(= Buprestidae: Trachyinae part).
Classification. Polyphaga: Elateriformia.
Distribution. The genera Trachys and Habroloma occur throughout the Palaearctic, Afrotropical and Oriental regions, and the latter extends into New Guinea and Australia. Neotrachys occurs in tropical America, from Guatemala to Brazil and Bolivia.
Biogeographic regions: Palearctic, Neotropical, Afrotropical, Oriental, Australian.
Biology. Trachyini mine the leaves of a variety of dicotyledonous angiosperms, including members of the families Dipsaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Geraniaceae, Lamiaceae, Malvaceae and Rosaceae. The Neotropical genus Neotrachys has been associated with tree ferns.
Notes. Data at least partly checked by C. L. Bellamy.
Bellamy, C. L. 1985. A catalogue of the higher taxa of the family Buprestidae (Coleoptera). Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum Bloemfontein, Natural Science 4(15): 405–472.
Bellamy, C. L. 1986. The higher classification of Australian Buprestidae, with the description of a new genus and species (Coleoptera). Australian Journal of Zoology 34: 583–600.
Bellamy, C. L. 1992. The Afrotropical cylindromorphines: subfamilial placement, phylogenetic affinities, generic synonymy and species lists (Coleoptera Buprestidae Agrilinae). Tropical Zoologyv 5: 45–54.
Bellamy, C. L. and G. H. Nelson 2000. 45. Buprestidae. IN: R. H. Arnett, Jr., Jr. and M. C. Thomas (eds.), American Beetles. CRC Press, Gainesville, Florida (in press).
Cobos, A. 1979. Revision de la subfamilia Trachyinae a niveles supraspecificos (Coleoptera, Buprestidae). Acta Entomologca Bohemoslovaka 76: 414–430.
Harde, K. W. and A. Lompe 1979. 38. Familie: Buprestidae (Prachtkäfer), pp. 204–248. IN: H. Freude, K. W. Harde and G. A. Lohse (eds.), Die Käfer Mitteleuropas. Band 6. Diversicornia. Goecke & Evers, Krefeld.
Hespenheide, H. A. 1980. A revision of Antillean Neotrachys (Coleoptera, Buprestidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 53: 815–824.
Hespenheide, H. A. 1982. A revision of Central American species of Neotrachys (Buprestidae). Coleopterists Bulletin 36: 328–349.
Harde, K. W. 1979. 38. Familie: Buprestidae (Prachtkäfer), pp. 204–248. IN: H. Freude, K. W. Harde and G. A. Lohse (eds.), Die Käfer Mitteleuropas. Band 6. Diversicornia. Goecke & Evers, Krefeld.
Kerremans, C. 1902–1903. Coleoptera Fam. Buprestidae. IN: P. Wytsman (ed.), Genera Insectorum. Fascicule 12.Verteneuil and Desmet, Brussels, 338 pp., 4 pls.
Obenberger, J. 1937. Pars 157. Buprestidae VI. IN: S. Schenkling (ed.), Coleopterorum Catalogus. W. Junk, Berlin, pp. 1247–1714.
General appearance. Total length 1.5–5.2 mm. Ratio of body length to greatest body width 1.43–1.69. Body strongly flattened, or slightly flattened to moderately convex. Sides of body not evenly curved. Body not capable of conglobation (rolling into a ball). Upper surfaces of body clothed with distinct hairs, setae or scales. Vestiture of upper surfaces not including stiff, erect, dark bristles; not including scales or scale-like setae. Upper surfaces of body without deep foveae. Prothorax, metathorax and-or abdomen without extrusible glands. Underside of body without hydrofuge surface(s).
Head. Ratio of head length to its greatest width (excluding eyes) 1 or less. Head width just behind eyes not distinctly greater than prothoracic width. Head moderately to strongly declined; not entirely concealed from above by pronotum; without elongate rostrum; not abruptly constricted posteriorly. Temples absent or not closely adpressed to prothorax; absent. Transverse occipital ridge or carina absent. Occiput without stridulatory file. Longitudinal axis of head (from occipital foramen to mouth cavity) inclined at an angle of 45 to 90 degrees. Frontal region strongly deflexed, vertical or inflexed from behind eyes. Occipital region with median longitudinal groove or line (endocarina). Frontal region without median groove or line (endocarina). Head without ocelli.
