British Insects: the Genus Phyllonorycter (Lepidoptera-Gracillariidae)

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L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz

Character List

#1. <Synonyms:>/

~ (‘alternatively’) is here used to indicate ‘sometimes not unreasonably included in or reduced to’.

#2. Associated with <trees, shrubs or herbs>/

1. trees/

2. shrubs/

3. herbs/

Collections of leaf miners should routinely include reliably identified samples of the mined plant material from which the adults were obtained.

#3. On <plant families>/

1. Aceraceae/

2. Betulaceae/

3. Caprifoliaceae/

4. Carpinaceae/

5. Corylaceae/

6. Dipsacaceae/

7. Ericaceae/

8. Fagaceae/

9. Leguminosae/

10. Platanaceae/

11. Rosaceae/

12. Salicaceae/

13. Ulmaceae/

14. Viburnaceae/

#4. On <plant genera and species; see Notes>/

1. Acer campestre/

2. Acer pseudoplatanus/

3. Betula spp./

4. Alnus/

5. Leycesteria/

6. Lonicera/

7. Symphoricarpos/

8. Carpinus/

9. Corylus/

10. Scabiosa columbaria/

11. Vaccinium/

12. Castanea sativa/

13. Fagus sylvatica/

14. native (deciduous) Quercus/

15. Quercus ilex (evergreen)/

16. Cytisus/

17. Genista/

18. Ononis/

19. Ulex/

20. Lathyrus/

21. Trifolium/

22. Vicia/

23. Platanus/

24. Crataegus/

25. Cydonia/

26. Malus/

27. Mespilus/

28. Prunus /

29. Pyracantha/

30. Sorbus/

31. Pyrus/

32. Salix /

33. Populus /

34. Ulmus/

35. Viburnum/

Collections of leaf miners should routinely include reliably identified samples of the mined plant material from which the adults were obtained.

This character will usually be a reliable separator with which to commence an identification, because the species of Phyllonorycter exhibit taxonomically very restricted host-ranges. However, it seems likely that the available lists of occasional hosts will be incomplete, especially regarding close relatives of the plants listed. If an identification involving use of this character breaks down, therefore, use of the host families character (or even the plant habit character) should be substituted, before assuming that the specimen may represent a species not included this data set.

Note that the host plant ranges of seven species rarely recorded in Britain or only recently detected, for which full descriptions have yet to be entered here, can be accessed via the toolbar ‘query’ button.

Larvae

#5. The larvae mining <locations>/

1. in leaves/

2. in shoots/

3. under bark/

Collections of leaf miners should routinely include reliably identified samples of the mined plant material from which the adults were obtained.

#6. <Mines in leaves, whether in the upper- or under-sides>/

1. in the under-side <mesophyll>/

2. in the upper-side <palisade, if differentiated>/

Collections of leaf miners should routinely include reliably identified samples of the mined plant material from which the adults were obtained.

