Elateriformia (Coleoptera)

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J. F. Lawrence, A. M. Hastings, M. J. Dallwitz, T. A. Paine and E. J. Zurcher

BUPRESTIDAE

(Including Schizopodidae).

Classification. Polyphaga: Elateriformia.

Distribution. Both agriline and buprestine Buprestidae are widely distributed, occurring in all major regions of the world; however Schizopodinae and Julodinae have more limited distributions, the former occurring southwestern North America and the latter in Asia and Africa.

Biogeographic regions: Nearctic, Palearctic, Neotropical, Afrotropical, Oriental, Australian.

Biology. Schizopodinae and Julodinae may be found on flowers or foliage as adults, and their larvae occur in the soil and probably feed on roots. Larvae of many Agrilinae bore beneath the bark of trunks and branches of a wide variety of trees and shrubs, but others live in galls on stems. Several Agrilus species are pests of forest trees and ornamental trees and shrubs. Larvae of Aphanisticus in Europe are known to mine the leaves of monocots, such as Juncaceae and Cyperaceae, and A. cochinchinae seminulum Obenberger attacks sugarcane leaves in Hawaii (Wellso 1995). Larvae of Brachys in North America are known to mine the leaves of oak (Quercus), and Taphrocerus has been associated with various shrubs. Cylindromorphines are stem miners in grasses. Germarica species are thought to mine the needle-like branchlets of Casuarina (Casuarinaceae). Adult Buprestinae feed primarily on the foliage of their host plants, but floricolous habits are known in the tribes Acmaeoderini,. Anthaxiini and Stigmoderini. Buprestine larvae are wood borers, attacking living or dead trees or shrubs. Larvae may attack various parts of the host plant, and hosts include gymnosperms, monocots and dicots. Some Buprestis species oviposit in conifers and may continue their development for long periods in seasoned wood, emerging from structural wood as much as 50 years later. Leaf-mining habits occur in some taxa, such as Paratrachys, and the Australian Julodimorpha lay their eggs in soil and probably have root-feeding larvae.

Notes. Buprestidae appear to form a well-defined, monophyletic group; however Schizopodinae is sister to the remainder of the family and has been given family rank by Nelson and Bellamy (1991). The relationships of Buprestidae to other members of the Elateriformia are at all clear. Crowson (1960) recognized a monotypic Buprestoidea near the base of the series Elateriformia, and Beutel's (1995) analysis supported this. Crowson (1982) commented on similarities to Dryopidae and Elmidae. Lawrence (1988) placed the group at the base of Byrrhoidea (including Dryopoidea), but in a later analysis (Lawrence et al. 1995), schizopodine Buprestidae formed a monophyletic group with Dascillidae, Rhipiceridae and Rhinorhipidae.

References

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Barr, W. F. 1948. A new genus and species of Buprestidae from southern California (Coleoptera). Entomological News 59: 69–72.

Bellamy, C. L. 1985. A catalogue of the higher taxa of the family Buprestidae (Coleoptera). Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum Bloemfontein, Natural Science 4(15): 405–472.

Bellamy, C. L. 1986. The higher classification of Australian Buprestidae, with the description of a new genus and species (Coleoptera). Australian Journal of Zoology 34: 583–600.

Bellamy, C. L. 1987. A revision of the genus Synechocera Deyrolle (Coleoptera, Buprestidae, Agrilinae). Invertebrate Taxonomy 1: 17–34.

Bellamy, C. L. 1987. Two new species of Anthaxomorphus Deyrolle from southern Africa with a new synonym and a world checklist (Coleoptera: Buprestidae: Trachyinae). Coleopterists Bulletin 41: 296–295.

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Cobos, A. 1958. Revisión de los Acmaeoderini de Marreucos (Col. Buprestidae). Eos 34: 221–268.

Cobos, A. 1964. Extension del genero "Xenorhipis" a la fauna neotropical (Coleoptera, Buprestidae). Revista Brasileira de Biologia 24: 77–82.

