Insects of Britain and Ireland: butterflies

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L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz

Character list

#1. <Synonyms:>/

~ (‘alternatively’) is here used to indicate ‘sometimes not unreasonably included in or reduced to’.

Adults

#2. Wingspan <centre of thorax to tip of forewing, multiplied by 2>/

mm/

It is axiomatic that no identification can be relied upon until it has been confirmed with reference to a detailed description.

‘Wingspan’: centre of thorax to apex of forewing, multiplied by 2. Readily observable representations of size are absurdly under-utilized in professional keys, by contrast with (for example) inaccessible and often ambiguous details of wing venation. Specimens falling outside the normal ranges will occasionally mislead, but occasional problems of this kind arise with most characters, and the Intkey 'tolerance' facility minimizes the deleterious consequences for successful pursuit of identifications. Wingspan measurements for four species well known to exhibit dwarfism (the Meadow Brown, the Orange Tip, the Small White and the Large Blue) have been encoded here to account for it.

#3. Wingspan <relative to maximum thoracic width> /

times the <maximum> thoracic width/

It is axiomatic that no identification can be relied upon until it has been confirmed with reference to a detailed description.

‘Wingspan’: centre of thorax to tip of forewing, multiplied by 2.

#4. The wings <whether translucent>/

1. somewhat translucent <only thinly clothed with scales>/

2. opaque <not translucent, unless worn>/

#5. The fringes <of the wings, whether banded>/

1. conspicuously light-and-dark banded/

2. not <light-and-dark> banded/

#6. <Build of adults - reflecting relative (not absolute) body size>/

1. <relatively> slender-bodied <wingspan more than 15 times the thoracic width>/

2. medium built <wingspan more than 8 and less than 15 times the thoracic width: implicit>/

3. heavily built <wingspan less than 8 times the thoracic width>/

Data calculated from the numeric character relating wingspan to thoracic width (q.v.).

#7. <Body length of adults, relative to hindwings in conventionally ‘set’ specimens>/

1. short-bodied <the tip of the abdomen clearly exceeded by the hindwings in conventionally ‘set’ specimens>/

2. medium-bodied <the tip of the abdomen about level with the hindwings>/

3. long-bodied <the tip of the abdomen conspicuously exceeding the hindwings>/

#8. <Relative size of head of adults>/

1. large-headed <the head about as wide as the thorax>/

2. small-headed /

#9. The <compound> eyes <of adults, whether white-rimmed>/

1. white-rimmed <conspicuously encircled by white scales>/

2. not white-rimmed /

#10. The <compound, main> eyes <of adults, whether notched or emarginate>/

1. notched or emarginate at the bases of the antennae and contiguous with the bases of the antennal sockets/

2. neither notched nor emarginate, being separated from the bases of the antennal sockets <implicit>/

#11. The <compound, main> eyes <of adults, hairy or glabrous>/

1. hairy/

2. glabrous/

#12. The head and antennae <whether rosy-tinged>/

1. rosy-tinged/

2. not rosy-tinged /

#13. Antennae <when straightened, in situ length relative to forewing>/

1. reaching noticeably less than halfway to the wingtips/

2. reaching about halfway to the wingtips/

3. reaching noticeably over halfway to the wingtip/

In situ ‘length’ of the antennae relative to the base-to-apex length the forewing, when viewed straight and laid parallel to the costa; i.e., as presented in conventionally ‘set’ specimens.

#14. Antennae extending to about <length divided by centre-thorax-to-apex length of forewing> /

times the <in situ> length of the forewing/

Referring to the centre-thorax-to-forewing-apex measurement (i.e., the one which is doubled to obtain ‘wingspan’).

#15. Antennae <distance apart>/

1. inserted markedly less than one half the width of the head apart /

2. inserted fully one half the width of the head apart/

#16. The antennal clubs <abruptness>/

1. gradual-elongate/

2. abrupt/

#17. The antennal clubs <whether curved>/

1. curved/

2. not curved/

#18. The antennal clubs <whether flattened>/

1. flattened/

2. not flattened/

This character needs pursuing in living buterflies. The flattening is conspicuous in dead specimens.

#19. The antennal clubs <whether minutely hooked at the tip>/

1. minutely hooked at their tips/

2. not hooked at their tips /

#20. Labial palps <carriage>/

1. porrect <pointing forward, beak-like>/

2. ascending/

As shown in the illustrations, the popular and euphonious description ‘porrected palps’ refers to labial palps, which lend the delightful, perky appearance to the face presented by several groups of Lepidoptera. These organs generally retain their position in ‘set’ specimens. However, from the standpoint of useful description, there exists in reality an awkward continuum of forms, from ‘porrected’ through ‘ascending’ to ‘erect’.