#7. <Larvae> found in <months when larvae may be found>/

1. January/

2. February/

3. March/

4. April/

5. May/

6. June/

7. July/

8. August/

9. September/

10. October/

11. November/

12. December/

Adults

#8. Antennae <colour>/

1. white to the base/

2. coloured <specify>/

#9. Face <colour>/

1. white/

2. silvery/

3. grey/

4. coloured <specify>/

#10. Head <colour>/

1. white/

2. yellow/

3. orange/

4. ochreous/

5. brown/

6. fuscous/

7. black/

#11. Collar <colour>/

#12. Thorax <colour>/

1. white/

2. yellow/

3. orange/

4. ochreous/

5. brown/

6. fuscous/

#13. Thorax <whether metallic>/

1. shining-metallic/

2. not shining-metallic /

#14. Thorax <shining metallic, colour>/

1. brassy/

2. silvery or leaden/

#15. Thorax <whether with a median pale streak>/

1. with a conspicuous median pale streak/

2. without a <conspicuous> median pale streak <implicit>/

#16. Wing-span <centre thorax to wing apex, X 2>/

mm/

#17. Forewings <ground colour, attempt at detailed breakdown>/

1. white/

2. whitish/

3. ochreous/

4. golden ochreous/

5. reddish ochreous/

6. fuscous orange/

7. ochreous orange/

8. golden orange/

9. brownish orange/

10. golden brown/

11. brassy brown/

12. brown/

13. fuscous/

#18. Forewings <ground colour, white or otherwise, excluding any fasciae>/

1. clear shining white <at least in the basal half> with coloured markings/

2. not clear shining white/

#19. Forewings <white, whether exhibiting dark transverse fasciae>/

1. exhibiting conspicuous transverse dark (black-edged, ochreous) fasciae/

2. lacking dark transverse fasciae/

#20. Forewings <whether with an oblique fascia from the base of the costa>/

1. with a conspicuous, very oblique, golden brown and posteriorly fuscous-edged fascia from the base of the costa <P. roboris>/

2. lacking the oblique golden brown fascia from the base of the costa exhibited by P. roboris/

#21. Forewings <whether suffused fuscous throughout>/

1. suffused throughout with fuscous/

2. not suffused throughout with fuscous <implicit>/

#22. Forewings <whether exhibiting a sharply defined londitudinal basal streak>/

1. with a well defined <median, longitudinal> basal streak/

2. without a basal streak/

#23. The basal streak <pale or fuscous>/

1. pale/

2. fuscous on the light background/

#24. The basal streak <shape>/

1. relatively long, slender and sinuate/

2. markedly bent/

3. <more or less> straight, neither markedly long and slender nor sinuate <implicit>/

#25. The basal streak <whether dark-edged above>/

1. dark-edged above/

2. not dark-edged above/

#26. Forewings <whether exhibiting pale, wedge-shaped strigulae>/

1. with well defined pale strigulae/

2. lacking well defined pale strigulae/

#27. <Pale> costal strigulae <number, coalescing with dorsal strigulae or not>/

#28. <Pale> costal strigulae <colour>/

1. white/

2. faintly pale yellow/

#29. The first <proximal, free> costal strigula <or “spot”, whether extending proximally>/

1. extended basipetally along the costa/

2. not basipetally extended along the costa/

#30. <Dark edging of fasciae and strigulae>/

1. the ground colour darkening gradually towards the inner edges of the pale fasciae and strigulae/

2. the fasciae and strigulae inwardly sharply dark-edged/

#31. The first <proximal, free> costal strigula <or “spot”, whether dark-margined>/

1. dark-margined posteriorly/

2. not dark-margined posteriorly/

#32. <Pale> dorsal strigulae <number, coalescing with costal strigulae or not>/

#33. Forewings <whether first costal and first or second dorsal strigulae form an acute angle, regardless of whether they coalesce to form a fascia>/

1. with the first costal strigula approaching a dorsal one at an acute angle/

2. with the first costal strigula not forming an acute angle with a dorsal one/

#36. The last fascia <of the white wing, whether angulated>/

1. angulated/

2. straight/

#37. The antemedian fascia <of the white wing, whether bluntly or acutely angulated>/

1. bluntly angulated/

2. acutely angulated/

#38. Forewings <number of costal spots beyond the second fascia>/

1. with two costal spots beyond the second fascia/

2. with three costal spots beyond the second fascia/

#39. Hindwing cilia <colour>/

1. white/

2. fuscous/

#40. Posterior tarsi <spotting>/

1. with dark spots/

2. whitish, without dark spots/

#41. Adults abroad <months when living adults may be found>/

1. January/

2. February/

3. March/

4. April/

5. May/

6. June/

7. July/

8. August/

9. September/

10. October/

11. November/

12. December/

General comments

#42. <General comments:>/

Miscellaneous

#43. Abbreviated taxon name:/

#44. <Illustrations>/


To view illustrations with legends giving names in current use, go to the interactive key. This also offers full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting or lacking specified attributes, and distributions of character states within any set of taxa, as well as source references and other relevant material.

Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2003 onwards. British insects: the genus Phyllonorycter (Lepidoptera-Gracillariidae). Version: 29th December 2011. http://delta-intkey.com’.

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