The Moss Families of the British Isles

DELTA Home

L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz

Character List

#1. <English names for the family as a whole:>/

From Smith (2004). In mosses, as in many other groups of organisms in which common names do not exist, they have been invented to satisfy bureaucratic regulations for conservation-related publications.

#2. <Family synonyms:>/

Gametophyte

#3. <Plant vegetative form, whether much reduced:> /

1. tiny, almost stemless plants resembling minute buds on persistent protonemata, the leaves without chlorophyll <Disceliaceae>/

2. minute, stemless plants, arising from brownish protonemal mats, leafless apart from green, fringed perichaetial bracts <Buxbaumiaceae>/

3. plants “normal”, with leaves containing chlorophyll <i.e., not as in Buxbaumiaceae or Disceliaceae> /

#4. <Life form, pleurocarpous or acrocarpous (see Notes):>/

1. pleurocarpous <archegonia and sporophytes borne laterally on dwarf, specialised side branches>/

2. cladocarpous <archegonia and sporophytes borne terminally on short lateral branches>/

3. acrocarpous <archegonia and sporophytes terminating main vegetative stems and/or principal branches>/

Acrocarpous: of mosses in which the archegoniate inflorescences, and hence the sporophytes (setae and capsules), terminate main vegetative stems and/or branches. Acrocarps are usually relatively short-stemmed, unbranched or only sparingly branched, never regularly pinnately branched, and are usually erect or ascending in habit. Most are either cushion-formers, or form ‘turf’ like the pile of a carpet.

Pleurocarpous: of mosses in which the archegoniate inflorescences, and hence the sporophytes (setae and capsules), develop laterally on specialized, dwarf, lateral branches or branchlets usually bearing only perichaetial leaves. Nearly all pleurocarps are freely branched, often pinnately so, and while diverse in habit their relatively long, frequently prostrate or ascending secondary branches often form dense, intricate mats or wefts.

Cladocarpous: applied to rare, somewhat intermediate forms in which the sporophytes (setae and capsules) terminate short lateral branches.

The pleurocarpous/acrocarpous distinction is generally readily made, but note that in some mosses, the originally terminal perichaetia may come to appear lateral, being subsequently overtopped by innovations from beneath.

#5. <Habit, whether dendroid:>/

1. dendroid <like tiny trees>/

2. not dendroid /

#6. <Habit (see Notes):>/

1. cushion-forming/

2. forming tufts/

3. mat or turf forming/

4. forming patches/

5. forming wefts/

6. growing through other Bryophytes/

7. gregarious/

8. the plants scattered/

Multistate characters in which differences between some states seem insufficiently clear-cut are best approached by selecting all the states you feel MIGHT fit your specimen. Such characters can be very useful, even if you use them only to eliminate one or two states that obviously do not apply.

#7. <Plants, whether rosette:>/

1. rosette plants/

2. non-rosette plants /

#8. Primary stems <habit>/

1. erect/

2. procumbent/

#9. Mature plants <erect or ascending, maximum height>/

mm high/

Estimates of plant sizes are obviously useful for identification, even if only to distinguish the relatively large from the minute. In order to utilize them, however, it is essential to record complete ranges. The ranges given here have often been deduced from species descriptions expressed in the form “ .... plants to x mm high”, and in such cases, the lower limits are mere guesses. They have been deliberately set low, but the character is not as reliable as it ought be, and should be used with this in mind.

#10. Plants <whether exhibiting comal tufts of leaves>/

1. exhibiting comal tufts of leaves/

2. without comal tufts <of leaves> /

#11. The branches <whether fascicled>/

1. in fascicles/

2. not in fascicles /

#12. Shoots <whether complanate>/

1. complanate/

2. not complanate /

#13. Paraphyllia <presence>/

1. present/

2. absent/

Paraphyllia: minute branched or unbranched filaments or leaf-like structures borne on stems, among the leaves (see pseudoparaphyllia).

#14. Pseudoparaphyllia <presence or absence>/

1. present/

2. absent/

Pseudoparaphyllia: minute branched or unbranched filaments or leaf-like structures, resembling paraphyllia (q.v.) but confined to the bases of branches and branch primordia.

