Elateriformia (Coleoptera)

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J. F. Lawrence, A. M. Hastings, M. J. Dallwitz, T. A. Paine and E. J. Zurcher

Aphanisticini Agrilinae BUPRESTIDAE

(= Buprestidae: Trachyinae part).

Classification. Polyphaga: Elateriformia.

Distribution. Aphanisticini are native to the Old world. Aphanisticus occurs throughout the Palaearctic, Afrotropical and Oriental regions and in New Guinea and northern Australia; however A. cochinchinae seminulum Obenberger has been introduced into Hawaii and Texas (Wellso 1995). Anthaxomorphus is known from Africa, Asia, New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and northern Australia. Endelus extends throughout the eastern Palaearctic and Oriental regions, from Japan and India to the East Indies, and in New Guinea and northern Australia.

Biogeographic regions: Palearctic, Afrotropical, Oriental, Australian.

Biology. Larvae of Aphanisticus in Europe are known to mine the leaves of monocots, such as Juncaceae and Cyperaceae, and A. cochinchinae seminulum Obenberger attacks sugarcane leaves in Hawaii (Wellso 1995). South African Anthaxomorphus species have been reared from Ficus leaves (Bellamy 1987).

Notes. Data at least partly checked by C. L. Bellamy.

References

Bellamy, C. L. 1985. A catalogue of the higher taxa of the family Buprestidae (Coleoptera). Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum Bloemfontein, Natural Science 4(15): 405–472.

Bellamy, C. L. 1986. The higher classification of Australian Buprestidae, with the description of a new genus and species (Coleoptera). Australian Journal of Zoology 34: 583–600.

Bellamy, C. L. 1987. Two new species of Anthaxomorphus Deyrolle from southern Africa with a new synonym and a world checklist (Coleoptera: Buprestidae: Trachyinae). Coleopterists Bulletin 41: 296–295.

Bellamy, C. L. 1992. The Afrotropical cylindromorphines: subfamilial placement, phylogenetic affinities, generic synonymy and species lists (Coleoptera Buprestidae Agrilinae). Tropical Zoologyv 5: 45–54.

Bellamy, C. L. and G. H. Nelson 2000. 45. Buprestidae. IN: R. H. Arnett, Jr., Jr. and M. C. Thomas (eds.), American Beetles. CRC Press, Gainesville, Florida (in press).

Bily, S. 1986. Descriptions of adult larvae of Thrincopyge alacris LeConte and Aphanisticus cochinchinae seminulum Obenberger (Coleoptera, Buprestidae). Entomological Papers Presented to Y. Kurosawa on the Occasion of his Retirement, pp. 198–204.

Cobos, A. 1957. Primera nota sobre buprestidós neotropicales: descripciones y rectificaciones diversas. Revista Chilena de Entomologia 5: 233–249.

Cobos, A. 1979. Revision de la subfamilia Trachyinae a niveles supraspecificos (Coleoptera, Buprestidae). Acta Entomologca Bohemoslovaka 76: 414–430.

Harde, K. W. and A. Lompe 1979. 38. Familie: Buprestidae (Prachtkäfer), pp. 204–248. IN: H. Freude, K. W. Harde and G. A. Lohse (eds.), Die Käfer Mitteleuropas. Band 6. Diversicornia. Goecke & Evers, Krefeld.

Holynski, R. B. 1993. A reassessment of the internal classification of the Buprestidae Leach (Coleoptera). Crystal (Publications of the Natural Science Foundation at Göd), Series Zoologica 1: 1–42.

Kerremans, C. 1902–1903. Coleoptera Fam. Buprestidae. IN: P. Wytsman (ed.), Genera Insectorum. Fascicule 12.Verteneuil and Desmet, Brussels, 338 pp., 4 pls.

Obenberger, J. 1937. Pars 157. Buprestidae VI. IN: S. Schenkling (ed.), Coleopterorum Catalogus. W. Junk, Berlin, pp. 1247–1714.

Volkovitsh, M. G. and T. J. Hawkeswood 1990. The larvae of Agrilus australasiae Laporte & Gory and Ethon affine Laporte & Gory (Insecta: Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Spixiana 13(1989): 43–59.

Wellso, S. G. 1995. The first record of Aphanisticus cochinchinae seminulum Obenberger (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a potential sugarcane pest in the Western Hemisphere. Coleopterists Bulletin 49: 287–288.

Williams, G. A. and T. A. Weir 1992. Two new species of Anthaxomorphus Deyrolle (Coleoptera: Buprestidae: Trachyinae) from the Australasian region. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 31: 227–230.

