British Insects: Pug Moths (Lepidoptera-Geometridae)

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L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz

Character List

#1. <Synonyms:>/

#2. <Common name of species>/

Adults

#3. Thorax <patterning>/

1. only posteriorly white/

2. wholly white/

3. with a white central stripe/

4. neither white nor white-striped/

5. with a white posterior spot/

6. grey, with a conspicuous anterior black collar/

#4. Posterior tibiae of males <number of tibial spurs>/

1. without spurs/

2. 2-spurred/

3. 4-spurred/

This character is not reliably applicable to female specimens. The data are mostly taken from Meyrick, who rarely refers directly to the situation in females.

#5. Wingspan <centre of thorax to tip of forewing, multiplied by 2>/

mm/

#6. Forewings <relative elongation>/

1. distinctly elongate <relatively narrow>/

2. not noticeably elongate <relatively broad>/

#7. The outer margin <termen of the forewings, shape>/

1. convexly curved/

2. more or less straight/

3. sigmoid-curved/

4. angulated/

#8. The costa <of the forewing, straight or arched>/

1. more or less straight/

2. arched/

#9. Forewings apically <shape>/

1. blunt/

2. somewhat pointed/

3. hooked/

#10. Forewings <general appearance, whether dingy>/

1. relatively conspicuously patterned <additional to a discal spot>/

2. dingy/

#11. Forewings <colour and markings - general description>/

Published descriptions of wing colours and patterns are often very inadequate and misleading, with later efforts comparing poorly with Newman's. For example, compare the latter's genuinely informative description of ‘The Beautiful Carpet’ with Meyrick's inadequate and boring attempt to be scientific.

Ferrugineous: rust-coloured, reddish-brown.

Fuscous: sombre brownish grey.

Ochreous: pale yellowish- or orangish-brownish, straw-coloured.

Umber: greenish brown. ‘Burnt umber’: dark (as if charred) greenish brown.

#12. The forewing patterning <whether mainly comprising dark discal and costal spots>/

1. more or less dominated by the conspicuous, dark discal and smaller <dark> costal spots <fasciae and lines lacking or obsolete>/

2. more or less confined to the dark discal spot <lines and fasciae obsolete or lacking>/

3. not restricted to dark discal or costal and discal spots <exhibiting more or less conspicuous lines and/or fasciae>/

#13. The forewing patterning <whether dominated by two dark costal spots forming with the discal one the corners of an anterior-median triangle>/

1. dominated by two dark costal spots which form with the discal one the corners of a conspicuous anterior-median triangle /

2. without a predominant anterior-median triangle of dark spots /

#14. The <anterior-median> triangle of spots <whether equilateral>/

1. equilateral/

2. not equilateral/

#15. Forewings <presence of discal mark>/

1. with a <clear> dark discal mark/

2. without a <clear> discal mark/

#16. The discal mark <of forewings, transverse or dot-like>/

1. elongate /

2. dot-like/

#17. The discal mark <of the forewings, whether posteriorly whitish-edged>/

1. posteriorly whitish-edged/

2. not whitish-edged /

#18. The discal mark <of the forewings, distinctness>/

1. grey, indistinct/

2. black and distinct/

#19. Forewings <presence of tornal spot>/

1. with a <distinct> pale tornal spot/

2. without a tornal spot /

#20. Forewing fringes <chequering of fringe>/

1. conspicuously chequered/

2. somewhat chequered/

3. not chequered/

#21. The termen of the hindwings <whether dentate>/

1. dentate/

2. <relatively> smooth <no more than somewhat sinuous - not dentate> /

#22. The termen of the hindwings <shape>/

1. slightly concave/

2. convexly rounded /

#23. The apex <of the hindwings, shape>/

1. somewhat pointed/

2. smoothly rounded into the costa /

#24. Hindwings <colour and markings - general description>/

Published descriptions of wing colours and patterns are often very inadequate and misleading, with later efforts comparing poorly with Newman's. For example, compare the latter's genuinely informative description of ‘The Beautiful Carpet’ with Meyrick's inadequate and boring attempt to be scientific.