Cobos, A. 1968. Decimo-sexta nota sobre bupréstidos neotropicales: sobre el género Mendizabalia y su posición sistem tica (Coleoptera). Bolletino dell'Associazione Romana di Entomologia 23: 17–20.

Cobos, A. 1974. Tres enigmaticos generos de Buprestidae (Coleoptera). Archivos del Instituto de Aclimatacion, Almeria 19: 103–110.

Cobos, A. 1979. Revision de la subfamilia Trachyinae a niveles supraspecificos (Coleoptera, Buprestidae). Acta Entomologca Bohemoslovaka 76: 414–430.

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Crowson, R. A. 1982. On the dryopoid affinities of Buprestidae. Coleopterists Bulletin 36: 22–25.

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Forbes, W. T. M. 1942. The wing of Mastogenius (Coleoptera). Journal of the New York Entomological Society 50: 193–194.

Furniss, R. L. and V. M. Carolin 1977. Western Forest Insects. United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service (Miscellaneous Publications No. 1339), Washington, D.C., 654 pp.

Gardner, J. A. 1989. Revision of the genera of the tribe Stigmoderini (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) with a discussion of phylogenetic relationships. Invertebrate Taxonomy 3: 291–361.

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Holm, E. 1979. Revision of the genera of the tribe Julodini (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 42: 89–114.

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Holynski, R. 1985. On the Oriental species of the genus Galbella Westw. (Coleoptera, Buprestidae). Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 55: 469–476.

Holynski, R. B. 1988. Remarks on the general classification of Buprestidae Leach as applied to Maoraxiina Hol. Folia Entomologica Hungarica 49: 49–54.

Holynski, R. 1992. A review of the genus Paratrachys Snd. (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Annals of the Upper Silesian Museum, Entomology 3(1991): 115–136.

Holynski, R. B. 1993. A reassessment of the internal classification of the Buprestidae Leach (Coleoptera). Crystal (Publications of the Natural Science Foundation at Göd), Series Zoologica 1: 1–42.

Kerremans, C. 1893. Essai de groupement des Buprestides. Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 37: 95–122.

Kerremans, C. 1897. Voyages de M. E. Gounelle au Brésil. Buprestides. Mémoires de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 6: 1–146.

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Kerremans, C. 1904. Monographie des Buprestides. Vol. 1 (part). J. Jansens, Brussels, pp. 1–64.

Lawrence, J. F. 1988. Rhinorhipidae, a new beetle family from Australia, with comments on the phylogeny of the Elateriformia. Invertebrate Taxonomy 2: 1–53.

Lawrence, J. F., N. B. Nikitsky and A. G. Kirejtshuk 1995. Phylogenetic position of Decliniidae (Coleoptera: Scirtoidea) and comments on the classification of Elateriformia (sensu lato), pp. 375–410. IN: J. Pakaluk and S. A. Slipinski (eds.), Biology, Phylogeny, and Classification of Coleoptera: Papers Celebrating the 80th Birthday of Roy A. Crowson. Muzeum i Instytut Zoologii Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw.

Levey, B. 1978. A new tribe, Epistomentini, of Buprestidae (Coleoptera) with a redefinition of the tribe Chrysochroini. Systematic Entomology 3: 153–158.

Moore, B. P. and W. V. Brown 1985. The buprestins: bitter principles of jewel beetles (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 24: 81–85.

Moore, I. 1985. Aporte al conocimiento de los Bupréstidos de Chile (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Segunda nota. Revista Chilena de Entomologia 12: 113–139.

Nelson, G. H. 1980. A review of the genus Thrincopyge LeConte (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 56: 297–310.

Nelson, G. H. 1982. One new tribe and a new genus and species of North American Buprestidae with consideration of subfamilial and tribal categories. Coleopterists Bulletin 35(1981): 431–450.

Nelson, G. H. and C. L. Bellamy 1991. A revision and phylogenetic re-evaluation of the family Schizopodidae (Coleoptera, Buprestoidea). Journal of Natural History 25: 985–1026.

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Obenberger, J. 1930. Pars 111. Buprestidae II. IN: S. Schenkling (ed.), Coleopterorum Catalogus. W. Junk, Berlin, pp. 213–568.