Compound eyes present. Eyes not or only slightly protuberant. Vertical diameter of eye less than 2 times horizontal diameter. Eyes finely facetted; without interfacetal setae. Ommatidium of the eucone type. Eye entire. Anterior or mesal edge of eye not or only barely emarginate. Posterior edge of eye not or barely emarginate.
Antennal insertions exposed from above; narrowly separated, or closely approximate or contiguous. Antennae not borne on raised tubercles. Antennal insertions flush with head capsule or raised, not in fossae. Subantennal groove or cavity on head absent or very weakly developed. Frontoclypeal suture absent or incomplete. Clypeus not laterally emarginate. Anterior edge of clypeus or clypeolabrum concave to shallowly emarginate, or deeply emarginate or excavate. Mouth cavity ventrally or posteroventrally oriented. Pregular area without laterally opening cavities. Head ventrally without paired subgenal ridges. Head without anteriorly-projecting genal processes. Gular sutures widely separated or absent. Corporotentorium incomplete or absent. Cervical sclerites present.
Antennae. Number of antennomeres 11. Antennae when posteriorly extended not reaching middle of prothorax, or reaching beyond middle of prothorax but not middle of elytra. Antennae serrate, or capitate. Antennomeres 3, 4 or 5 to 10 without or with single rami (uniramose). Antennae at least partly pubescent or with obvious modifications. Antennal modifications beginning on antennomere 5 or beyond. First antennomere (scape) less than 3 times as long as 2nd (pedicel). Antenna not geniculate; without apical club, or with weak apical club. Antennal club 5-segmented; not 5-segmented or with 2nd segment subequal to or larger than 1st; loose; not lamellate; strongly serrate or pectinate; not cupuliform; distinctly flattened; not preceded by a cupule.
Mouthparts. Labrum at least partly visible; free, membranous or separated by suture. Major portion of labrum strongly transverse, or slightly transverse or subquadrate. Apex of labrum subtruncate to slightly convex, or slightly concave or emarginate. Labrum moderately to heavily sclerotized, except at base and-or apex. Mouthparts not forming a piercing or sucking tube. Mandibles present. Mandible short and broad. Mandibular apex not or slightly and gradually curved mesally; unidentate, truncate or rounded, or bidentate or bilobed; rounded or truncate. Dorsal part of mandible without tubercle; without setose cavity. Mandible moderately to strongly, more or less evenly sclerotized or pigmented; visible in lateral view. Incisor edge of mandible simple. Mandible without mola; without prostheca. Prostheca absent or without articulated, sclerotized process. Inner basal angle of mandible without pubescent process. Maxilla with distinct galea and lacinia, or with single apical lobe. Maxillary lobe(s) not stylet-like. Apex of galea or maxillary lobe densely setose or spinose; without heavily sclerotized teeth or hooks. Lacinia without hook(s) or spine(s). Apical maxillary palpomere cylindrical to fusiform; at least as wide as or longer than preapical one. Maxillary palp without complex palp organ. Apical labial palpomere cylindrical to fusiform. Ligula undivided or finely cleft.
Prothorax. Ratio of pronotal length to greatest pronotal width 0.3–0.4. Prothorax widest posteriorly. Sides of prothorax more or less straight. Prothorax not laterally compressed to form cavities for legs. Sides of prothorax not or slightly explanate. Base of prothorax not or slightly narrower than elytral bases. Greatest prothoracic width not or slightly narrower than greatest elytral width. Lateral pronotal carinae complete; simple; visible for their entire lengths from above; without a raised margin. Lateral portion of prothorax without deep pit. Pronotum without anterolateral callosities. Anterior angles of pronotum distinctly produced forward; produced and narrowly rounded or acute. Posterior angles of pronotum obtuse or right, or moderately to strongly acute; not produced and acute. Posterior edge of pronotum distinctly sinuate or variously lobed; simple; not or vaguely margined, or with narrow raised margin or bead. Discal carinae of pronotum absent. Pronotal disc without paired basal impressions. Pronotum without median longitudinal groove or line. Anterior edge of pronotum simple, without margin. Hypomeron without pit.