Ferrugineous: rust-coloured, reddish-brown

Fuscous: sombre brownish grey.

Ochreous: pale yellowish- or orangish-brownish, straw-coloured.

Umber: greenish brown. ‘Burnt umber’: dark (as if charred) greenish brown.

#25. Hindwings <whether patterned like the forewings>/

1. patterned similarly to the forewings/

2. less conspicuously patterned than the forewings/

#26. <The upper surfaces of the> hindwings <patterned or plain>/

1. conspicuously patterned <conspicuously lined, spotted, banded, blotched, streaked, etc.>/

2. rather plain <concolourous, or merely shaded or suffused, or with only faint lines, or with only a discal mark>/

#27. <The upper surfaces of the> hindwings <whether transversely striated>/

1. transversely striated <lines detectable, continuous, or dotted>/

2. without transverse striation/

#28. <The upper surfaces of the> hindwings <whether exhibiting a discal mark>/

1. with a clear <pigmented> discal mark/

2. without a clear discal mark/

#29. Hindwings <presence of tornal spot>/

1. with a pale tornal spot/

2. without a pale tornal spot /

#30. The fringes <of the hindwings, whether chequered>/

1. conspicuously chequered /

2. not conspicuously chequered /

#31. The abdomen <pale reddish suffusion>/

1. suffused pale reddish towards the base/

2. not reddish towards the base /

#32. The abdomen <patterned or plain>/

1. conspicuously patterned <with stripes, bands, spots, etc.>/

2. plain <ignoring effect of segmentation on hair distribution and crests of darker hairs>/

#33. The abdomen <ringing and banding>/

1. with a white base/

2. with an entire black sub-basal band/

3. with an interrupted black sub-basal band/

4. with black basal and sub-basal bands/

5. with a pale basal band adjoining a dark sub-basal one/

6. with a brown or ferrugineous sub-basal band/

7. with a fuscous sub-basal band/

8. neither ringed nor banded nor white-based/

Neuration

#36. Vein 10 of the forewings <whether anastomosing to form a double areole>/

1. arising independently, anastomosing with 11 and 9 to form a double areole/

2. arising out of 11 and anastomosing with 9 to form a simple areole /

Genitalia

#37. The male abdomen <presence of abdominal plate>/

1. with a sclerotized plate under the eighth segment /

2. without a sclerotized plate under the eighth segment/

#38. The male abdominal plate <under the eighth abdominal segment, form of sclerotization>/

1. in the form of two separate sclerotized components/

2. in the form of two sclerotized components broadly joined basally/

3. in the form of a single sclerotized patch with a pair of apical extensions/

4. in the form of a single sclerotized patch with retuse apex/

5. in the form of a single sclerotized patch with entire apex/

#39. The <female> bursa copulatrix <ornamentation>/

1. conspicuously ornamented /

2. entirely smooth or only very finely scobinate/

#40. The <female> bursa copulatrix <distribution of ornamentation>/

1. ornamented over most of its surface <usually excepting the region around the entrance>/

2. with ornamentation conspicuously restricted in distribution <the bursa pannicular>/

#41. The <female> bursa copulatrix <whether spiny>/

1. conspicuously spiny/

2. only inconspicuously spiny <with small spines>/

3. without spines <scobinate>/

#42. The <female> bursa copulatrix <peculiar distribution of ornamentation>/

1. ornamented exclusively by single narrow, curved transverse row of tiny spines/

2. ornamented exclusively by two adjacent, narrow, curved transverse rows of tiny spines/

3. not ornamented exclusively by one or two narrow, curved transverse rows of tiny spines /