#15. Stems <colour>/

1. reddish/

2. yellowish/

3. green/

#16. Stems <whether tomentose>/

1. tomentose <at least> below/

2. not tomentose/

#17. Stems <diameter>/

mm in diameter/

#18. Stems <presence of differentiated internal strand>/

1. with a differentiated central strand/

2. without a differentiated central strand/

#19. Leaves <presence>/

1. present /

2. absent/

#20. Leaves <length>/

mm long/

#21. The leaves of main stems and branches <similar or different in form>/

1. similar in form/

2. markedly different in form <as distinct from size alone>/

#22. The leaves <whether sphagnoid or leucobryoid (see Notes)>/

1. sphagnoid/

2. leucobryoid/

3. neither sphagnoid nor leucobryoid /

Sphagnoid: In Sphagnum, all the leaves are single layered. The stem leaves are relatively simple, usually flatter and tongue-shaped, and are composed entirely of hyaline cells with relatively small pores. The usually concave and pointed branch leaves are composed of large, empty, hyaline cells interspersed in a network of very narrow, green assimilatory cells. The former, the walls of which exhibit spiral thickenings and large, rounded pores, endow the living and dead tissues with their remarkable capacity for absorbing and retaining water. See illustrations.

Leucobryoid: In Leucobryum, the leaves are three or more layered, with a median, open network of long and narrow chlorophyllous cells, sandwiched between layers of much larger, empty, hyaline cells. The latter are interconnected by conspicuous pores, and some have openings to the outside, endowing the leaves with a sponge-like capacity to absorb and retain water. They are analogous with branch leaves of the unrelated Sphagnum, but lack the spiral wall thickenings characteristic of them. See illustrations.

#23. The leaves <symmetry>/

1. <more or less> bilaterally symmetrical <in outline>/

2. markedly asymmetrical/

Descriptions of leaves apply to typical, fully developed, vegetative leaves, such as are generally found around the middle of the stems, and sampling for pursuing identifications should be conducted with this in mind. Proximal (basal) leaves on stems and branches are often small or otherwise atypical, and should be avoided, as should the branch leaves of those pleurocarpous mosses in which they are evidently smaller and less well developed than the stem leaves. Where necessary, the distinction must also be made between the vegetative leaves and the bracts (perichaetial leaves) associated with the reproductive structures, which in some but by no means all mosses assume specialized forms.

#24. The leaves <shape (see Notes)>/

1. orbicular/

2. elliptical/

3. oblong/

4. ovate/

5. lanceolate/

6. narrowly lanceolate/

7. linear/

8. subulate/

9. lingulate/

10. spathulate/

11. obovate/

Multistate characters in which differences between some states seem insufficiently clear-cut are best approached by selecting all the states you feel MIGHT fit your specimen. Such characters can be very useful, even if you use them only to eliminate one or two states that obviously do not apply.

Descriptions of leaves apply to typical, fully developed, vegetative leaves, such as are generally found around the middle of the stems, and sampling for pursuing identifications should be conducted with this in mind. Proximal (basal) leaves on stems and branches are often small or otherwise atypical, and should be avoided, as should the branch leaves of those pleurocarpous mosses in which they are evidently smaller and less well developed than the stem leaves. Where necessary, the distinction must also be made between the vegetative leaves and the bracts (perichaetial leaves) associated with the reproductive structures, which in some but by no means all mosses assume specialized forms.