#21. <Adults: number of fully developed legs>/

1. having all 6 legs fully developed and operational for walking /

2. having only 4 fully developed legs <the anterior pair vestigial and useless for walking>/

#22. Fore-legs of female <whether operational for walking>/

1. operational for walking /

2. useless for walking/

#23. Fore-legs <of adults, presence of epiphysis>/

1. with a tibial epiphysis/

2. without a tibial epiphysis/

‘Tibial epiphysis’: a basally articulated, leaf-like or spur-like structure commonly occurring on the tibiae of the front legs, seemingly used by the insect for cleaning its antennae and tongue.

#24. Tibiae of middle legs <of adults, number of tibial spurs>/

1. 2-spurred/

2. without spurs/

#25. Posterior tibiae <of adults, number of tibial spurs>/

1. without spurs/

2. 2-spurred/

3. 4-spurred/

Forewings

#26. Forewings <proportions, length relative to width> /

times as long as wide <base-to-apex length, divided by maximum width measured at right angles from hind margin to costa>/

The assessments are based on base-to-apex length, divided by the approximate maximum width measured at right angles to a line drawn from base to tornus (i.e., approximately at right angles to the hind or inner margin) from hind margin to costa.

#27. Forewings apically <shape>/

1. blunt/

2. pointed/

3. hooked/

#28. The outer and hind margins <of the forewing membranes> angled at <degrees>/

degrees <at the tornus>/

The angle between the hind/inner margin and the wing apex, measured at the inner commencement of the tornal curve. Data were obtained by applying a protractor to photographs (original, and in South). The character is unreliable because of imprecision regarding locations of apex and tornus, and only quite large differences are meaningful.

#29. The outer margins <(termen) of the forewings, shape>/

1. convexly curved/

2. more or less straight/

3. concavely curved/

4. sigmoid-curved/

5. angulated/

If in doubt, enter more than one state.

#30. The outer margins <termen of the forewings, whether scalloped>/

1. scalloped/

2. not scalloped /

In species exhibiting scalloping, it is usually more pronounced in the hindwings; and in some with emphatically scalloped hindwings (e.g., Iphiclides podalirius), the forewings are not scalloped at all.

#31. Forewings <whether angulated> /

1. with the outer margin both angulated and markedly scalloped/

2. with outer margin not both angulated and markedly scalloped /

#32. Uppersides of the forewings <ground colour>/

1. white/

2. cream/

3. yellow/

4. primrose/

5. green/

6. light brown/

7. dark brown/

8. orange-brown/

9. red-orange/

10. coppery red/

11. blue/

12. purple/

13. black/

14. fuscous/

15. grey/

Published descriptions of lepidopteran wing colours are often very inadequate and misleading, with later efforts often comparing very poorly with Newman's. For example, compare the latter's pleasant and genuinely informative word pictures with Meyrick’s inadequate and boring attempts to be scientific.

#33. Uppersides of the forewings <whether conspicuously dark-veined>/

1. contrastingly dark-veined <see Notes>/

2. not conspicuously dark-veined /

Refers to the appearance in reflected light. Misleading darkening of the venation by transmitted light can be seen in some of the photographs, for which it has been necessary to illuminate the background.

#34. Uppersides of the forewings <whether eye-spotted>/

1. eye-spotted/

2. without eye-spots /

#35. The eye-spots <of uppersides of the forewings, number>/

#36. The eye-spots <of uppersides of the forewings, location>/

1. near the mid-costa/

2. more or less in the middle/

3. posterior towards the apex/

4. mid-posterior/

5. near the tornus/

#37. Uppersides of the forewings <presence of discal mark>/

1. with a conspicuous discal mark/

2. without a <clearly defined, discrete> discal mark/

#38. Uppersides of the forewings <colour-pattern, description>/

Hindwings

#39. Hindwings <shape of membrane>/

1. broadly rounded/

2. broadly angular/

3. trapezoidal/

#40. Hindwings <whether tailed>/

1. tailed/

2. not tailed /

#41. The tail <of hindwings, form>/

1. filamentous and delicate/

2. not filamentous /

#42. Hindwings <whether outer margins scalloped>/

1. with the outer margins scalloped/

2. with the outer margins not scalloped/

In species exhibiting scalloping, it is usually more pronounced in the hindwings; and in some with emphatically scalloped hindwings (e.g., Iphiclides podalirius), the forewings are not scalloped at all.