Early stages, ecology

#43. Botanically <foodplant diversity>/

1. specialised <e.g., associated with a single species, genus or family>/

2. polyphagous <associated with several plant families>/

#44. Foodplants <major taxonomic groupings>/

1. Gymnospermous/

2. woody-dicotyledonous/

3. herbaceous-dicotyledonous/

#45. Foodplants <families>/

1. Aceraceae/

2. Aquifoliaceae/

3. Berberidaceae/

4. Campanulaceae/

5. Cannabaceae/

6. Caprifoliaceae/

7. Caryophyllaceae/

8. Chenopodiaeae/

9. Compositae (Asteraceae)/

10. Convolvulaceae/

11. Cornaceae/

12. Crassulaceae/

13. Cupressaceae/

14. Dipsacaceae/

15. Elaeagnaceae/

16. Ericaceae/

17. Fagaceae/

18. Gentianaceae/

19. Grossulariaceae/

20. Hypericaceae/

21. Labiatae (Lamiaceae)/

22. Leguminosae-Papilionoideae/

23. Oleaceae/

24. Onagraceae/

25. Pinaceae/

26. Plantaginaceae/

27. Polygonaeae/

28. Primulaceae/

29. Ranunculaceae/

30. Rosaceae/

31. Rubiaceae/

32. Salicaceae/

33. Sambucaceae/

34. Saxifragaeae/

35. Scrophulariaceae/

36. Tamaricaceae/

37. Tiliaceae/

38. Umbelliferae (Apiaceae)/

39. Valerianaceae/

#46. The larvae found on <foodplants>/

#47. <Larvae> feeding on <plant parts>/

1. unripe seeds in cones/

2. cone primordia and scale leaves (not the needles)/

3. flowers/

4. in flower buds/

5. catkins/

6. seed capsules/

7. seeds/

8. buds/

9. leafy shoots/

Months of appearance, distribution

#48. Adults abroad <months>/

1. January/

2. February/

3. March/

4. April/

5. May/

6. June/

7. July/

8. August/

9. September/

10. October/

11. November/

12. December/

#49. Larvae found <months>/

1. January/

2. February/

3. March/

4. April/

5. May/

6. June/

7. July/

8. August/

9. September/

10. October/

11. November/

12. December/

#50. <Distribution in the British Isles:>/

1. South-east England <East of 0.20' to 52.00' N.>/

2. Central-southern England <0.20'-2.40' West, to 52.00' N.>/

3. South-west England <West of 2.40' W., to 52.00' N.>/

4. English Midlands <52.00–53.20' N., 0.20'-2.40' West>/

5. Northern England <53.20'-55.20'>/

6. Southern Scotland/

7. Northern Scotland/

8. Wales/

9. Ireland/

Melanism

#51. Melanic imagines <incidence>/

1. frequent/

2. unlikely to be encountered/

#52. <Special description for melanics>/

Special key characters

#53. <Melanism>/

1. melanic <with few fore- or hindwing markings>/

2. not melanic /

#54. Forewings <whether with a conspicuous broad median fascia (band)>/

1. exhibiting a conspicuous broad median fascia from costa to dorsum/

2. without a conspicuous broad median fascia from costa to dorsum /

#55. Forewings <whether with a conspicuous pale oblique oval fascia>/

1. with a conspicuous oblique, pale dark-edged oval fascia extending from near the apex to the mid-dorsum <E. phoeniceata>/

2. without a conspicuous oblique pale fascia /

#56. Forewings <arrow-like markings on a postmedian line>/

1. with small dark arrow-like markings pointing inwards from the postmedian line/

2. without a postmedian line bearing arrow-like markings /

#57. Forewings <presence of double ante- and postmedian lines>/

1. with double, smoothly curved ante- and postmedian lines predominant <E. egenaria>/

2. not dominated by double ante- and postmedian lines/

#58. Forewings <whether yellow, green or black> /

1. yellowish/

2. green or greenish when fresh/

3. blackish/

4. not predominantly green, yellow, or blackish /

#59. Forewings <predominant ground colour of upper side, viewed from about 40 cm in good natural light (see Notes)>/

1. white/

2. whitish/

3. pale ochreous/

4. ochreous/

5. purplish/

6. green/

7. greenish/

8. light brown/

9. brown/

10. reddish brown <rusty, ferrugineous>/

11. bronze tinged/

12. pale fuscous <light brownish-grey>/

13. fuscous <dark brownish-grey>/

14. pale grey/

15. grey/

16. dark grey/

17. blackish/

18. black/

When in doubt (as is often the case), enter all the possible states when attempting identifications.