Obenberger, J. 1934. Pars 132. Buprestidae III. IN: S. Schenkling (ed.), Coleopterorum Catalogus. W. Junk, Berlin, pp. 569–781.

Obenberger, J. 1935. Pars 143. Buprestidae IV. IN: S. Schenkling (ed.), Coleopterorum Catalogus. W. Junk, Berlin, pp. 782–934.

Obenberger, J. 1936. Pars 152. Buprestidae V. IN: S. Schenkling (ed.), Coleopterorum Catalogus. W. Junk, Berlin, pp. 935–1246.

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General appearance. Total length 1.5–68 mm. Ratio of body length to greatest body width 1.25–5.15. Body strongly flattened, or slightly flattened to moderately convex, or strongly convex. Sides of body not evenly curved, or evenly curved. Body not capable of conglobation (rolling into a ball). Upper surfaces of body glabrous or subglabrous, or clothed with distinct hairs, setae or scales. Vestiture of upper surfaces not including stiff, erect, dark bristles, or including stiff, erect, dark bristles; not including scales or scale-like setae, or including scales or scale-like setae. Upper surfaces of body without deep foveae. Prothorax, metathorax and-or abdomen without extrusible glands. Underside of body without hydrofuge surface(s).

Head. Ratio of head length to its greatest width (excluding eyes) 1 or less. Head width just behind eyes not distinctly greater than prothoracic width, or distinctly greater than prothoracic width. Head not or slightly declined, or moderately to strongly declined; not entirely concealed from above by pronotum; without elongate rostrum; not abruptly constricted posteriorly. Temples absent or not closely adpressed to prothorax; absent. Transverse occipital ridge or carina absent. Occiput without stridulatory file. Longitudinal axis of head (from occipital foramen to mouth cavity) inclined at an angle of 45 to 90 degrees, or inclined at an angle of more than 90 degrees. Frontal region strongly deflexed, vertical or inflexed from behind eyes. Occipital region without median longitudinal groove or line (endocarina), or with median longitudinal groove or line (endocarina). Frontal region without median groove or line (endocarina), or with median groove or line (endocarina). Head without ocelli.

Compound eyes present. Eyes not or only slightly protuberant, or strongly protuberant. Vertical diameter of eye less than 2 times horizontal diameter, or at least 2 times horizontal diameter. Eyes finely facetted; without interfacetal setae. Ommatidium of the eucone type. Eye entire. Anterior or mesal edge of eye not or only barely emarginate, or shallowly emarginate or slightly divided by canthus. Posterior edge of eye not or barely emarginate.

Antennal insertions exposed from above, or concealed from above; moderately to widely separated, or narrowly separated, or closely approximate or contiguous. Antennae not borne on raised tubercles. Antennal insertions flush with head capsule or raised, not in fossae, or countersunk so that they lie within saucer-like fossae. Subantennal groove or cavity on head absent or very weakly developed, or well developed. Frontoclypeal suture absent or incomplete, or indistinctly impressed, or distinctly impressed; straight, slightly curved or angulate. Clypeus not laterally emarginate. Anterior edge of clypeus or clypeolabrum straight to convex, or concave to shallowly emarginate, or deeply emarginate or excavate, or complexly lobed or dentate. Mouth cavity anteriorly or anteroventrally oriented, or ventrally or posteroventrally oriented. Pregular area without laterally opening cavities. Head ventrally without paired subgenal ridges, or with paired subgenal ridges. Head without anteriorly-projecting genal processes. Gular sutures widely separated or absent. Corporotentorium narrow, or incomplete or absent; without median process. Cervical sclerites absent, or present.

