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The genera of Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae & Swartzieae

L. Watson and M.J. Dallwitz

Sindora Miq.

Galedupa Prain; cf. also Echinocalyx Benth. and Grandiera Lefèvre ex Baill.

Type species: S. sumatrana Miq.

Habit and leaf form. Trees; unarmed.

Phyllotaxy spiral. The leaves compound; pinnate; paripinnate. The leaflets many per leaf, or few per leaf; opposite or sub-opposite, or alternate (rarely); petiolulate; without noticeably twisted petiolules; symmetrical or nearly so; pinnately veined, with a predominant ‘midrib’ (the midrib gland-tipped); with a strong, continuous marginal nerve. Stipules absent or early caducous or very inconspicuous in mature leaves; large, caducous. Stipels absent.

Inflorescence and floral morphology. The inflorescences terminal; branched; of racemose units; panicles (of racemes). The flowers distichous. Bracts absent at anthesis. Bracteoles present; small, not enclosing the flower buds; absent at anthesis, or persistent beyond anthesis; not valvate; free.

The flowers small; hermaphrodite; not pentamerous throughout; departing from pentamery in the calyx and in the corolla; coloured. Hypanthium present (short), or absent, the androecium hypogynous. The perianth comprising distinct calyx and corolla. Calyx 4 (the outer surfaces of the lobes often with spiny outgrowths); covering the rest of the flower in bud; not Swartzieae type; polysepalous; more or less regular, or markedly irregular; members imbricate (but subvalvate). Corolla present; very irregular; 1, or 1–5 (then comprising a large, oblong, folded, densely ciliate petal and 1–4 vestiges); including greatly reduced members, or without greatly reduced members; when there is more than one petal, polypetalous. Petals sessile; yellow. Disk present and conspicuous, or absent. The androecium comprising 10 members; with united members (with 9 joined basally and one free); members all more or less equal in length, or markedly unequal; including staminodia. The staminodia 8 (the uppermost member and 7 of the lower ones). Fertile stamens 2 (laterals). Anthers attached well above the base of the connective; dehiscing longitudinally. Ovary stipitate; free. Stigma small but dilated (the style filiform). Ovules few, or numerous, or solitary.

Fruit, seed and seedling. Fruit often prickly, a two-valved pod, or indehiscent; without markedly twisting or enrolling valves; with subcircular valves, becoming woody. The mature valves without prominent venation. Seeds non-endospermic; arillate; with a straight or slightly oblique radicle; amyloid-positive. Cotyledons not flat; of Type 4; with a vascular system in one plane; epigeal.

Transverse section of lamina. Leaves with conspicuous phloem transfer cells in the minor veins. Druses absent from the mesophyll. Mesophyll secretory cavities (gland-dots) common, or absent; epithelium-lined. Adaxial hypodermis absent. Leaf girders common (the veins transcurrent). Laminae dorsiventral. Mesophyll without unaligned fibres or sclereids. Minor veins mainly with abundant accompanying fibres.

Leaf lamina epidermes. Epidermal crystals present; prisms. Simple unbranched hairs common; smooth. No compound or branched eglandular hairs seen. Capitate glands not seen. Hooked hairs not seen. Cassieae-type leaf pseudo-glands not seen. Expanded and embedded hair-feet absent. Basally bent hairs present. Adaxial: Adaxial interveinal epidermal cell walls straight in optical section, or markedly sinuous in high-focus optical section; not conspicuously pitted; thick. Stomata adaxially very rare. Abaxial: Abaxial stomata predominantly paracytic. Abaxial epidermis not papillate. Abaxial interveinal epidermal cell walls straight, or gently undulating, or markedly sinuous in high-focus optical section; scarcely staining with safranin, or staining normally with safranin; medium-thin.

Wood anatomy. Wood without septate fibres; not storied; with normal intercellular canals; without traumatic canals. Intervascular pits medium to large.

Pollen ultrastructure. Tectum reticulate, or papillate; rugulose reticulate; reticulate papillate. Length of colpi greater than one half pole to pole distance.

Cytology. Basic chromosome number, x = 12. 2n = 24.

Species number and distribution. 18–20 species. South East Asia, western Malaysia, Celebes, tropical Africa.

Tribe. Detarieae; Detarieae sensu stricto clade of Bruneau et al. (2008).

Miscellaneous. Illustrations: • S. klaineana: Aubréville, Flore du Gabon (1968). • S. wallichii, flowering: Hook. Ic. Pl. 11 (1867–71). • S. wallichii, fruiting: Hook. Ic. Pl. 11 (1867–71). • S. glabra: li shu gang (2005).


We advise against extracting comparative information from the descriptions. This is much more easily achieved using the DELTA data files or the interactive key, which allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting or lacking specified attributes, distributions of character states within any set of taxa, geographical distribution, and classification. See also Guidelines for using data taken from Web publications.


Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 1993 onwards. The genera of Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae and Swartzieae: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. In English and French. Version: 22nd March 2017. delta-intkey.com/caes’.

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