General appearance. Total length 3–6 mm. Ratio of body length to greatest body width 1.7–3.35. Body strongly flattened, or slightly flattened to moderately convex. Sides of body not evenly curved. Body not capable of conglobation (rolling into a ball). Upper surfaces of body glabrous or subglabrous. Vestiture of upper surfaces not including stiff, erect, dark bristles; not including scales or scale-like setae. Upper surfaces of body without deep foveae. Prothorax, metathorax and-or abdomen without extrusible glands. Underside of body without hydrofuge surface(s).

Head. Ratio of head length to its greatest width (excluding eyes) 1 or less. Head width just behind eyes not distinctly greater than prothoracic width. Head moderately to strongly declined; not entirely concealed from above by pronotum; without elongate rostrum; not abruptly constricted posteriorly. Temples absent or not closely adpressed to prothorax; absent. Transverse occipital ridge or carina absent. Occiput without stridulatory file. Longitudinal axis of head (from occipital foramen to mouth cavity) inclined at an angle of 45 to 90 degrees. Frontal region strongly deflexed, vertical or inflexed from behind eyes. Occipital region without median longitudinal groove or line (endocarina), or with median longitudinal groove or line (endocarina). Frontal region without median groove or line (endocarina). Head without ocelli.

Compound eyes present. Eyes not or only slightly protuberant. Vertical diameter of eye less than 2 times horizontal diameter, or at least 2 times horizontal diameter. Eyes finely facetted; without interfacetal setae. Ommatidium of the eucone type. Eye entire. Anterior or mesal edge of eye not or only barely emarginate. Posterior edge of eye not or barely emarginate.

Antennal insertions exposed from above; closely approximate or contiguous. Antennae not borne on raised tubercles. Antennal insertions flush with head capsule or raised, not in fossae. Subantennal groove or cavity on head well developed. Frontoclypeal suture absent or incomplete. Clypeus not laterally emarginate. Anterior edge of clypeus or clypeolabrum concave to shallowly emarginate. Mouth cavity ventrally or posteroventrally oriented. Pregular area without laterally opening cavities. Head ventrally without paired subgenal ridges. Head without anteriorly-projecting genal processes. Gular sutures widely separated or absent. Corporotentorium incomplete or absent. Cervical sclerites present.

Antennae. Number of antennomeres 11. Antennae when posteriorly extended not reaching middle of prothorax. Antennae serrate, or capitate. Antennomeres 3, 4 or 5 to 10 without or with single rami (uniramose). Antennae at least partly pubescent or with obvious modifications. Antennal modifications beginning on antennomere 5 or beyond. First antennomere (scape) less than 3 times as long as 2nd (pedicel). Antenna not geniculate; without apical club, or with strong apical club. Antennal club 3-segmented, or 4-segmented; not 5-segmented or with 2nd segment subequal to or larger than 1st; loose; not lamellate; not or slightly serrate; not cupuliform; distinctly flattened; not preceded by a cupule.

Mouthparts. Labrum at least partly visible; free, membranous or separated by suture. Major portion of labrum strongly transverse, or slightly transverse or subquadrate. Apex of labrum subtruncate to slightly convex. Labrum moderately to heavily sclerotized, except at base and-or apex. Mouthparts not forming a piercing or sucking tube. Mandibles present. Mandible short and broad. Mandibular apex not or slightly and gradually curved mesally; bidentate or bilobed; subacute, bidentate or multidentate, or rounded or truncate. Dorsal part of mandible without tubercle; without setose cavity. Mandible moderately to strongly, more or less evenly sclerotized or pigmented; visible in lateral view. Incisor edge of mandible simple, or with single tooth. Mandible without mola; without prostheca. Prostheca absent or without articulated, sclerotized process. Inner basal angle of mandible without pubescent process. Maxilla with distinct galea and lacinia. Maxillary lobe(s) not stylet-like. Apex of galea or maxillary lobe densely setose or spinose; without heavily sclerotized teeth or hooks. Lacinia without hook(s) or spine(s). Apical maxillary palpomere cylindrical to fusiform; at least as wide as or longer than preapical one. Maxillary palp without complex palp organ. Apical labial palpomere cylindrical to fusiform. Ligula undivided or finely cleft.

Prothorax. Ratio of pronotal length to greatest pronotal width 0.37–0.72. Prothorax widest anteriorly, or at middle. Sides of prothorax more or less straight, or moderately to strongly curved. Prothorax not laterally compressed to form cavities for legs. Sides of prothorax not or slightly explanate. Base of prothorax not or slightly narrower than elytral bases. Greatest prothoracic width not or slightly narrower than greatest elytral width. Lateral pronotal carinae complete; simple, or finely crenulate or denticulate; visible for their entire lengths from above; without a raised margin, or with a raised margin or narrow bead. Lateral portion of prothorax without deep pit. Pronotum without anterolateral callosities. Anterior angles of pronotum distinctly produced forward; produced and broadly rounded or obtusely angulate, or produced and narrowly rounded or acute. Posterior angles of pronotum obtuse or right; not produced and acute. Posterior edge of pronotum distinctly sinuate or variously lobed; simple; not or vaguely margined. Discal carinae of pronotum absent. Pronotal disc without paired basal impressions. Pronotum without median longitudinal groove or line. Anterior edge of pronotum simple, without margin. Hypomeron without pit.