#43. Uppersides of the hindwings <ground colour>/

1. white/

2. cream/

3. yellow/

4. primrose/

5. green/

6. light brown/

7. dark brown/

8. orange-brown/

9. red-orange/

10. coppery red/

11. blue/

12. purple/

13. blackish/

14. fuscous/

15. grey/

#44. Uppersides of the hindwings <whether conspicuously dark-veined>/

1. conspicuously dark-veined <see Notes>/

2. not dark-veined /

Refers to the appearance in reflected light. Misleading darkening of the venation by transmitted light can be seen in some of the photographs, for which it has been necessary to illuminate the background.

#45. Uppersides of the hindwings <patterned or plain>/

1. conspicuously patterned <lined, spotted, banded, streaked, etc.>/

2. plain <concolourous or merely suffused, etc.>/

#46. Uppersides of the hindwings <whether eye-spotted>/

1. eye-spotted/

2. not eye-spotted/

#47. The eye-spots <of uppersides of the hindwings, number>/

#48. The eye-spots <of uppersides of the hindwings, location>/

1. near the mid-costa/

2. more or less in the middle/

3. posterior towards the apex/

4. mid-posterior/

5. near the tornus/

#49. Uppersides of the hindwings <presence of discal mark>/

1. with a conspicuous discal mark/

2. without a <clearly defined> discal mark/

#50. Uppersides of the hindwings <description of colour-pattern>/

Undersides of wings

#51. Undersides of the wings <whether principally patterned with back spots or transverse sinuous lines>/

1. multiply patterned with pale-ringed black spots/

2. transversely patterned with numerous pale, sinuous lines/

3. not multiply patterned with pale-ringed black spots or sinuous lines /

#52. Undersides of the forewings <general description of colour-patterning>/

#53. Undersides of the forewings <detail of transverse lines>/

1. with the ante-medial transverse lines shorter and not extending posteriorly to the discal cell <Lampides>/

2. completely traversed ante-medianly by transverse lines (i.e., by contrast with Lampides boeticus, where they do not extend beyond the discal cell) <Leptotes>/

#54. Undersides of the forewings <whether green>/

1. bright green/

2. not green /

#55. Undersides of the forewings <whether conspicuously dark-veined>/

1. conspicuously dark-veined/

2. not dark-veined /

Refers to the appearance in reflected light. Misleading darkening of the venation by transmitted light can be seen in some of the photographs, for which it has been necessary to illuminate the background.

#56. Undersides of the forewings <whether eye-spotted>/

1. eye-spotted/

2. not eye-spotted /

#57. The eye-spots <of the undersides of the forewings, number>/

#58. The eye-spots <of the undersides of the forewings, location>/

1. near the mid-costa/

2. more or less in the middle/

3. posterior towards the apex/

4. mid-posterior/

5. near the tornus/

#59. Undersides of the forewings <presence of silvery subapical spots>/

1. with several silvery-white subapical spots/

2. without silvery-white subapical spots/

#60. Undersides of the forewings <presence of two black spots before the middle>/

1. with two black spots before the middle/

2. with no black spots before the middle/

#61. Undersides of the hindwings <general description of colour-patterning>/

#62. Undersides of the hindwings <whether the termen exhibits orange spots>/

1. with a subterminal orange band contiguous internally and externally with rows of black dots/

2. with a subterminal row of isolated orange spots <without apposed black dots>/

3. with a subterminal row of orange spots which are apposed to terminal black dots/

4. with 1–2 black dots within small orange spots near the tornus/

5. with neither orange spots nor an orange band/

#63. Undersides of the hindwings <whether green>/

1. bright green/

2. not bright green /

#64. Undersides of the hindwings <whether conspicuously dark-veined>/

1. conspicuously dark-veined/

2. not dark-veined /

Refers to the appearance in reflected light. Misleading darkening of the venation by transmitted light can be seen in some of the photographs, for which it has been necessary to illuminate the background.