Antennae. Number of antennomeres 10, or 11, or 12. Antennae when posteriorly extended not reaching middle of prothorax, or reaching beyond middle of prothorax but not middle of elytra, or reaching beyond middle of elytra but not elytral apices. Antennae filiform, or serrate, or pectinate or bipectinate, or flabellate or biflabellate, or plumose or biplumose, or incrassate or clavate, or capitate. Antennomeres 3, 4 or 5 to 10 without or with single rami (uniramose), or with double rami (biramose). Antennae at least partly pubescent or with obvious modifications. Antennal modifications beginning on antennomere 3 (rarely 2), or antennomere 4, or antennomere 5, or antennomere 5 or beyond. First antennomere (scape) less than 3 times as long as 2nd (pedicel), or more than 3 times as long as 2nd (pedicel). Antenna not geniculate; without apical club, or with weak apical club, or with strong apical club. Antennal club 3-segmented, or 4-segmented, or 5-segmented, or with 6 or more segments; not 5-segmented or with 2nd segment subequal to or larger than 1st; loose; not lamellate; not or slightly serrate, or strongly serrate or pectinate; not cupuliform; not or slightly flattened, or distinctly flattened; not preceded by a cupule.

Mouthparts. Labrum at least partly visible, or concealed beneath clypeus or apparently absent; free, membranous or separated by suture. Major portion of labrum strongly transverse, or slightly transverse or subquadrate, or distinctly longer than wide. Apex of labrum subtruncate to slightly convex, or strongly convex, narrowly rounded or acute, or slightly concave or emarginate, or deeply emarginate or bilobed. Labrum moderately to heavily sclerotized, except at base and-or apex. Mouthparts not forming a piercing or sucking tube. Mandibles present. Mandible short and broad, or moderately elongate. Mandibular apex not or slightly and gradually curved mesally, or moderately to strongly, gradually curved mesally; unidentate, truncate or rounded, or bidentate or bilobed, or multidentate or multilobed; subacute, bidentate or multidentate, or rounded or truncate. Dorsal part of mandible without tubercle; without setose cavity. Mandible moderately to strongly, more or less evenly sclerotized or pigmented; visible in lateral view, or enclosed in mouth cavity or not visible in lateral view. Incisor edge of mandible simple, or with single tooth, or with 2 or more teeth. Mandible without mola; without prostheca. Prostheca absent or without articulated, sclerotized process, or including articulated, sclerotized process. Inner basal angle of mandible without pubescent process. Maxilla with distinct galea and lacinia, or with single apical lobe. Maxillary lobe(s) not stylet-like. Apex of galea or maxillary lobe densely setose or spinose, or without or with few setae or spines; without heavily sclerotized teeth or hooks. Lacinia without hook(s) or spine(s). Apical maxillary palpomere cylindrical to fusiform, or slightly expanded and truncate to subtriangular; at least as wide as or longer than preapical one. Maxillary palp without complex palp organ. Apical labial palpomere cylindrical to fusiform, or slightly to strongly expanded apically. Ligula undivided or finely cleft, or shallowly to moderately emarginate, or indistinct or absent.

Prothorax. Ratio of pronotal length to greatest pronotal width 0.2–0.95. Prothorax widest anteriorly, or at middle, or posteriorly. Sides of prothorax more or less straight, or moderately to strongly curved, or straight posteriorly, curved anteriorly, or sinuate. Prothorax not laterally compressed to form cavities for legs. Sides of prothorax not or slightly explanate. Base of prothorax not or slightly narrower than elytral bases, or distinctly narrower than elytral bases. Greatest prothoracic width not or slightly narrower than greatest elytral width, or distinctly narrower than greatest elytral width. Lateral pronotal carinae complete, or incomplete, or absent; simple, or finely crenulate or denticulate; visible for their entire lengths from above, or not visible for their entire length from above; without a raised margin, or with a raised margin or narrow bead. Lateral portion of prothorax without deep pit. Pronotum without anterolateral callosities. Anterior angles of pronotum absent or not produced forward, or distinctly produced forward; absent, right or rounded, not produced, or produced and broadly rounded or obtusely angulate, or produced and narrowly rounded or acute. Posterior angles of pronotum absent or broadly rounded, or obtuse or right, or moderately to strongly acute; not produced and acute. Posterior edge of pronotum more or less straight or evenly rounded, or moderately to strongly produced forming mesal lobe, or distinctly sinuate or variously lobed; simple, or distinctly crenulate; not or vaguely margined, or with narrow raised margin or bead. Discal carinae of pronotum absent, or basal but mesad of posterior angles, or extending beyond middle of disc. Pronotal disc without paired basal impressions, or with paired basal impressions. Pronotum without median longitudinal groove or line, or with median longitudinal groove or line. Anterior edge of pronotum simple, without margin, or with narrow margin or bead. Hypomeron without pit.