Anterior portion of prosternum at midline shorter than prosternal process, or as long as prosternal process. Lateral portion of prosternum in front of coxae longer than mid length of procoxal cavity. Anterior edge of prosternum not produced anteriorly, or distinctly produced forming chin piece. Prosternum in front of coxae flat to moderately convex. Prosternum in front of coxae with paired lines or carinae. Anterior edge of prosternum without margin; without mesal excavation. Anterolateral or ventrolateral portions of prothorax without cavities or grooves. Prothoracic cavities absent. Prothoracic grooves absent. Prosternal process complete; parallel-sided, or gradually expanded or narrowed and then expanded; flat, concave, or only slightly elevated or curved behind coxae, or slightly to strongly elevated but not curved behind; concealing most or all of mesoventrite. Apex of prosternal process broadly rounded, angulate or truncate. Prosternal process without transverse groove. Accessory (mesal) procoxal articulation absent. Ventral portion of prothorax on each side with notosternal suture only. Propleuron not extending to anterior edge of prothorax. Propleuron or pleurotrochantin not extending behind coxa. Procoxae not or slightly projecting below prosternum. Procoxa without or with short concealed lateral extension. Procoxal cavity slightly transverse, or circular or longer than wide. Procoxal cavities at middle moderately to widely separated. Procoxal cavities externally open; broadly open. Postcoxal projection absent or very short. Procoxal cavities without narrow lateral extensions. Procoxal cavities internally open. Prothoracic trochantin or pleurotrochantin at least partly exposed. Promesothoracic clicking mechanism absent.
Elytra. Elytra present. Ratio of elytral length to greatest elytral width 1.1–1.35. Ratio of elytral length to pronotal length 3.35–4.2. Elytra apunctate, irregularly punctate, or with 5 or fewer distinct puncture rows or striae; without scutellary striole. Sutural stria absent or not deeply impressed near apex. Abdominal tergites exposed by elytra none or apex of 1. Elytral apices meeting or almost meeting at the suture. Elytral suture not deflected near apex. Elytral apex without internal interlocking tongue. Epipleuron absent or incomplete; abruptly narrowed or excavated. Lateral edge of elytron straight or weakly sinuate.
Pterothorax. Scutellum well developed, or highly reduced; abruptly elevated; anteriorly simple; posteriorly narrowly rounded or acute. Mesoscutum without stridulatory file. Mesoventrite with paired procoxal rests. Paired mesoventral procoxal rests moderately to strongly oblique, or vertical. Anterior edge of mesoventrite without prosternal rest. Mesoventrite not divided by longitudinal groove or discrimen. Anterior edge of mesoventrite at midline on different plane than metaventrite. Mesoventral cavity moderately to very large and deep. Mesocoxa not conical and projecting. Mesocoxal cavities at middle moderately to widely separated. Mesocoxae separated by more than shortest diameter of coxal cavity. Mesocoxal cavities circular to slightly transverse; not or slightly oblique. Mesoventrite partly or completely fused to mesepisterna. Mesepisterna without deep pockets. Mesepimeron not visible from above. Mesocoxal cavities open laterally; not partly closed by metepisterna. Mesoventral process absent or not extending to middle of mesocoxal cavity. Mesometaventral junction concealed by prosternal process. Mesoventral and metaventral processes at midline separated by gap, groove, or suture, or solidly fused or separated at most by weakly impressed line. Accessory (mesal) mesocoxal articulation absent.
Metaventral discrimen or median line moderately to very long. Paired postcoxal lines of metaventrite absent, or present. Postcoxal lines of metaventrite arched but not or slightly recurved. Metaventrite longer than first abdominal ventrite. Postcoxal pits of metaventrite absent. Metaventrite flat to slightly convex, or moderately to strongly convex. Transverse groove of metaventrite present. Anterior edge of metaventrite without transverse carina between mesocoxal cavities. Exposed portion of metepisternum moderately elongate. Metacoxae contiguous or narrowly separated; separated by less than longest coxal diameter; extending laterally to meet elytra or sides of body; completely separated from metaventrite by suture. Metacoxal plates well developed, more or less uniform; not concealing most of basal abdominal ventrite. Metacoxae not greatly enlarged; horizontally oriented. Lateral arms of metendosternite short or absent. Metendosternal laminae absent. Ventrolateral processes of metendosternite absent or weakly developed. Anterior process of metendosternite short or absent. Anterior tendons of metendosternite widely separated but not on lateral arms. Apical portion of metendosternite not or only slightly emarginate.