Anterior portion of prosternum at midline as long as prosternal process. Lateral portion of prosternum in front of coxae longer than mid length of procoxal cavity. Anterior edge of prosternum not produced anteriorly, or distinctly produced forming chin piece. Prosternum in front of coxae flat to moderately convex. Prosternum in front of coxae without paired lines or carinae. Anterior edge of prosternum without margin; without mesal excavation. Anterolateral or ventrolateral portions of prothorax without cavities or grooves, or with broad cavities. Prothoracic cavities absent, or external, open anteriorly, not visible from above. Prothoracic grooves absent. Prosternal process complete; parallel-sided, or gradually expanded or narrowed and then expanded, or gradually expanded and then narrowed; flat, concave, or only slightly elevated or curved behind coxae; concealing most or all of mesoventrite. Apex of prosternal process acute or narrowly rounded, or broadly rounded, angulate or truncate. Prosternal process without transverse groove. Accessory (mesal) procoxal articulation absent. Ventral portion of prothorax on each side with notosternal suture only. Propleuron not extending to anterior edge of prothorax. Propleuron or pleurotrochantin not extending behind coxa. Procoxae not or slightly projecting below prosternum. Procoxa without or with short concealed lateral extension. Procoxal cavity circular or longer than wide. Procoxal cavities at middle moderately to widely separated. Procoxal cavities externally open; broadly open. Postcoxal projection absent or very short. Procoxal cavities without narrow lateral extensions, or with narrow lateral extensions. Procoxal cavities internally open. Prothoracic trochantin or pleurotrochantin at least partly exposed. Promesothoracic clicking mechanism absent.

Elytra. Elytra present. Ratio of elytral length to greatest elytral width 1.3–2.7. Ratio of elytral length to pronotal length 3.3–4.35. Elytra apunctate, irregularly punctate, or with 5 or fewer distinct puncture rows or striae; without scutellary striole. Sutural stria absent or not deeply impressed near apex. Abdominal tergites exposed by elytra none or apex of 1. Elytral apices meeting or almost meeting at the suture. Elytral suture not deflected near apex. Elytral apex without internal interlocking tongue. Epipleuron absent or incomplete; not or gradually narrowed, or abruptly narrowed or excavated. Lateral edge of elytron straight or weakly sinuate.

Pterothorax. Scutellum well developed; abruptly elevated; anteriorly simple; posteriorly narrowly rounded or acute. Mesoscutum without stridulatory file. Mesoventrite with paired procoxal rests. Paired mesoventral procoxal rests moderately to strongly oblique. Anterior edge of mesoventrite without prosternal rest. Mesoventrite not divided by longitudinal groove or discrimen. Anterior edge of mesoventrite at midline on same plane as metaventrite, or on different plane than metaventrite. Mesoventral cavity moderately to very large and deep. Mesocoxa not conical and projecting. Mesocoxal cavities at middle moderately to widely separated. Mesocoxae separated by more than shortest diameter of coxal cavity. Mesocoxal cavities circular to slightly transverse; not or slightly oblique. Mesoventrite partly or completely fused to mesepisterna. Mesepisterna without deep pockets. Mesepimeron not visible from above. Mesocoxal cavities open laterally; not partly closed by metepisterna. Mesoventral process extending at least to middle of mesocoxal cavity. Mesometaventral junction concealed by prosternal process and concealed by metaventral process. Mesoventral and metaventral processes at midline separated by gap, groove, or suture. Accessory (mesal) mesocoxal articulation absent.

Metaventral discrimen or median line moderately to very long. Paired postcoxal lines of metaventrite absent, or present. Postcoxal lines of metaventrite absent, or arched but not or slightly recurved. Metaventrite longer than first abdominal ventrite. Postcoxal pits of metaventrite absent. Metaventrite moderately to strongly convex. Transverse groove of metaventrite present. Anterior edge of metaventrite without transverse carina between mesocoxal cavities. Exposed portion of metepisternum very long and narrow or absent. Metacoxae contiguous or narrowly separated; separated by less than longest coxal diameter; extending laterally to meet elytra or sides of body; completely separated from metaventrite by suture. Metacoxal plates well developed, more or less uniform; not concealing most of basal abdominal ventrite. Metacoxae not greatly enlarged; horizontally oriented. Lateral arms of metendosternite short or absent. Metendosternal laminae absent. Ventrolateral processes of metendosternite absent or weakly developed. Anterior process of metendosternite short or absent. Anterior tendons of metendosternite widely separated but not on lateral arms (?). Apical portion of metendosternite not or only slightly emarginate.