Anterior portion of prosternum at midline shorter than prosternal process, or as long as prosternal process, or longer than prosternal process. Lateral portion of prosternum in front of coxae shorter than mid length of procoxal cavity, or as long as mid length of procoxal cavity, or longer than mid length of procoxal cavity. Anterior edge of prosternum not produced anteriorly, or distinctly produced forming chin piece. Prosternum in front of coxae concave or biconcave, or flat to moderately convex, or strongly convex without carina. Prosternum in front of coxae without paired lines or carinae, or with paired lines or carinae. Anterior edge of prosternum without margin, or with narrow margin or bead; without mesal excavation. Anterolateral or ventrolateral portions of prothorax without cavities or grooves, or with broad cavities, or with narrow grooves. Prothoracic cavities absent, or external, open anteriorly, not visible from above. Prothoracic grooves absent, or longitudinal, below lateral edges of prothorax, or longitudinal or oblique, elsewhere on hypomera or prosternum. Prosternal process complete; narrowed apically, or parallel-sided, or gradually expanded or narrowed and then expanded, or gradually expanded and then narrowed, or strongly and abruptly expanded at apex; flat, concave, or only slightly elevated or curved behind coxae, or slightly to strongly elevated but not curved behind; moderately to strongly overlapping mesoventrite, or concealing most or all of mesoventrite. Apex of prosternal process acute or narrowly rounded, or broadly rounded, angulate or truncate, or singly or multiply cleft or emarginate. Prosternal process without transverse groove. Accessory (mesal) procoxal articulation absent. Ventral portion of prothorax on each side with notosternal suture only, or without sutures or with incomplete notosternal suture. Propleuron not extending to anterior edge of prothorax. Propleuron or pleurotrochantin not extending behind coxa. Procoxae not or slightly projecting below prosternum. Procoxa without or with short concealed lateral extension. Procoxal cavities present, procoxae countersunk. Procoxal cavity strongly transverse, or slightly transverse, or circular or longer than wide. Procoxal cavities at middle narrowly separated, or moderately to widely separated. Procoxal cavities externally open; broadly open. Postcoxal projection absent or very short. Procoxal cavities without narrow lateral extensions, or with narrow lateral extensions. Procoxal cavities internally open. Prothoracic trochantin or pleurotrochantin at least partly exposed. Promesothoracic clicking mechanism absent.

Elytra. Elytra present. Ratio of elytral length to greatest elytral width 1–3.2. Ratio of elytral length to pronotal length 2–6.83. Elytra apunctate, irregularly punctate, or with 5 or fewer distinct puncture rows or striae, or with more than 5 distinct puncture rows, or with more than 5 distinct impressed striae; without scutellary striole, or with scutellary striole. Number elytral puncture rows or striae 12 or more, or 11, or 10, or 9. Sutural stria absent or not deeply impressed near apex. Abdominal tergites exposed by elytra none or apex of 1, or most of one, or 3 or more. Exposed abdominal segments more or less flexible. Elytral apices meeting or almost meeting at the suture, or independently rounded or acute and separated by broad gap. Elytral suture not deflected near apex. Elytral apex without internal interlocking tongue. Epipleuron absent or incomplete, or complete; not or gradually narrowed, or abruptly narrowed or excavated. Lateral edge of elytron straight or weakly sinuate.

