Beetles of the World


J. F. Lawrence, A. M. Hastings, M. J. Dallwitz, T. A. Paine and E. J. Zurcher


This product was conceived in 1993, just after the release of the MS-Dos version of ‘Beetle Larvae of the World’. It is based, however, on data gathered by the senior author during his entire career with the help of numerous colleagues and scientific institutions throughout the world. CSIRO Entomology has provided continued support for this long-term, appropriation-funded project at a time of increasing pressure to give priority to short-term, applied projects funded primarily from outside sources. It is hoped that the usefulness of the product will justify this support. Individuals and institutions providing specimens, information, images and logistic support are listed below:

R. F. Aalbu; A. A. Allen; American Museum of Natural History, New York (L. H. Herman, Jr.); R. H. Arnett; P. Audisio; The Australian Museum, Sydney (C. Chadwick, G. Holloway, M. Moulds); Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Canberra (E. B. Britton, A. A. Calder, R. Oberprieler, T. A. Weir, E. C. Zimmerman); G. E. Ball; L. Ballantyne; W. F. Barr; V. R. Bejsak; C. L. Bellamy; R. G. Beutel; X. Bellés; Bishop Museum, Honolulu (K. Arakaki, S. Miller, G. Nishida, G. A. Samuelson); California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco (R. Brett, D. H. Kavanaugh, H. B. Leech); L. Bocak and M. Bocakova; M. Bologna; S. Bowestead; A. A. Calder; California Department of Food and Agriculture, Insect Taxonomy Laboratory, Sacramento (F. G. Andrews, T. Seeno); Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa (R. Anderson, F. Génier); Canadian National Collections of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes, Agriculture and Food Canada, Ottawa (E. C. Becker, Y. Bousquet, J. M. Campbell, L. LeSage, J. E. H. Martin, A. Smetana); The Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh (D. Pollock, R. L. Davidson); D. S. Chandler; K. W. Cooper; R. A. Crowson; M. Daccordi; R. De Keyzer; J. T. Doyen; Essig Museum, University of California, Berkeley (C. Barr, J. Chemsak, J. A. Powell); Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago (H. S. Dybas, E. H. Smith, A. F. Newton, Jr., M. K. Thayer, P. P. Parrillo, R. L. Wenzel); Finnish Natural History Museum, Helsinki (O. Biström, J. Muona, H. Silfverberg); B. Fisher; W. E. Hall; H. Hansen; N. Hayashi; T. F. Hlavac; H. F. and A. Howden; M. Jäch; M. L. Jameson; P. J. Johnson; A. G. Kirejtshuk; C. Kitayama; J. Kodada; T. Kompantseva; J. Kukalová-Peck; R. A. B. Leschen; I. Löbl; The Macleay Museum, Sydney (D. S. Horning); J. V. McHugh; O. Merkl; Montana State University, Department of Entomology, Bozeman (M. A. and D. Ivie, R. S. Miller); B. P. Moore; J. Muona; Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Genoa (R. Poggi); Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Santiago, Chile (M. Egueta D.); Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil (S. Casari-Chen, C. Costa, H. Reichardt, S. A. Vanin;); Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Geneva (C. Besuchet, D. Burckhardt, G. Cuccodorro, I. Löbl); Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris (C. Girard, J. Menier); Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge (F. M. Carpenter, D. G. Furth, A. F. Newton, Jr., J. Scott, P. D. Perkins, J. Scott, M. K. Thayer); Museum of Victoria, Melbourne (A. A. Calder, C. McPhee, A. Neboiss, K. L. Walker); Muzeum i Instytut Zoologii, Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw (S. A. Slipinski, P. Wegrzynowicz); The Natural History Museum, London (M. J. D. Brendell, M. D. Kerley, C. Lyal, R. D. Pope, E. Peacock, S. L. Shute, R. Thompson, C. M. von Hayek); National Museum of New Zealand, Wellington (R. Palma); National Museum of Natural History and Systematic Entomology Laboratory, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. (D. M. Anderson, T. L. Erwin, D. G. Furth, R. Gordon, G. F. Hevel, G. N. House, J. M. Kingsolver, A. Konstantinov, S. W. Lingafelter, J. Pakaluk, P. J. Spangler; T. J. Spilman, W. Steiner, N. J. Vandenberg); Naturhistorisches Museum Basel (M. Brancucci, W. Wittmer); G. H. Nelson; A. F. Newton, Jr.; New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, Auckland (R. C. Craw, T. Crosby, B. Holloway, G. Kuschel, R. A. B. Leschen, B. May, J. C. Watt); N. B. Nikitsky; R. G. Oberprieler; C. W. O’Brien; S. O’Keefe; W. Opitz; Orange Agricultural Institute (formerly Biological and Chemical Research Institute), Orange, N.S.W. (G. Brown, M. J. Fletcher, P. S. Gillespie); Oregon Department of Agriculture, Salem (R. Westcott); T. K. Pal; S. B. Peck; J. D. Pinto; D. A. Pollock; Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Mareeba (R. I. Storey); Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Forest Service, Indooroopilly (M. De Baar, J. F. Donaldson; K. Houston); Queensland Museum, Brisbane (E. C. Dahms, G. B. Montieth, G. I. Thompson); E. Randrianasolo; B. C. Ratcliffe; C. A. M. Reid; Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden (J. Krikken); R. G. Roughley; W. Rücker; H. Sasaji; C. H. Scholtz; T. Sen Gupta; P. E. Skelley; S. A. Slipinski; Snow Entomological Museum, University of Kansas, Lawrence (J. S. Ashe, J. Pakaluk); South Australian Museum, Adelaide (E. G. Matthews); State Forests of New South Wales, Research Division (D. S. Kent, C. A. Urquhart; K. Stephan; Z. Stebnicka; J. B. Stribling; P. Svacha; Tasmanian Department of Agriculture, Hobart (P. McQuillan, T. Semmens); M. K. Thayer; M. C. Thomas; Transvaal Museum, Pretoria, South Africa (C. L. Bellamy, S. Endrödy-Younga); T. Ueno; G. Ulrich; University of California, Davis, Department of Entomology (S. L. Heydon, L. Kimsey, R. Schuster); Queensland, Department of Entomology, St. Lucia (M. A. Schneider, G. Daniels); S. Watkins; T. A. Weir; Western Australian Museum, Perth (T. Houston, W. Humphries); G. Williams; D. K. Young; Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (A. G. Kirejtshuk, G. S. Medvedev); E. C. Zimmerman; Zoological Museum, Moscow State University (N. Nikitsky); and Zoologisk Museum, University of Copenhagen (M. Hansen, N. P. Kristensen, O. Martin, N. Møller Andersen).