#25. The leaves <phyllotaxy>/

1. distichous <in two ranks>/

2. not distichous <though stems sometimes flattened> /

#26. The leaves <non-distichous, details of phyllotaxy>/

1. spiral <more than 3-ranked>/

2. 3-ranked/

#27. The leaves <whether secund>/

1. secund/

2. not secund /

#28. The leaves <whether crisped>/

1. crisped <strongly curled and twisted> when dry/

2. not crisped when dry/

#29. The leaves <whether longitudinally plicate>/

1. longitudinally plicate/

2. not plicate/

#30. Leaf bases <whether sheathing>/

1. sheathing/

2. not sheathing /

#31. Leaf bases <whether decurrent>/

1. decurrent/

2. not decurrent /

#32. The leaves <nervation>/

1. nerveless/

2. double-nerved/

3. single-nerved/

#33. The leaf nerves <when present, distance traversed>/

1. not extending beyond the middle of the leaf/

2. extending beyond the middle of the leaf, but not to the tip/

3. extending to the leaf tip/

Dixon’s text regularly makes the distinction between states 2 and 3, but his illustrations do not always conform. See (e.g.) Timmia, page 310 and Tab. XXXVIII.

Descriptions of leaves apply to typical, fully developed, vegetative leaves, such as are generally found around the middle of the stems, and sampling for pursuing identifications should be conducted with this in mind. Proximal (basal) leaves on stems and branches are often small or otherwise atypical, and should be avoided, as should the branch leaves of those pleurocarpous mosses in which they are evidently smaller and less well developed than the stem leaves. Where necessary, the distinction must also be made between the vegetative leaves and the bracts (perichaetial leaves) associated with the reproductive structures, which in some but by no means all mosses assume specialized forms.

#34. The leaf nerves <when extending to the leaf tips, whether excurrent>/

1. excurrent/

2. not excurrent/

#35. The leaf nerves <whether exhibiting stereids>/

1. incorporating stereids/

2. without stereids/

#36. Leaf blades <whether lamellate>/

1. adaxially longitudinally lamellate/

2. not lamellate /

#37. Leaf blade apices <blunt or pointed>/

1. obtuse/

2. pointed/

#38. Leaf blade apices <whether apiculate>/

1. apiculate/

2. not apiculate /

#39. Leaf blade apices <apex form>/

1. emarginate/

2. truncate/

3. apically rounded/

4. apically acute/

5. acuminate/

#40. Leaf blade apices <whether hair-pointed>/

1. conspicuously hyaline <showing white when dry, contrasting conspicuously with the green of the rest of the leaf>/

2. not hyaline /

#41. Leaf blade margins <whether flat>/

1. flat/

2. involute or incurved/

3. revolute or recurved/

#42. Leaf blade margins <whether uni-stratose>/

1. unistratose /

2. bi-stratose/

3. several-stratose/

#43. Leaf blade margins <entire or toothed>/

1. entire/

2. denticulate/

3. dentate/

#44. Leaf blades <whether bordered>/

1. <conspicuously> bordered <by distinctive marginal cells>/

2. not conspicuously bordered <by distinctive marginal cells>/

#45. The basal leaf cells <elongation>/

1. more or less isodiametric/

2. somewhat longitudinally elongated <to about twice as long as wide>/

3. longitudinally much elongated <more than twice as long as wide>/

#46. The basal leaf cells <shape (see Notes)>/

1. quadrate/

2. rectangular/

3. hexagonal/

4. rounded/

5. rhomboidal/

6. linear/

7. vermicular/

Multistate characters in which differences between some states seem insufficiently clear-cut are best approached by selecting all the states you feel MIGHT fit your specimen. Such characters can be very useful, even if you use them only to eliminate one or two states that obviously do not apply.

Descriptions of leaves apply to typical, fully developed, vegetative leaves, such as are generally found around the middle of the stems, and sampling for pursuing identifications should be conducted with this in mind. Proximal (basal) leaves on stems and branches are often small or otherwise atypical, and should be avoided, as should the branch leaves of those pleurocarpous mosses in which they are evidently smaller and less well developed than the stem leaves. Where necessary, the distinction must also be made between the vegetative leaves and the bracts (perichaetial leaves) associated with the reproductive structures, which in some but by no means all mosses assume specialized forms.