Pterothorax. Scutellum well developed, or highly reduced, or absent or not visible; not abruptly elevated, or abruptly elevated; anteriorly simple; posteriorly narrowly rounded or acute, or broadly rounded or obtusely angulate, or truncate, or emarginate. Mesoscutum without stridulatory file. Mesoventrite without paired procoxal rests, or with paired procoxal rests. Paired mesoventral procoxal rests absent, horizontal or slightly oblique, or moderately to strongly oblique, or vertical. Anterior edge of mesoventrite without prosternal rest. Mesoventrite not divided by longitudinal groove or discrimen, or at least partly divided by longitudinal groove or discrimen. Anterior edge of mesoventrite at midline on same plane as metaventrite, or on different plane than metaventrite. Mesoventral cavity small and shallow, or moderately large and shallow, or moderately to very large and deep. Mesocoxa not conical and projecting. Mesocoxal cavities present, mesocoxae countersunk. Mesocoxal cavities at middle moderately to widely separated. Mesocoxae separated by less than shortest diameter of coxal cavity, or more than shortest diameter of coxal cavity. Mesocoxal cavities circular to slightly transverse; not or slightly oblique. Mesoventrite separated by complete sutures from mesepisterna, or partly or completely fused to mesepisterna. Mesepisterna distinctly separated at midline; without deep pockets. Mesepimeron not visible from above. Mesocoxal cavities open laterally; not partly closed by metepisterna. Mesoventral process absent or not extending to middle of mesocoxal cavity, or extending at least to middle of mesocoxal cavity. Mesometaventral junction a straight line, or a posteriorly curved, angulate or acute line, or an anteriorly curved, angulate or acute line, or a complex fitting, or absent due to fusion, or concealed by prosternal process, or concealed by metaventral process. Mesoventral and metaventral processes at midline separated by gap, groove, or suture, or solidly fused or separated at most by weakly impressed line. Accessory (mesal) mesocoxal articulation absent.

Metaventral discrimen or median line moderately to very long. Paired postcoxal lines of metaventrite absent, or present. Postcoxal lines of metaventrite absent, or arched and strongly recurved, or arched but not or slightly recurved, or straight or slightly, mesally curved. Metaventrite longer than first abdominal ventrite, or not longer than first abdominal ventrite. Postcoxal pits of metaventrite absent. Metaventrite flat to slightly convex, or moderately to strongly convex. Transverse groove of metaventrite present. Anterior edge of metaventrite without transverse carina between mesocoxal cavities. Exposed portion of metepisternum short and broad, or moderately elongate, or very long and narrow or absent. Metacoxae contiguous or narrowly separated; separated by less than longest coxal diameter; extending laterally to meet elytra or sides of body; completely separated from metaventrite by suture. Metacoxal plates well developed, more or less uniform, or weakly developed; not concealing most of basal abdominal ventrite. Metacoxae not greatly enlarged; horizontally oriented. Lateral arms of metendosternite short or absent, or moderately to very long. Metendosternal laminae absent. Ventrolateral processes of metendosternite absent or weakly developed. Anterior process of metendosternite moderately long, or short or absent. Anterior tendons of metendosternite moderately or very close together, or widely separated but not on lateral arms, or on lateral arms or not apparent. Apical portion of metendosternite not or only slightly emarginate.

Hind wing. Hind wing well developed; with normal transverse folds, or lacking transverse folds. Radial cell of hind wing well developed, or highly reduced or absent; elongate, or shorter and broader, or incomplete or absent. Inner posterior angle formed at base of radial cell right or obtuse, or acute. Radial cell not forming equilateral triangle. Ratio of length of apical area to total wing length less than 0.2, or 0.20–0.35, or 0.36–0.5. Apical area of hind wing without veins or sclerotizations, or with one or more vague sclerotizations or pigment patches, or with one or more distinct veins (branches of RA and-or RP). Medial bar of hind wing not crossed by fold. Free veins in medial area of hind wing 5 or 6, or 4, or 3 or fewer. Oblongum cell of hind wing absent. Medial fleck of hind wing absent; absent or not partly bisected by a vein. Wedge cell of hind wing well developed, or absent. Apex of wedge cell of hind wing obliquely truncate, or acute. Anal lobe of hind wing absent, or present. Posterior edge of hind wing without fringe of long hairs.

