathorax and-or abdomen without extrusible glands. Underside of body without hydrofuge surface(s).

Head. Ratio of head length to its greatest width (excluding eyes) greater than 1. Head width just behind eyes not distinctly greater than prothoracic width. Head moderately to strongly declined; not entirely concealed from above by pronotum; without elongate rostrum; not abruptly constricted posteriorly. Temples absent or not closely adpressed to prothorax; absent. Transverse occipital ridge or carina absent. Occiput without stridulatory file. Longitudinal axis of head (from occipital foramen to mouth cavity) inclined at an angle of less than 45 degrees. Frontal region strongly deflexed, vertical or inflexed at apex only. Occipital region without median longitudinal groove or line (endocarina). Frontal region without median groove or line (endocarina). Head without ocelli.

Compound eyes present. Eyes strongly protuberant. Vertical diameter of eye less than 2 times horizontal diameter. Eyes finely facetted; without interfacetal setae. Ommatidium of the exocone type. Eye entire. Anterior or mesal edge of eye not or only barely emarginate. Posterior edge of eye not or barely emarginate.

Antennal insertions exposed from above; narrowly separated. Antennae not borne on raised tubercles. Antennal insertions flush with head capsule or raised, not in fossae. Subantennal groove or cavity on head absent or very weakly developed. Frontoclypeal suture absent or incomplete. Clypeus not laterally emarginate. Anterior edge of clypeus or clypeolabrum straight to convex, or concave to shallowly emarginate. Mouth cavity anteriorly or anteroventrally oriented. Pregular area without laterally opening cavities. Head ventrally without paired subgenal ridges. Head without anteriorly-projecting genal processes. Gular sutures widely separated or absent. Corporotentorium narrow; without median process. Cervical sclerites present.

Antennae. Number of antennomeres 11. Antennae when posteriorly extended reaching beyond middle of prothorax but not middle of elytra, or reaching beyond middle of elytra but not elytral apices. Antennae pectinate or bipectinate, or flabellate or biflabellate. Antennomeres 3, 4 or 5 to 10 without or with single rami (uniramose). Antennae at least partly pubescent or with obvious modifications. Antennal modifications beginning on antennomere 3 (rarely 2). First antennomere (scape) more than 3 times as long as 2nd (pedicel). Antenna not geniculate; without apical club.

Mouthparts. Labrum at least partly visible; free, membranous or separated by suture. Major portion of labrum slightly transverse or subquadrate. Apex of labrum strongly convex, narrowly rounded or acute. Labrum moderately to heavily sclerotized, except at base and-or apex. Mouthparts not forming a piercing or sucking tube. Mandibles present. Mandible short and broad. Mandibular apex strongly and abruptly curved mesally; unidentate, truncate or rounded, or bidentate or bilobed; subacute, bidentate or multidentate. Dorsal part of mandible with tubercle fitting into cavity on clypeus; without setose cavity. Mandible moderately to strongly, more or less evenly sclerotized or pigmented; visible in lateral view. Incisor edge of mandible simple. Mandible without mola; without prostheca. Prostheca absent or without articulated, sclerotized process. Inner basal angle of mandible without pubescent process. Maxilla with distinct galea and lacinia. Maxillary lobe(s) not stylet-like. Apex of galea or maxillary lobe densely setose or spinose; without heavily sclerotized teeth or hooks. Lacinia without hook(s) or spine(s). Apical maxillary palpomere cylindrical to fusiform; at least as wide as or longer than preapical one. Maxillary palp without complex palp organ. Apical labial palpomere cylindrical to fusiform. Ligula undivided or finely cleft.

Prothorax. Ratio of pronotal length to greatest pronotal width 0.57–0.67. Prothorax widest posteriorly. Sides of prothorax straight posteriorly, curved anteriorly. Prothorax not laterally compressed to form cavities for legs. Sides of prothorax not or slightly explanate. Base of prothorax not or slightly narrower than elytral bases. Greatest prothoracic width not or slightly narrower than greatest elytral width. Lateral pronotal carinae incomplete, or absent; simple; visible for their entire lengths from above, or not visible for their entire length from above; without a raised margin. Lateral portion of prothorax without deep pit. Pronotum without anterolateral callosities. Anterior angles of pronotum absent or not produced forward; absent, right or rounded, not produced. Posterior angles of pronotum obtuse or right, or moderately to strongly acute; not produced and acute. Posterior edge of pronotum distinctly sinuate or variously lobed; simple, or distinctly crenulate; not or vaguely margined. Discal carinae of pronotum absent. Pronotal disc without paired basal impressions. Pronotum without median longitudinal groove or line. Anterior edge of pronotum simple, without margin. Hypomeron without pit.