Those who have provided data for particular taxa or corrected errors in the matrix are also cited under the character ‘data at least partly checked by’ for the relevant taxa. Further information on image sources, including copyright statements, may be found by using the Notes button accompanying each taxon image.

Many character images and a few taxon images are based on scanning electron micrographs. The following SEM technicians are gratefully acknowledged for applying their essential expertise: C. Beaton, E. Brooks, M. Dominick, H. Geier, E. Hines, K. Pickerd, and E. Seling.

Macrophotography of museum specimens was used to produce many taxon illustrations and a few of those used for characters. The following CSIRO photographers are gratefully acknowledged for their help in providing these images: E. Alyta, J. Green, D. McClenaghan and K. Smith. These were supplemented by a number of photographs of both living beetles and museum specimens, which were provided by C. L. Bellamy, K. Bolte, G. Cuccodorro, M. DeBaar, C. and D. Frith, B. Gill, J. Green, R, Oberprieler, M. Peterson, D. C. Rentz, J. Rifkind and R. Westcott.

The set of taxon images included in the database represents the work of hundreds of artists over the last century and a half; whenever possible, these are acknowledged in the image notes. The following artists have provided copies or original illustrations (some commissioned by CSIRO Entomology or Landcare Research New Zealand): L. Ellerbrock, A. Harris, M. Hansen, A. Hastings, D. Helmore, S. P. Kim, J. Kobylak, S. Lingafelter, S. Monteith, B. P. Moore, S. Roig-Juñent, A. Rubenstein, M. Schwengel, L. Shoemaker, P. E. Skelley, S. A. Slipinski, W. D. Sumlin, and R. E. White. Special thanks are given to M. Hansen, N. P. Kirstensen and the Zoologisk Museum, Copenhagen for making available copies of many of the drawings from Victor Hansen’s ‘Danmarks Fauna’, as well as a copy of Iakobson’s ‘Zhuki Rossii’ for scanning, and to T. Crosby and Landcare Research New Zealand for providing copies of Des Helmore’s published and unpublished drawings of New Zealand beetles. Ross Arnett, Yves Bousquet and Richard White provided originals used in ‘The Beetles of the United States’, ‘Beetles Associated with Stored Products in Canada: an Identification Guide’ and ‘A Field Guide to the Beetles of North America’, respectively. Permission was granted by the Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique for the use of the excellent color figures in Coleoptera volumes of Wytsman’s ‘Genera Insectorum’. CSIRO Entomology and Melbourne University Press provided us with most of the beetle illustrations from ‘The Insects of Australia’ and ‘Australian Beetles’.