#47. The basal leaf cells <whether papillose>/

1. papillose/

2. smooth <not papillose>/

#48. The walls of basal leaf cells <thickness>/

1. thin/

2. thick/

#49. The walls of basal leaf cells <sinuosity>/

1. straight/

2. sinuous/

#50. The angular cells <alar cells, differentiated or not>/

1. <more or less> clearly differentiated <from the basal cells, whether or not forming auricles>/

2. not well differentiated/

#51. The mid-leaf cells <about 1/3 from the apex, elongation>/

1. more or less isodiametric/

2. somewhat longitudinally elongated <to about twice as long as wide>/

3. longitudinally much elongated <more than twice as long as wide>/

#52. The marginal mid-leaf cells <about 1/3 from the apex, elongation detail>/

1. not more than twice as long as wide <Leucodontaceae>/

2. more than twice as long as wide <Entodontaceae>/

#53. The mid-leaf cells <shape (see Notes)>/

1. quadrate/

2. rectangular/

3. hexagonal/

4. rounded/

5. rhomboidal/

6. linear/

7. vermicular/

Multistate characters in which differences between some states seem insufficiently clear-cut are best approached by selecting all the states you feel MIGHT fit your specimen. Such characters can be very useful, even if you use them only to eliminate one or two states that obviously do not apply.

Descriptions of leaves apply to typical, fully developed, vegetative leaves, such as are generally found around the middle of the stems, and sampling for pursuing identifications should be conducted with this in mind. Proximal (basal) leaves on stems and branches are often small or otherwise atypical, and should be avoided, as should the branch leaves of those pleurocarpous mosses in which they are evidently smaller and less well developed than the stem leaves. Where necessary, the distinction must also be made between the vegetative leaves and the bracts (perichaetial leaves) associated with the reproductive structures, which in some but by no means all mosses assume specialized forms.

#54. The mid-leaf cells <whether papillose>/

1. papillose/

2. smooth <not papillose>/

#55. The walls of the mid-leaf cells <thickness>/

1. thin/

2. thick/

#56. The walls of the mid-leaf cells <sinuosity>/

1. straight/

2. sinuous/

#57. Plants <sexuality>/

1. monoecious/

2. dioecious <antheridia and archegonia on separate plants>/

#58. Plants <monoecious, distribution of archegonia and antheridia>/

1. autoecious <antheridia and archegonia in separate inflorescences of the same plants>/

2. paroecious <antheridia confined to the axils of bracts proximal to those surrounding the (distal) archegonia>/

3. synoecious <antheridia and archegonia mixed in the same infloresence>/

#59. Parapyhyses <presence>/

1. present among the reproductive organs/

2. absent/

Paraphyses: uniseriate hairs (trichomes), which sometimes occur mixed with the antheridia and archegonia.

#60. Plants <whether gemmiferous>/

1. gemmiferous/

2. not gemmiferous /

Gemmae: small, vegetative propagules (buds), which in some mosses are produced on rhizoids, in leaf axils, on stem or leaf surfaces, or on special structures.

#61. The gemmae <how borne>/

1. in terminal clusters on the ends of flagelliform pseudopodia <Aulacomnium>/

2. stalked, accompanied by paraphyses, in cups comprising 4–5 reniform bracts which terminate special stems <Tetraphis>/

3. in leaf axils and or on rhizoids <Pohlia, Bryum>/

4. clustered towards the tips of excurrent leaf nerves <Ulota>/

5. borne on the leaf nerves and laminae <Orthotrichum>/

Sporophyte

#62. Capsules <immersed or exserted>/

1. immersed <sessile or sub-sessile, and overtopped by the perichaetial bracts>/

2. emergent <partly exceeding the perichaetial bracts>/

3. exserted <borne clear of the perichaetial bracts, usually with an elongated seta>/

#63. Capsules <length>/

#64. Capsules <carriage (see Notes)>/

1. erect/

2. inclined/

3. horizontal/

4. pendulous/

Multistate characters in which differences between some states seem insufficiently clear-cut are best approached by selecting all the states you feel MIGHT fit your specimen. Such characters can be very useful, even if you use them only to eliminate one or two states that obviously do not apply.