Legs. Femoral attachment of mid trochanter transverse or slightly oblique, or strongly oblique with base of femur separate from coxa, or strongly oblique with base of femur abutting coxa. Mesotrochanter not reduced or concealed from below. Metafemur not much wider than mesofemur, or much wider than mesofemur. Mesotibia not strongly widened, or strongly widened, widest well before apex. Outer edge of mesotibia simple, crenulate or denticulate, or with distinct teeth or long spines. Outer subapical edge of mesotibia without antenna cleaner. Preapical surfaces of mesotibia without ridges or combs. Outer apical angle of mesotibia simple or slightly produced, without lobe, teeth or spines. Inner apical angle of mesotibia not or slightly produced, without tooth, or produced forming tooth (mucro). Mesotibial spurs glabrous or absent; double, or absent. Mesotarsus with 5 distinct tarsomeres (pentamerous). Tarsomeres on hind leg at least as many as on mid leg. Tarsomeres on fore leg at least as many as on mid leg. Mesotarsomere 1 well developed and visible. Preapical mesotarsomeres together longer than apical one, or shorter than apical one. Penultimate mesotarsomere not distinctly shorter than antepenultimate. Ventral mesotarsal lobes on penultimate tarsomere only, or on more than one tarsomere. Mesotarsal claws paired; subequal in length and similar in form and angle of inclination; simple, or toothed or bifid. Appendage on each tarsal claw absent. Mesotarsal claws without setae near base. Mesotarsal empodium absent or concealed; absent or with 2 or fewer setae. Outer edge of protibia simple and rounded to carinate but without lobes or teeth, except at apex. Outer apical angle of protibia simple or slightly produced, without lobe, teeth or spines. Inner subapical edge of protibia without antenna cleaner. Protibial spurs double, or absent. Articulations of protibial spurs located in same plane. Hind legs without swimming hairs. Preapical surfaces of metatibia without ridges or combs. Metatibial articular area not to only moderately expanded, narrowly oval or oblique. Metatibial spurs double, or absent; subequal in length and form.

Abdomen. Number of abdominal ventrites 4, or 5, or 6–7. Number of basal ventrites connate none, or two. Abdominal sternite 2 apparently absent. First ventrite not completely divided by metacoxae. Suture between ventrites 1 and 2 distinct, or incomplete or vaguely indicated. Suture between ventrites 2 and 3 distinct. Ventrite 4 articulated with or connate with both 3 and 5. Postcoxal lines on ventrite 1 absent, or 1 pair, strongly curved or recurved, or 1 pair, straight or slightly curved. Ventrite 1 not much longer than 2, or much longer than 2. Ventrite 1 at middle of metacoxa about as long as or longer than ventrite 2. Abdominal process acute or narrowly rounded, or broadly rounded or angulate. Ventrite 5 in female without circular depression. Posterior edge of ventrite 5 not crenulate, or crenulate. Last visible tergite and-or sternite (7 or 8) not forming terminal spine. Tergite and sternite 7 separated by membrane or distinct suture. Subapical abdominal luminous organ absent. Ventrites without setose patches or foveae. Functional spiracles on abdominal segment 8 present. Functional spiracles on abdominal segment 7 present. Functional spiracles on abdominal segment 6 present. Functional spiracles on abdominal segment 5 present. 7th abdominal spiracles located in pleural membrane, or located on tergite. 6th abdominal spiracles located in pleural membrane, or located in tergite. 5th abdominal spiracles located in pleural membrane, or located in tergite. Anterior edge of sternite 8 in male without median strut, or with median strut. Pygidium (sclerotized tergite 7 or 8) more or less horizontal. Anterior edge of sternite 9 in male without median strut, or with median strut (spiculum gastrale). Tergite 9 in male truncate, or slightly to moderately emarginate, or completely fused to tergite 10. Tergite 10 in male well developed and free, or partly fused to tergite 9, or completely membranous or fused to tergite 9.