Published descriptions of wing colours and patterns are often very inadequate and misleading, with later efforts comparing poorly with Newman's. For example, compare the latter's genuinely informative description of ‘The Beautiful Carpet’ with Meyrick's inadequate and boring attempt to be scientific.

Ferrugineous: rust-coloured, reddish-brown.

Fuscous: sombre brownish grey.

Ochreous: pale yellowish- or orangish-brownish, straw-coloured.

Umber: greenish brown. ‘Burnt umber’: dark (as if charred) greenish brown.

#60. The fifth and sixth <forewing> fasciae <whether markedly interrupted>/

1. twice markedly interrupted/

2. not markedly interrupted/

#61. Forewings <whether reddish-tinged>/

1. at least partially reddish-tinged <ferrugineous-tinged>/

2. not reddish-tinged/

#62. Forewings <colour>/

1. greyish-ochreous/

2. brownish-ochreous, mixed whitish in the disc/

#63. Forewings <whether whitish-mixed>/

1. whitish-mixed/

2. not whitish-mixed/

#64. Forewings <whether veins and costa ochreous-brown>/

1. with ochreous-brown veins and costa/

2. with veins and costa not ochreous-brown/

#65. Forewings <brownish or grey>/

1. brownish /

2. grey /

#66. Forewings <whether white in the disc>/

1. white in the disc /

2. not white in the disc /

#67. Forewings <median lines, whether black throughout>/

1. with median lines black throughout /

2. with median lines blackish only on the costa, otherwise faint /

#68. Forewings <presence of dark grey band and reddish-ochreous fasciae>/

1. with a dark grey band and two reddish-ochreous fasciae /

2. without a dark grey band and two reddish-ochreous fasciae /

#69. Forewings <whether with a subterminally broken dark fascia>/

1. with a pale break in a subterminal dark fascia near the apex /

2. not exhibiting a subterminal fascia with a pale break near the apex /

#70. The median band <of the forewings, whether interrupted with ochreous>/

1. grey, interrupted with ochreous /

2. grey, not interrupted with ochreous /

#71. The postmedian forewing line <shape: Pasiphila>/

1. once-angulated to the costa/

2. twice-angulated (dentate) near the costa/

#72. The subterminal line <of the forewings, whether whitish throughout>/

1. whitish throughout /

2. not whitish throughout /

#73. Hindwings <whether yellow, green or black> /

1. yellowish/

2. greenish when fresh/

3. predominantly black/

4. not predominantly green, yellow, or black /

#74. Hindwings <ground colour of upper side, viewed from about 40 cm in good natural light predominantly (see Notes)>/

1. white/

2. whitish/

3. pale ochreous/

4. ochreous/

5. purplish/

6. green/

7. greenish/

8. light brown/

9. brown/

10. reddish brown <rusty, ferrugineous>/

11. tinged bronze/

12. pale fuscous <light brownish-grey>/

13. fuscous <dark brownish-grey>/

14. pale grey/

15. grey/

16. dark grey/

17. blackish/

18. black/

When in doubt (as is often the case), enter all the possible states when attempting identifications.

Published descriptions of wing colours and patterns are often very inadequate and misleading, with later efforts comparing poorly with Newman's. For example, compare the latter's genuinely informative description of ‘The Beautiful Carpet’ with Meyrick's inadequate and boring attempt to be scientific.

Ferrugineous: rust-coloured, reddish-brown.

Fuscous: sombre brownish grey.

Ochreous: pale yellowish- or somewat reddish-orangish-brownish, straw-coloured.

Umber: greenish brown. ‘Burnt umber’: dark (as if charred) greenish brown.

General comments

#75. <General comments:>/

Miscellaneous

#76. Abbreviated taxon name:/

#77. <Illustrations>/


To view the illustrations with detailed captions, go to the interactive key. This also offers full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting or lacking specified attributes, and distributions of character states within any set of taxa.

Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2003 onwards. British insects: Pug moths (Lepidoptera-Geometridae). Version: 29th December 2011. http://delta-intkey.com’.

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