#65. Undersides of the hindwings <whether eye-spotted>/

1. eye-spotted/

2. not eye-spotted/

#66. The eye-spots <of undersides of the hindwings, number>/

#67. The eye-spots <of undersides of the hindwings, location>/

1. near the mid-costa/

2. more or less central/

3. posterior towards the apex/

4. mid-posterior/

5. near the tornus/

#68. Undersides of the hindwings <presence of discal mark>/

1. with a conspicuous discal mark/

2. without a <clearly defined, discrete> discal mark/

#69. Undersides of the hindwings <presence of a subterminal band of spots>/

1. with a subterminal row of spots between the discal spots and the terminal row/

2. without a subterminal row of spots/

#70. Undersides of the hindwings <whether with silvery-metallic markings>/

1. with silvery-metallic markings/

2. without metallic markings <implicit>/

#71. Undersides of the hindwings <presence of silvery spots versus streaks>/

1. with distinct silvery spots/

2. with silvery streaks/

#72. Undersides of the hindwings <presence of silvery-centred subterminal spots>/

1. with the spots of the subterminal row silvery-centred/

2. with the spots of the subterminal row not silvery-centred/

#73. Undersides of the hindwings <number of discal silvery spots>/

1. with only one discal silvery spot/

2. with several discal silvery spots/

#74. Undersides of the hindwings <presence of orange markings> /

1. with orange markings/

2. without orange markings/

Wing venation

#77. Forewings <total number of longitudinal tubular veins, counted distally to any bifurcations>/

veined/

Basic information on lepidopteran wing neuration and the terminology used here is available via the ‘Lepidopteran morphology’ toolbar button.

#78. Forewings <presence of basally dilated or vesicular veins>/

1. with basally dilated <vesicular> veins <Satyridae>/

2. without basally dilated veins/

#79. Vein 12 <of forewings, basal dilation>/

1. basally dilated/

2. not <basally> dilated/

#80. The lower margin of the discal cell <of the forewing, basal dilation>/

1. basally dilated/

2. not <basaly> dilated/

#81. Vein 1b <forewing vein: the lowermost, basal dilation>/

1. basally dilated/

2. not <basally> dilated/

#82. Forewings <number of (at least partially tubular) anal veins>/

1. lacking anal veins/

2. with 1 <at least partly> tubular anal vein/

3. with 2 <at least partly> tubular anal veins/

4. with 3 <at least partly> tubular anal veins/

#83. The <tubular> anal veins of the forewings <identification of those present>/

1. representing 1b only/

2. comprising 1b and 1c <only>/

3. comprising 1a and 1b <only>/

4. comprising 1a, 1b and 1c/

#84. Vein 1b <of the forewings, simple or furcate>/

1. furcate proximally/

2. obsoletely furcate <proximally>/

3. simple/

#85. Forewings <neuration: with or without a closed discal cell>/

1. with a <more or less closed> discal cell <and a transverse vein> /

2. without a discal cell <without a transverse vein>/

#86. Vein 2 <of the forewings, position of departure from the cell>/

1. departing from the hind margin of the cell in its distal quarter/

2. departing from the cell less than three-quarters of the distance from its base/

Meyrick’s vein 2 employed here = the vein CuA2 of modern works.

Basic information on lepidopteran wing neuration and the terminology used here is available via the ‘Lepidopteran morphology’ toolbar button.

#87. <Comments on neuration of forewings:>/

Basic information on lepidopteran wing neuration and the terminology used here is available via the ‘Lepidopteran morphology’ toolbar button.

#88. Hindwings <total number of longitudinal tubular veins, counted distally to any bifurcations and including separate components of “vein 1”>/

veined/

#89. Hindwings <neuration: presence of a praecostal spur>/

1. with a praecostal spur <humeral vein>/

2. without a praecostal spur /

#90. Hindwings <number of at least partially tubular anal veins comprising “vein 1”>/

1. lacking <tubular> anal veins/

2. with 1 anal vein/

3. with 2 anal veins/

4. with 3 anal veins/

#91. Hindwings <whether exhibiting vein 1a>/

1. exhibiting vein 1a/

2. lacking vein 1a/

#92. The <tubular> anal veins <of the hindwings, identification of those present>/

1. representing 1b only/

2. comprising 1b and 1c <only>/

3. comprising 1a and 1b <only>/

4. comprising 1a, 1b and 1c/

#93. Hindwings <neuration: with or without a closed discal cell>/

1. with a closed discal cell <i.e., with a complete transverse vein>/

2. without a closed discal cell <without a transverse vein>/

#94. The transverse vein <of the hindwings, complete or incomplete>/

1. complete/

2. incomplete <partially either lacking or vestigial>/

3. vestigial only/

4. lacking/

#95. <Number of tubular veins originating from the hindwing cell>/

<tubular> veins arising from the hindwing cell/

Including vein 8 if this coincides or anastomoses with the cell - see second image.

Basic information on lepidopteran wing neuration and the terminology used here is available via the ‘Lepidopteran morphology’ toolbar button.