#65. Capsules <symmetry>/

1. symmetrical/

2. asymmetrical/

#66. Capsules <whether globose or elongate: for key-making only>/

1. globose/

2. more or less cuboid/

3. elongate/

#67. Capsules <elongate, straight or curved>/

1. straight/

2. curved <implying asymmetrical>/

#68. Capsules <shape (see Notes)>/

1. globose/

2. clavate/

3. sub-cylindric/

4. ellipsoid/

5. ovoid/

6. pyriform/

7. mushroom-shaped/

8. gibbous/

Multistate characters in which differences between some states seem insufficiently clear-cut are best approached by selecting all the states you feel MIGHT fit your specimen. Such characters can be very useful, even if you use them only to eliminate one or two states that obviously do not apply.

#69. Capsules <whether waisted>/

1. distinctly waisted/

2. not waisted/

#70. Capsules <elongated, whether flattened or angular>/

1. flattened/

2. angular <four to six angled, and rectangular or trapezoid to hexagonal in section>/

3. neither flattened nor angular /

#71. Capsules <whether with conspicuous apophyses>/

1. with an externally conspicuous apophysis/

2. without an externally conspicuous apophysis /

Apophysis: the more or less solid part of the moss capsule below the spore sac, distal to and adjoining the seta.

#72. The apophysis <whether conspicuously rugose>/

1. becoming conspicuously rugose and/or twisted/

2. remaining smooth <not rugose and/or twisted> /

#73. Capsules <smooth or striate>/

1. smooth <and no more than lightly and irregularly grooved when dry> /

2. striate and becoming regularly furrowed when dry and empty/

#74. Capsules <presence of annulus>/

1. with an annulus/

2. without an annulus /

Annulus: a specialized, usually separable and often very elastic ring or rings of cells between the mouth of a capsule and its lid, associated with dehiscence of the latter. The descriptive data are unsatisfactory, because none of the works seen specify absence of an annulus or give structural details.

#75. Calyptra <size>/

1. large and covering the well-developed capsule/

2. small/

Calyptra: a thin veil or hood developed from the (venter of) the moss archegonium, which covers the young capsule and at least the lid of older capsules.

#76. Calyptra <indumentum>/

1. glabrous/

2. hairy/

#77. Calyptra <symmetry>/

1. symmetrical <includes cucullate and mitriform>/

2. asymmetric/

#78. Calyptra <plicate or not>/

1. plicate/

2. not plicate/

#79. Calyptra <manner of splitting>/

1. splitting down one side <includes “cucullate”>/

2. with two or more splits <includes “mitriform”>/

3. tearing irregularly <including “erose”>/

4. entire/

#80. Capsules <general dehiscence type>/

1. cleistocarpus/

2. dehiscing via longitudinal slits/

3. dehiscing via a lid <operculum> /

Cleistocarpous: of capsules from which spores emerge by rupture or decay of the capsule wall, instead of through dehiscence via valves or a lid.

#81. Capsules <manner of opening>/

1. dehiscing explosively/

2. opening passively /

#82. Capsules <with or without a peristome>/

1. with a peristome/

2. without a peristome <regardless of the manner of dehiscence; incuding gymnostomous>/

Peristome: a single or double ring of teeth, revealed at the mouth of typical moss capsules when the lid is shed. In forms with a single peristome ring (haplolepideous), this is considered usually to be homologous with the inner peristome ring of those with two rings (diplolepideous). Peristomes show spectacular hygroscopic movements associated with spore release, and the abundant variations in structural details have long intrigued taxonomists.

Cleistocarpous capsules (q.v.) and those dehiscing via longitudinal slits lack a peristome. Gymnostomous capsules, which dehisce via a lid but lack a peristome, are rare.