Aedeagus buprestoid, or unclassified; symmetrical, or asymmetrical. Anterior edge of tegmen or phallobase without struts, or with single strut. Parameres partly or entirely fused together but articulated to phallobase, or partly or entirely fused together and to phallobase, or absent; not outwardly hooked. Penis without dorsal and ventral lobes. Anterior edge of penis without struts, or with paired struts.

Illustrations. • Agrilus. Agrilus cavifrons Waterhouse. Locality: Mexico. Photo: C. Bellamy. Courtesy of Dr. C. L. Bellamy. • Endelus. Endelus cornutus Kerremans. Locality: Moluccas. Reference: Kerremans 1902–1903. Courtesy of Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique. • Brachys. Brachys simplex Waterhouse. Locality: Central America. Reference: Waterhouse 1889. • Cylindromorphus. Cylindromorphus filum (Schönherr). Locality: Europe. Reference: Reitter 1911. • Zitella. Zitella obenbergeri Théry. Locality: Central Africa. Reference: Théry 1954. Reproduced by permission of the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences. • Cylindromorphoides. Cylindromorphoides mrazi Obenberger. Locality: Brazil. Photo: D. McClenaghan. Copyright CSIRO. • Galbella. Galbella grandis Bellamy. Locality: East Africa. Artist: E. Holm. Reproduced under South African Government Printers Copyright Authority No. 10747 dated 15 September 1999. Reference: Bellamy and Holm 1986. • Germarica. Germarica casuarinae Blackburn. Locality: Australia. Reference: Kerremans 1902–1903. Courtesy of Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique. • Pachyschelus. Pachyschelus trapezoidalis Waterhouse. Locality: Central America. Reference: Waterhouse 1889. • Trachys. Trachys imperatrix Kerremans. Locality: Madagascar. Reference: Kerremans 1902–1903. Courtesy of Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique. • Calodema. Calodema regalis (Laporte & Gory). Locality: Australia. Artist: F. Nanninga. Copyright CSIRO. Reference: Britton 1970. • Acmaeoderella (Kocheridia). Acmaeoderella trifoveolata (Lucas). Locality: Asia Minor. Photo: D. McClenaghan. Copyright CSIRO. • Castiarina. Castiarina antia Barker. Locality: Australia. Photo: D. McClenaghan. Copyright CSIRO. • Castiarina. Castiarina variegata (Blackburn). Locality: Australia. Photo: D. McClenaghan. Copyright CSIRO. • Julodimorpha. Julodimorpha bakewelli White. Locality: Australia. Photo: D. C. F. Rentz. Copyright CSIRO. • Helferella. Helferella dianae Cobos. Locality: New Guinea. Reference: Cobos 1957. • Mendizabalia. Mendizabalia germaini (Kerremans). Locality: Chile. Photo: C. Bellamy. Courtesy of Dr. C. L. Bellamy. • Paratrachys. Paratrachys pilifrons Kerremans. Locality: Sumatra. Reference: Kerremans 1902–1903. Courtesy of Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique. • Thrincopyge. Thrincopyge alacris LeConte. Locality: Texas. Photo: D. McClenaghan. Copyright CSIRO. • Xenorhipis. Xenorhipis alvarengai Cobos. Locality: Brazil. Courtesy of Revista Brasileira de Biologia. Reference: Cobos 1964. • Xyroscelis. Xyroscelis bumana Williams & Watkins. Locality: Australia. Artist: G. Williams. Reference: Williams and Watkins 1986. Courtesy of Blackwell Science Ltd. • Julodis. Julodis chevrolatii Laporte. Locality: Southern Africa. Photo: C. Bellamy. Courtesy of Dr. C. L. Bellamy. • Dystaxia. Dystaxia elegans LeConte. Locality: California. Photo: C. Bellamy. Courtesy of Dr. C. L. Bellamy.


The interactive key provides access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, and summaries of attributes within groups of taxa.

Cite this publication as: ‘Lawrence, J.F., Hastings, A.M., Dallwitz, M.J., Paine, T.A., and Zurcher, E.J. 2000 onwards. Elateriformia (Coleoptera): descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval for families and subfamilies. Version: 9th October 2005. http://delta-intkey.com’.

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