CITESwoodID: descriptions, illustrations, identification and information retrieval
Nomenclature. Family: THYMELAEACEAE (GONYSTYLACEAE). Other trade relevant species: important trade species: G. bancanus, G. macrophyllus, G. warburgianus. Further trade and local names: ahmin, kaya garu, melawis, ramin telur (MY); lanutanbagio (PH); garu buaja (ID). Code according to DIN EN 13556: GYBN. Internal code: RAM.
CITES(EU) status of protection. Listed in Annex II(B). Similar woods: Alstonia spp., Antiaris spp., Brosimum alicastrum, Dyera costulata, Endospermum spp., Chrysophyllum beguei (syn. Gambeya beguei), Jacaranda copaia, Neolamarckia cadamba, Pterygota spp., Simarouba amara, Terminalia superba.
Geographic distribution. Indomalesia. The most important trade timber, Gonystylus bancanus, grows in western Borneo.
Growth rings, colour, grain, etc. Growth ring boundaries indistinct or absent. Heartwood basically yellow to white or grey; without streaks. Sapwood similar to heartwood colour. Green wood is yellowish, dry wood is yellowish white. Sporadically, dark brown zones (discoloured heartwood) form in old trees. Green wood is very susceptible to "blue stain". Odour distinct, or indistinct or absent (dry wood mostly odourless, occasionally, however, with a very unpleasant odour, particulary when remoistened). Wood of medium weight (± 0,63 g/cm3). Interlocked grain present, or absent (rarely).
Hardwood vs softwood. Vessels (pores) present (= hardwood).
Vessels (pores). Wood diffuse-porous. Vessels (pores) arranged in no specific pattern; in multiples; commonly in short (2–3 vessels) radial rows. Vessels medium (85–150–200 µm); few (9–14). Tyloses absent. Other deposits in heartwood vessels (pores) absent (except for the rare occurrence of some amber coloured extractives).
Axial parenchyma. Axial parenchyma present; not banded. Other macroscopically visible types of axial parenchyma: aliform and confluent. Aliform parenchyma winged.
Rays. Rays narrow; of uniform size. Large rays commonly less than 1 mm high.
Storied structure. Storied structure absent.
Resin canals. Normal resin canals absent.
Physical and chemical tests. Heartwood not fluorescent. Water extract not fluorescent; colourless to brown. Heartwood extractives not leachable by water. Ethanol extract not fluorescent; colourless to brown. Froth test positive. Splinter burns to partial ash (with strong smoke emission); colour of ash white to grey.
Additional information. Indonesia (2004). CITES proposal. Inclusion of Gonystylus spp. in Appendix II, with annotation No.1. See also: Informationsdienst Holz Merkblatt Nr. 27. • ram.jpg. Gonystylus spp. (Ramin). Transverse section ca. 10x. Wood surface, natural size. • ram-pul.jpg. Gonystylus spp. (Ramin). Alstonia spp. (Pulai). Alstonia spp. possess frequent radial pore groups (marked), the axial parenchyma is primarily banded. • ram-ako.jpg. Gonystylus spp. (Ramin). Antiaris spp. (Ako). The vessels of Antiaris spp. are larger and filled with tyloses. The axial parenchyma of Antiaris spp. is exclusively vasicentric (marked). • ram-ani.jpg. Gonystylus spp. (Ramin). Chrysophyllum beguei (Aningré blanc). The vessels of Chrysophyllum beguei are almost exclusively grouped in long radial multiples and in heartwood filled with tyloses. The axial parenchyma is diffuse-in-aggregates (fine lines between rays, marked) and difficult to detect macroscopically. • ram-jel.jpg. Gonystylus spp. (Ramin). Dyera costulata (Jelutong). The vessels of Dyera costulata are almost exclusively grouped in radial multiples. The axial parenchyma is diffuse-in-aggregates (fine lines between rays, marked) and easy to detect macroscopically. • ram-ses.jpg. Gonystylus spp. (Ramin). Endospermum spp. (Sesendok). As opposed to Gonystylus spp., Endospermum spp. has exclusively banded axial parenchyma (marked). Moreover the vessels are somewhat larger and occasionally filled with tyloses. • ram-kad.jpg. Gonystylus spp. (Ramin). Neolamarckia cadamba (Kadam). The vessels of Neolamarckia cadamba are larger than those of Gonystylus spp. and frequently grouped in short radial multiples. The axial parenchyma is diffuse-in-aggregates (fine lines between rays, marked) and fairly distinct macroscopically. • ram-kot.jpg. Gonystylus spp. (Ramin). Pterygota spp. (Koto). The rays and parenchyma bands are much wider in Pterygota spp. than in Gonystylus spp.. The resulting network is easily visible to the naked eye. • ram-mar.jpg. Gonystylus spp. (Ramin). Simarouba amara (Marupá). Simarouba amara and Gonystylus spp. are very similar in external appearance (colour) and structure. Simarouba amara, however, has larger and less numerous vessels; the rays are somewhat wider and storied (visible on tangential section). • ram-lim.jpg. Gonystylus spp. (Ramin). Terminalia superba (Limba). Gonystylus spp. und Terminalia superba are similar in external appearance and macro structure (transverse section). However, Terminalia superba has much larger and fewer vessels often filled with tyloses. Moreover, the wood of Terminalia superba is darker with a greenish hue.
The interactive key allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, summaries of attributes within groups of taxa, and geographical distribution.
Cite this publication as: ‘Richter, H.G., Gembruch, K., and Koch, G. 2014 onwards. CITESwoodID: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. In English, French, German, and Spanish. Version: 16th May 2014. delta-intkey.com’.