#83. The peristome <single or double>/

1. single <haplolepideous>/

2. double <diplolepideous>/

#84. The peristome <position of origin>/

1. arising below the mouth of the capsule <Habrodon>/

2. arising at the mouth of the capsule /

#85. The <outer or only> peristome teeth <of the only or outer series, number>/

#86. The <outer or only> peristome teeth <whether twisted>/

1. conspicuously spirally twisted/

2. not spirally twisted /

#87. The <outer or only> peristome teeth <whether joined basally>/

1. joined basally to form a membranous ring/

2. not basally joined/

#88. The <outer or only> peristome teeth <whether apically joined>/

1. apically joined <Conostomum>/

2. apically free /

#89. The <outer or only> peristome teeth <grouping>/

1. not grouped /

2. in pairs/

3. in fours/

#90. The <outer or only> peristome teeth <whether deeply divided>/

1. deeply cleft/

2. not deeply cleft/

#91. The <outer or only> peristome teeth <entire or perforated>/

1. not perforated/

2. perforated/

#92. The <outer or only> peristome teeth <constitution>/

1. thin, membranous, and transversely barred <articulated, derived from a single layer of the sporogonium: Arthrodonteae>/

2. solid, without transverse bars (derived from several concentric series of sporogonium cells) <Nematodonteae>/

#93. The <outer or only> peristome teeth <whether “dicranoid”>/

1. interiorly exhibiting a fine longitudinal dividing line between the transverse bars <aplolepid>/

2. exteriorly with a fine longitudinal dividing line between the transverse bars <diplolepid>/

3. without longitudinal dividing lines/

In the Bryopsida subclass Dicranidae (Haplolepideae), the peristome teeth are proximally composed of two layers of plates. In the outer of these, a single series of plates occupies the full width of the tooth, but the inner layer comprises two series of plates, aligned so that the interior view of the tooth presents a fine dividing line (stria) down its centre. In the other subclasses of Bryopsida (Diplolepideae), when teeth are present, each also consists of two layers of plates, but with the outer layer comprising two series divided by a vertical line, and the inner consisting of a single series occupying the full width of the tooth. Thus, the tooth exhibits a dividing line down its centre only in external view.

In forms with a single peristome ring (Haplolepideae), this is considered usually to be homologous with the inner peristome ring of those with two rings (Diplolepideae).

#94. The <outer or only> peristome teeth <details feebly distinguishing Ditrichaceae Dicranaceae and Rhabdoweisiaceae>/

1. terete, filiform and smooth, or smooth below and papillose above <Ditrichaceae>/

2. flat, papillose above and vertically striate-pitted below <Dicranaceae>/

3. smooth, with oblique striations that alternate with each articulation <Rhabdoweisiaceae>/

#95. The inner peristome <endostome, when diplolepideous, relative expression>/

1. well developed/

2. reduced/

3. rudimentary/

#96. The inner peristome <length relative to the outer peristome>/

1. shorter than the outer/

2. about equalling the outer/

3. exceeding the outer/

#97. The inner peristome <presence of basal membrane> /

1. with a basal membranous ring/

2. without a basal membranous ring/

#98. The inner peristome <presence of teeth or processes>/

1. with elongated “processes” <or “teeth”; assumed positive when “inner peristome perfect”>/

2. without “processes”/

#99. The processes of the inner peristome <number>/

#100. The processes of the inner peristome <position>/

1. opposite the teeth of the outer peristome/

2. alternating with the teeth of the outer peristome/

#101. The inner peristome <cilia>/

1. ciliate/

2. without cilia/

#102. The cilia and processes of the endostome <whether united into a conical lattice>/

1. united by transverse strands into a conical lattice <Fontinalis>/

2. not united into a conical lattice /

#103. The cilia of the inner peristome <whether entire>/

1. entire/

2. nodulose or appendiculate/

#104. The operculum <or lid of the capsule, shape (see Notes)>/

1. convex/

2. conical/

3. mamillate/

4. rostellate/

5. rostrate/

6. subulate/

Multistate characters in which differences between some states seem insufficiently clear-cut are best approached by selecting all the states you feel MIGHT fit your specimen. Such characters can be very useful, even if you use them only to eliminate one or two states that obviously do not apply.