Anterior portion of prosternum at midline shorter than prosternal process. Lateral portion of prosternum in front of coxae shorter than mid length of procoxal cavity. Anterior edge of prosternum not produced anteriorly. Prosternum in front of coxae flat to moderately convex. Prosternum in front of coxae without paired lines or carinae. Anterior edge of prosternum without margin; without mesal excavation, or with mesal excavation. Anterolateral or ventrolateral portions of prothorax without cavities or grooves. Prothoracic cavities absent. Prothoracic grooves absent. Prosternal process complete; parallel-sided; flat, concave, or only slightly elevated or curved behind coxae; slightly overlapping mesoventrite. Apex of prosternal process acute or narrowly rounded. Prosternal process without transverse groove. Accessory (mesal) procoxal articulation absent. Ventral portion of prothorax on each side with notosternal suture only. Propleuron not extending to anterior edge of prothorax. Propleuron or pleurotrochantin not extending behind coxa. Procoxae projecting well below prosternum. Procoxa without or with short concealed lateral extension. Procoxal cavity slightly transverse. Procoxal cavities at middle narrowly separated. Procoxal cavities externally open; broadly open. Postcoxal projection absent or very short. Procoxal cavities without narrow lateral extensions. Procoxal cavities internally open. Prothoracic trochantin or pleurotrochantin at least partly exposed. Promesothoracic clicking mechanism absent.

Elytra. Elytra present. Ratio of elytral length to greatest elytral width 2.3–2.72. Ratio of elytral length to pronotal length 4.4–5.3. Elytra apunctate, irregularly punctate, or with 5 or fewer distinct puncture rows or striae, or with more than 5 distinct puncture rows; with scutellary striole. Number elytral puncture rows or striae 10. Sutural stria absent or not deeply impressed near apex. Abdominal tergites exposed by elytra none or apex of 1. Elytral apices meeting or almost meeting at the suture. Elytral suture not deflected near apex. Elytral apex without internal interlocking tongue. Epipleuron complete; not or gradually narrowed. Lateral edge of elytron straight or weakly sinuate.

Pterothorax. Scutellum well developed; abruptly elevated; anteriorly simple, or crenulate; posteriorly broadly rounded or obtusely angulate. Mesoscutum without stridulatory file. Mesoventrite with paired procoxal rests. Paired mesoventral procoxal rests moderately to strongly oblique. Anterior edge of mesoventrite without prosternal rest. Mesoventrite at least partly divided by longitudinal groove or discrimen. Anterior edge of mesoventrite at midline on same plane as metaventrite. Mesoventral cavity small and shallow. Mesocoxa not conical and projecting, or conical and projecting. Mesocoxal cavities at middle narrowly separated. Mesocoxae separated by less than shortest diameter of coxal cavity. Mesocoxal cavities circular to slightly transverse; not or slightly oblique. Mesoventrite separated by complete sutures from mesepisterna. Mesepisterna distinctly separated at midline; without deep pockets. Mesepimeron not visible from above. Mesocoxal cavities open laterally; not partly closed by metepisterna. Mesoventral process extending at least to middle of mesocoxal cavity. Mesometaventral junction an anteriorly curved, angulate or acute line. Mesoventral and metaventral processes at midline separated by gap, groove, or suture. Accessory (mesal) mesocoxal articulation absent.

Metaventral discrimen or median line moderately to very long. Paired postcoxal lines of metaventrite absent. Postcoxal lines of metaventrite absent. Metaventrite longer than first abdominal ventrite. Postcoxal pits of metaventrite absent. Metaventrite moderately to strongly convex. Transverse groove of metaventrite absent. Anterior edge of metaventrite without transverse carina between mesocoxal cavities. Exposed portion of metepisternum moderately elongate. Metacoxae contiguous or narrowly separated; separated by less than longest coxal diameter; extending laterally to meet elytra or sides of body; completely separated from metaventrite by suture. Metacoxal plates weakly developed; not concealing most of basal abdominal ventrite. Metacoxae not greatly enlarged; horizontally oriented. Lateral arms of metendosternite short or absent. Metendosternal laminae absent. Ventrolateral processes of metendosternite absent or weakly developed, or strongly developed. Anterior process of metendosternite moderately long. Anterior tendons of metendosternite moderately or very close together. Apical portion of metendosternite not or only slightly emarginate.