Many of the taxon illustrations were scanned directly from various books or journals, and the following authors and/or publishers are acknowledged: Agriculture and Agri-Food, Canada; Akademia Nauk Armanskoi S. S. R.; Almqvist and Wiksell; American Entomological Society; American Museum of Natural History; F. G. Andrews; Arbeitsgemeinschaft Österreichischer Entomologen; R. H. Arnett; Asociación Europea de Coleopterología; C. L. Bellamy; X. Bellés; Biological Society of Washington; Bishop Museum Press; Blackwell Science Ltd.; Y. Bousquet; S. Bowestead; M. Brancucci; B. Burakowski; California Academy of Sciences; Cambridge Entomological Club; Coleopterists Bulletin; C. Costa; M. Daccordi; Dal’nauka; Danmarks Fauna; M. B. Dean; T. Deuve; J. T. Doyen; M. C. Ferreira; C. Girard; M. Hansen; E. Holm; Éditions Lechevalier; Elsevier Science; Entomologica Basiliensia; Entomological Problems; Entomological Society of America; Entomological Society of Canada; Entomological Society of Japan; Entomological Society of Southern Africa; Entomological Society of Washington; Entomologica Scandinavica; Faculty of Education, Fukui University; Gayana Zoology; Houghton Mifflin Co.; Instituto de Investigação Científica de Moçambique; Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique; Instituto Biologico, São Paulo; V. Jerez; Japanese Society of Coleopterology; J. Kania; J. Kodada; Kluwer Academic Publishers; G. S. Lafer; Landcare Research New Zealand; C.-F. Lee; L. LeSage; I. Löbl; Ediciones L. O. L. A., Buenos Aires; S. Louw; G. Yu. Lyubarsky; J. V. McHugh; G. S. Medvedev; J. J. Menier; M. Miyatake; Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Verona; Museo Civico di Storia Naturale ‘Giacomo Doria’, Genoa; Museu do Dundo, Angola; Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo; Museu de Zoologia, Barcelona; Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University; Muzeum i Instytut Zoologii, Polska Akademia Nauk; New York Entomological Society; SIR Publishing (New Zealand Journal of Zoology); Opuscula Entomologica; Orstom Éditions; R. Pace; Polskie Towarzystwo Entomologiczne; Revista Brasileira de Biologia; Revue Française d’Entomologie; Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Geneva; Royal Danish Academy; Royal Entomological Society of London; M. Sakai; H. Sasaji; M. Satô; C. H. Scholtz; Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft; Shikoku Entomological Society; P. E. Skelley; S. A. Slipinski; Smithsonian Institution; Sociedad Chilena de Entomología; Sociedad de Biologia de Concepcion; Société Entomologique de France; Sociobiology; J. Solervicens; South African Government Printer; P. J. Spangler; Speleological Society of Japan; C. A. Springer; W. D. Sumlin; Taylor and Francis; M. C. Thomas; S.-I. Ueno; University of California Press; University of Washington Press; Q. D. Wheeler; B. D. Valentine; R. E. White; A. Wong; D. K. Young; E. C. Zimmerman; Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences; and Zoologisk Museum, University of Copenhagen.

Complete acknowledgments, including artists (when known), authors, source references, and copyright statements, for a particular image may be accessed from the ‘Notes’ button accompanying that image.

The processing of taxon images and the design and composition of character images involved a great deal of computer graphics which would not have been possible without the help of several individuals. Scott S. Lawton of ‘PreFab Software’ provided an incredible amount of support on the use of AppleScript and ‘PreFab Player’ in automating Photoshop functions. This powerful software combination saved hours of image processing time. Chris Blackwell is gratefully acknowledged for his inspirational ideas, knowledge and collaboration in using vector animation to create the interactive ‘Beetle Browser’. Tony Putter of FAO provided invaluable insights on the potential of AppleScript to automate image processing in Photoshop. Imaging software used during the project included Adobe Photoshop 2 to 5.0.2, AppleScript, PreFab Player, Adobe Illustrator 8 and Macromedia Flash 3.

This project would have not been possible without the facilities and funding of CSIRO Entomology and its Natural Resources and Biodiversity Program, and thanks are given to the following chiefs and program leaders: M. J. Whitten, P. W. Wellings, J. R. Cullen, E. S. Nielsen and R. B. Floyd. Ebbe Nielsen and John Curran deserve special thanks for their continuing support and advice during the course of the project.

Literature search played a very important role, and little could have been accomplished without the efforts of the CSIRO’s Black Mountain Library in Canberra; we are grateful to M. Fisher, M. Hearn, C. Murray, J. Prance and other members of the library staff.

Thanks are given to O. Khinzaw, W. Dressler and C. Hunt for their help in scanning and modifying of images, and to W. Allen, W. Dressler, M.-L. Johnson, O. Khinzaw and T. A. Weir for field and laboratory assistance.

The early stages of this project were supported by a National Science Foundation Research Grant (BMS 7502606).