Hind wing. Hind wing well developed; with normal transverse folds. Radial cell of hind wing well developed, or highly reduced or absent; elongate, or incomplete or absent. Inner posterior angle formed at base of radial cell acute. Radial cell not forming equilateral triangle. Ratio of length of apical area to total wing length less than 0.2, or 0.20–0.35. Apical area of hind wing without veins or sclerotizations, or with one or more vague sclerotizations or pigment patches. Medial bar of hind wing not crossed by fold. Free veins in medial area of hind wing 4, or 3 or fewer. Oblongum cell of hind wing absent. Medial fleck of hind wing absent; absent or not partly bisected by a vein. Wedge cell of hind wing absent. Anal lobe of hind wing absent. Posterior edge of hind wing without fringe of long hairs.
Legs. Femoral attachment of mid trochanter transverse or slightly oblique. Mesotrochanter not reduced or concealed from below. Metafemur not much wider than mesofemur. Mesotibia not strongly widened. Outer edge of mesotibia simple, crenulate or denticulate. Outer subapical edge of mesotibia without antenna cleaner. Preapical surfaces of mesotibia without ridges or combs. Outer apical angle of mesotibia simple or slightly produced, without lobe, teeth or spines. Inner apical angle of mesotibia not or slightly produced, without tooth. Mesotibial spurs glabrous or absent; absent. Mesotarsus with 5 distinct tarsomeres (pentamerous). Tarsomeres on hind leg at least as many as on mid leg. Tarsomeres on fore leg at least as many as on mid leg. Mesotarsomere 1 well developed and visible. Preapical mesotarsomeres together longer than apical one, or shorter than apical one. Penultimate mesotarsomere not distinctly shorter than antepenultimate. Ventral mesotarsal lobes on more than one tarsomere. Mesotarsal claws paired; subequal in length and similar in form and angle of inclination; toothed or bifid. Appendage on each tarsal claw absent. Mesotarsal claws without setae near base. Mesotarsal empodium absent or concealed; absent or with 2 or fewer setae. Outer edge of protibia simple and rounded to carinate but without lobes or teeth, except at apex. Outer apical angle of protibia simple or slightly produced, without lobe, teeth or spines. Inner subapical edge of protibia without antenna cleaner. Protibial spurs absent. Hind legs without swimming hairs. Preapical surfaces of metatibia without ridges or combs. Metatibial articular area not to only moderately expanded, narrowly oval or oblique. Metatibial spurs absent.
Abdomen. Number of abdominal ventrites 5. Number of basal ventrites connate two. Abdominal sternite 2 apparently absent. First ventrite not completely divided by metacoxae. Suture between ventrites 1 and 2 incomplete or vaguely indicated. Suture between ventrites 2 and 3 distinct. Ventrite 4 articulated with or connate with both 3 and 5. Postcoxal lines on ventrite 1 absent, or 1 pair, strongly curved or recurved. Ventrite 1 not much longer than 2. Abdominal process acute or narrowly rounded, or broadly rounded or angulate. Ventrite 5 in female without circular depression. Posterior edge of ventrite 5 not crenulate, or crenulate. Last visible tergite and-or sternite (7 or 8) not forming terminal spine. Tergite and sternite 7 separated by membrane or distinct suture. Subapical abdominal luminous organ absent. Ventrites without setose patches or foveae. Functional spiracles on abdominal segment 8 present. Functional spiracles on abdominal segment 7 present. Functional spiracles on abdominal segment 6 present. Functional spiracles on abdominal segment 5 present. 7th abdominal spiracles located on tergite. 6th abdominal spiracles located in tergite. 5th abdominal spiracles located in tergite. Anterior edge of sternite 8 in male without median strut. Pygidium (sclerotized tergite 7 or 8) more or less horizontal. Anterior edge of sternite 9 in male without median strut. Tergite 9 in male completely fused to tergite 10. Tergite 10 in male completely membranous or fused to tergite 9.
Aedeagus buprestoid; symmetrical. Anterior edge of tegmen or phallobase without struts. Parameres partly or entirely fused together but articulated to phallobase, or partly or entirely fused together and to phallobase, or absent; not outwardly hooked. Penis without dorsal and ventral lobes. Anterior edge of penis without struts, or with paired struts.
Illustrations. • Trachys. Trachys imperatrix Kerremans. Locality: Madagascar. Reference: Kerremans 1902–1903. Courtesy of Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique.
The interactive key provides access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, and summaries of attributes within groups of taxa.
Cite this publication as: ‘Lawrence, J.F., Hastings, A.M., Dallwitz, M.J., Paine, T.A., and Zurcher, E.J. 2000 onwards. Elateriformia (Coleoptera): descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval for families and subfamilies. Version: 9th October 2005. http://delta-intkey.com’.