Insects of Britain and Ireland: butterflies

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L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz

Implicit attributes

Unless indicated otherwise, the following attributes are implicit throughout the descriptions, except where the characters concerned are inapplicable.

Adults. The wings opaque. Small-headed. The eyes not white-rimmed; neither notched nor emarginate, being separated from the bases of the antennal sockets. The head and antennae not rosy-tinged. Antennae inserted markedly less than one half the width of the head apart. The antennal clubs not curved; not hooked at their tips. Having all 6 legs fully developed and operational for walking. Fore-legs of female operational for walking.

Forewings. The outer margins not scalloped. Uppersides of the forewings not conspicuously dark-veined; without eye-spots.

Hindwings. Hindwings not tailed; the tail not filamentous; with the outer margins not scalloped. Uppersides of the hindwings not dark-veined. Uppersides of the hindwings not eye-spotted.

Undersides of wings. Undersides of the wings not multiply patterned with pale-ringed black spots or sinuous lines.

Undersides of the forewings not green. Undersides of the forewings not dark-veined; not eye-spotted.

Undersides of the hindwings not bright green; not dark-veined; not eye-spotted; without metallic markings.

Wing venation. Forewings without basally dilated veins. Forewings with a discal cell.

Hindwings without a praecostal spur.

Eggs, larvae, pupae. The larvae not woodlouse-shaped; having no known association with ants; without tentacles on segment 2; without bristly spines; exposed feeders; not feeding in communal tents.

Pupae smooth and rounded; plain; without shining-metallic markings.

British representation. The adults not hibernating.

Distribution. Frequenting open places.

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Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2008 onwards. Insects of Britain and Ireland: butterflies. Version: 16th May 2016.’.