Hind wing. Hind wing well developed; with normal transverse folds. Radial cell of hind wing well developed, or highly reduced or absent; elongate, or incomplete or absent. Inner posterior angle formed at base of radial cell acute. Radial cell not forming equilateral triangle. Ratio of length of apical area to total wing length less than 0.2. Apical area of hind wing without veins or sclerotizations. Medial bar of hind wing not crossed by fold. Free veins in medial area of hind wing 4, or 3 or fewer. Oblongum cell of hind wing absent. Medial fleck of hind wing absent; absent or not partly bisected by a vein. Wedge cell of hind wing absent. Anal lobe of hind wing absent. Posterior edge of hind wing without fringe of long hairs.

Legs. Femoral attachment of mid trochanter transverse or slightly oblique. Mesotrochanter not reduced or concealed from below. Metafemur not much wider than mesofemur, or much wider than mesofemur. Mesotibia not strongly widened. Outer edge of mesotibia simple, crenulate or denticulate. Outer subapical edge of mesotibia without antenna cleaner. Preapical surfaces of mesotibia without ridges or combs. Outer apical angle of mesotibia simple or slightly produced, without lobe, teeth or spines. Inner apical angle of mesotibia not or slightly produced, without tooth. Mesotibial spurs glabrous or absent; absent. Mesotarsus with 5 distinct tarsomeres (pentamerous). Tarsomeres on hind leg at least as many as on mid leg. Tarsomeres on fore leg at least as many as on mid leg. Mesotarsomere 1 well developed and visible. Preapical mesotarsomeres together longer than apical one, or shorter than apical one. Penultimate mesotarsomere not distinctly shorter than antepenultimate. Ventral mesotarsal lobes on more than one tarsomere. Mesotarsal claws paired; subequal in length and similar in form and angle of inclination; simple, or toothed or bifid. Appendage on each tarsal claw absent. Mesotarsal claws without setae near base. Mesotarsal empodium absent or concealed; absent or with 2 or fewer setae. Outer edge of protibia simple and rounded to carinate but without lobes or teeth, except at apex. Outer apical angle of protibia simple or slightly produced, without lobe, teeth or spines. Inner subapical edge of protibia without antenna cleaner. Protibial spurs absent. Hind legs without swimming hairs. Preapical surfaces of metatibia without ridges or combs. Metatibial articular area not to only moderately expanded, narrowly oval or oblique. Metatibial spurs absent.

Abdomen. Number of abdominal ventrites 5. Number of basal ventrites connate two. Abdominal sternite 2 apparently absent. First ventrite not completely divided by metacoxae. Suture between ventrites 1 and 2 incomplete or vaguely indicated. Suture between ventrites 2 and 3 distinct. Ventrite 4 articulated with or connate with both 3 and 5. Postcoxal lines on ventrite 1 absent. Ventrite 1 not much longer than 2, or much longer than 2. Abdominal process acute or narrowly rounded. Ventrite 5 in female without circular depression. Posterior edge of ventrite 5 not crenulate. Last visible tergite and-or sternite (7 or 8) not forming terminal spine. Tergite and sternite 7 separated by membrane or distinct suture. Subapical abdominal luminous organ absent. Ventrites without setose patches or foveae. Functional spiracles on abdominal segment 8 present. Functional spiracles on abdominal segment 7 present. Functional spiracles on abdominal segment 6 present. Functional spiracles on abdominal segment 5 present. 7th abdominal spiracles located on tergite. 6th abdominal spiracles located in tergite. 5th abdominal spiracles located in tergite. Anterior edge of sternite 8 in male without median strut. Pygidium (sclerotized tergite 7 or 8) more or less horizontal. Anterior edge of sternite 9 in male without median strut. Tergite 9 in male completely fused to tergite 10. Tergite 10 in male completely membranous or fused to tergite 9.

Aedeagus buprestoid; symmetrical. Anterior edge of tegmen or phallobase without struts. Parameres partly or entirely fused together but articulated to phallobase; not outwardly hooked. Penis without dorsal and ventral lobes. Anterior edge of penis with paired struts.

Illustrations. • Endelus. Endelus cornutus Kerremans. Locality: Moluccas. Reference: Kerremans 1902–1903. Courtesy of Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique.


The interactive key provides access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, and summaries of attributes within groups of taxa.

Cite this publication as: ‘Lawrence, J.F., Hastings, A.M., Dallwitz, M.J., Paine, T.A., and Zurcher, E.J. 2000 onwards. Elateriformia (Coleoptera): descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval for families and subfamilies. Version: 9th October 2005. http://delta-intkey.com’.

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