#105. Setae <as distict from pedicels or pseudopodia, presence>/

1. present /

2. absent/

#106. Setae <length>/

#107. Setae <curved or straight>/

1. straight/

2. curved/

3. flexuose <wavy>/

#108. Setae <colour>/

#109. Setae <surface texture>/

1. smooth/

2. rough/

Ecology

#110. <Habitat water requirement:>/

1. aquatic/

2. in wet places <including helophytic>/

3. mesophytic/

4. xerophytic/

#111. Occurring in <pH preferences>/

1. basic habitats <including calcicoles>/

2. neutral pH conditions/

3. acid conditions <including calcifuges>/

Absence of data for this character implies that the references consulted either provide no information for any of the species, or inform on so small a proportion of the species that it is uninterpretable at family level. The families left unrecorded may include both calcicoles and calcifuges, as well as mosses confined to more or less neutral substrates and others known to be found on both acid and akaline substrates. It appears at first sight that many moss species have restricted pH tolerances, with those confined to acid environments outnumbered by the others; but reliable interpretation is complicated, not only by the fact that siliceous rocks can incorporate calcareous material, but also by the numerous species which, though characteristic of chalk and limestone districts, grow on bark and on decaying wood (i.e., on presumably acid substrates?). In any case, most of the larger genera (and consequently all the large families) seem to be “variable” regarding pH ranges.

#112. <Whether nitrophilous:>/

1. nitrophilous/

2. not nitrophilous /

#113. <Whether saxicolous:> /

1. saxicolous/

2. not saxicolous/

#114. <Whether montane:> /

1. montane/

2. not montane/

#115. <Whether confined to trunks of tree ferns:>/

1. confined in Britain to the trunks of the tree fern, Dicksonia antactica/

2. not associated with trunks of tree ferns /

#116. <Habitats:>/

Cytology

#117. Haploid chromosome number, n =/

British representation

#118. <Number of species in Britain:>/

species/

#119. <Genera in Britain:>/

#120. <General distribution in Britain (see Notes):>/

1. northern Scotland/

2. southern Scotland/

3. northern England/

4. English Midlands/

5. East Anglia/

6. Wales/

7. southeast England/

8. central southern England/

9. southwest England <including Scilly>/

10. Isle of Wight/

11. Ireland/

The data have been compiled from the summaries in Smith’s species descriptions, and the extrapolated “family distributions” will sometimes be too wide. Most of the moss families (unlike many of the species and genera) seem to be represented more or less throughout the British Isles.

Multistate characters in which differences between some states seem insufficiently clear-cut are best approached by selecting all the states you feel MIGHT fit your specimen. Such characters can be very useful, even if you use them only to eliminate one or two states that obviously do not apply.

Classification

#121. Class <cf. Smith 2004>/

1. Sphagnopsida/

2. Andraeopsida/

3. Polytrichopsida/

4. Bryopsida/

#122. <Bryopsida> Subclass <cf. Smith 2004>/

1. Diphysciideae/

2. Funariideae/

3. Dicranideae/

4. Bryideae/

#123. Order <cf. Smith 2004>/

1. Sphagnales/

2. Andreaeales/

3. Tetraphidales/

4. Polytrichales/

5. Diphysciales/

6. Timmiales/

7. Encalyptales/

8. Funariales/

9. Grimmiales/

10. Archidales/

11. Seligeriales/

12. Dicranales/

13. Pottiales/

14. Splachnales/

15. Orthotrichales/

16. Hedwigiales/

17. Bryales/

18. Hookeriales/

19. Hypnales/

20. Rhizogoniales/

#124. Superseded Order, cf. Smith (1978):/

1. Buxbaumiales/

2. Dicranales/

3. Eubryales/

4. Fissidentales/

5. Funariales/

6. Grimmiales/

7. Hookeriales/

8. Isobryales/

9. Polytrichales/

10. Pottiales/

11. Schistostegales/

12. Tetraphidales/

13. Hypnobryales/

14. Andreaeales/

15. Sphagnales/

16. Archidiales/

17. Encalyptales/

Included for the purpose of tracking classificatory changes.

Comments

#125. <Comments:>/


To view the illustrations with detailed captions, go to the interactive key. This also offers full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting or lacking specified attributes, and distributions of character states within any set of taxa.

Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2005 onwards. The moss families of the British Isles. Version: 21st June 2009. http://delta-intkey.com’.

Contents