Hind wing. Hind wing well developed; with normal transverse folds. Radial cell of hind wing well developed; elongate. Inner posterior angle formed at base of radial cell right or obtuse. Radial cell not forming equilateral triangle. Ratio of length of apical area to total wing length less than 0.2. Apical area of hind wing with one or more vague sclerotizations or pigment patches. Medial bar of hind wing not crossed by fold. Free veins in medial area of hind wing 5 or 6. Oblongum cell of hind wing absent. Medial fleck of hind wing absent; absent or not partly bisected by a vein. Wedge cell of hind wing well developed. Apex of wedge cell of hind wing obliquely truncate. Anal lobe of hind wing absent. Posterior edge of hind wing without fringe of long hairs.

Legs. Femoral attachment of mid trochanter strongly oblique with base of femur separate from coxa. Mesotrochanter not reduced or concealed from below. Metafemur not much wider than mesofemur. Mesotibia not strongly widened. Outer edge of mesotibia simple, crenulate or denticulate. Outer subapical edge of mesotibia without antenna cleaner. Preapical surfaces of mesotibia without ridges or combs. Outer apical angle of mesotibia simple or slightly produced, without lobe, teeth or spines. Inner apical angle of mesotibia not or slightly produced, without tooth. Mesotibial spurs glabrous or absent; double. Mesotarsus with 5 distinct tarsomeres (pentamerous). Tarsomeres on hind leg at least as many as on mid leg. Tarsomeres on fore leg at least as many as on mid leg. Mesotarsomere 1 well developed and visible. Preapical mesotarsomeres together longer than apical one, or shorter than apical one. Penultimate mesotarsomere not distinctly shorter than antepenultimate. Ventral mesotarsal lobes absent. Mesotarsal claws paired; subequal in length and similar in form and angle of inclination; simple. Appendage on each tarsal claw absent. Mesotarsal claws without setae near base. Mesotarsal empodium present and exposed; with 3 or more setae. Outer edge of protibia simple and rounded to carinate but without lobes or teeth, except at apex. Outer apical angle of protibia simple or slightly produced, without lobe, teeth or spines. Inner subapical edge of protibia without antenna cleaner. Protibial spurs double. Articulations of protibial spurs located in same plane. Hind legs without swimming hairs. Preapical surfaces of metatibia without ridges or combs. Metatibial articular area not to only moderately expanded, narrowly oval or oblique. Metatibial spurs double; subequal in length and form.

Abdomen. Number of abdominal ventrites 5. Number of basal ventrites connate three. Abdominal sternite 2 apparently absent. First ventrite not completely divided by metacoxae. Suture between ventrites 1 and 2 distinct. Suture between ventrites 2 and 3 distinct. Ventrite 4 articulated with or connate with both 3 and 5. Postcoxal lines on ventrite 1 absent. Ventrite 1 not much longer than 2. Abdominal process acute or narrowly rounded. Ventrite 5 in female without circular depression. Posterior edge of ventrite 5 not crenulate. Last visible tergite and-or sternite (7 or 8) not forming terminal spine. Tergite and sternite 7 separated by membrane or distinct suture. Subapical abdominal luminous organ absent. Ventrites without setose patches or foveae. Functional spiracles on abdominal segment 8 present. Functional spiracles on abdominal segment 7 present. Functional spiracles on abdominal segment 6 present. Functional spiracles on abdominal segment 5 present. 7th abdominal spiracles located on sternite. 6th abdominal spiracles located in sternite. 5th abdominal spiracles located in sternite. Anterior edge of sternite 8 in male without median strut. Pygidium (sclerotized tergite 7 or 8) more or less horizontal. Anterior edge of sternite 9 in male without median strut. Tergite 9 in male slightly to moderately emarginate. Tergite 10 in male well developed and free.

Aedeagus trilobate; symmetrical. Anterior edge of tegmen or phallobase without struts. Parameres individually articulated to phallobase or base of penis; not outwardly hooked. Penis without dorsal and ventral lobes. Anterior edge of penis with paired struts.

Illustrations. • Callirhipis. Callirhipis cardwellensis Blackburn. Locality: Australia. Artist: S. P. Kim. Copyright CSIRO. Reference: Lawrence and Britton 1991.


The interactive key provides access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, and summaries of attributes within groups of taxa.

Cite this publication as: ‘Lawrence, J.F., Hastings, A.M., Dallwitz, M.J., Paine, T.A., and Zurcher, E.J. 2000 onwards. Elateriformia (Coleoptera): descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval for families and subfamilies. Version: 9th October 2005. http://delta-intkey.com’.

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