#96. The cell-derived hindwing veins <extent of joining>/

1. all arising independently of one another/

2. 2+3 proximally joined <connate or stalked>/

3. 3+4 proximally joined <connate or stalked>/

4. 3+5 proximally joined <connate or stalked>/

5. 4+5 proximally joined <connate or stalked>/

6. 5+6 proximally joined <connate or stalked>/

7. 6+7 proximally joined <connate or stalked>/

8. 7+8 proximally joined <connate or stalked>/

Basic information on lepidopteran wing neuration and the terminology used here is available via the ‘Lepidopteran morphology’ toolbar button.

#97. <Comments on neuration of hindwings:>/

Eggs, larvae, pupae

#98. Eggs <shape>/

1. discoid/

2. hemispherical/

3. sub-globular/

4. barrel-shaped/

5. broadly conical/

6. bottle-shaped/

7. truncate-fusiform/

8. asymmetric, being horizonally elongate and broadly sausage-shaped in side view/

#99. Eggs <ornamentation>/

1. more or less smooth/

2. densely spinulose/

3. reticulate/

4. longitudinally ribbed/

#100. The larvae <shape>/

1. woodlouse-shaped/

2. not woodlouse-shaped /

#101. The larvae <association with ants. See Notes>/

1. associated with ants <only> in the later instars/

2. associated with ants <only> in the early instars/

3. having no known association with ants /

For detailed discussion, see Ford (1945).

Deduced positive for Lycaenidae, when not directly observed, on the evidence of a functional secretory gland located dorsally on the mid-line of the 7th abdominal segment, which becomes operative only in the later instars. With the exceptions of the ‘Hairstreaks', Lycaena phlaeas and Cupido minimus, the life histories of all British Lycaenidae probably involve symbiotic relationships with ants, which “milk” the larvae from their honey glands. The presence of ants around the larvae on their foodplants evidently serves to deter potential insect parasites and predators, and in some cases the relationship involves deliberate “farming” of the larvae by their protectors. In Britain, ants have been observed to carry larvae of Lysandra coridon and Plebajus argus in their jaws and deposit them on the approriate foodplants conveniently near their nests; and in the famous case of the Large Blue (Maculinea arion), the butterfly larvae become virtually parasitic, being taken into the ants’ nest and fed to maturity on their own larvae. Larvae of Lycaena species lack the usual honey glands, but those of L. dispar (not L. phlaeas) do attract ants to secretions from scattered, glandular skin cells.

The early instars of British Pieridae also attract ants via secretions presented at the forked tips of long setae, with the possible exceptions of Aporia crataegi, the Colias species and Pieris brassicae, where the setae occur but may be non-secretory.

#102. The larvae <hairiness>/

1. hairless/

2. hairy/

#103. The larvae <with or without tentacles>/

1. with a pair of tentacles from segment 2 <immediately behind the head>/

2. without tentacles on segment 2 /

#104. The larvae <with or without bristly spines>/

1. with rows of bristly spines/

2. without bristly spines <regardless whether hairy or not> /

#105. The larvae <whether exposed or concealed feeders>/

1. exposed feeders /

2. concealed feeders <subterranean, mining, etc.>/

#106. The larvae <exposed feeders, whether forming communal tents>/

1. feeding in communal tents/

2. not feeding in communal tents /

#107. <Foodplants:>/

#108. Pupae <ridged/angular or smooth/rounded>/

1. ridged and angular/

2. smooth and rounded <not ridged and angular> /

#109. Pupae <whether conspicuously patterned or coloured>/

1. conspicuously patterned/

2. plain /

#110. Pupae <whether with metallic ornamentation>/

1. with shining-metallic markings/

2. without shining-metallic markings /

#111. Pupae <whether exposed or concealed>/

1. exposed, <above ground, and> with no coccoon/

2. concealed <in various ways, and usually in a cocoon>/

#112. Pupae <exposed, how borne>/

1. suspended <head down> from the tail (cremaster), with no median silk girdle/

2. not suspended, but <upright and> attached at the tail and secured by a median girdle of silk/

British representation

#113. Genera <number of genera in Britain>/

#114. <Number of species in Britain, including ‘adventives’>/

species/

Bradley (2000) details in precise terms the national status of species here tagged ‘adventive’. The term as used here denotes ‘not native to this environment’, and includes species usually indicated in check lists as ‘of doubtful British status’. Assignment is inevitably somewhat arbitrary, because situations where specimens have been rarely but genuinely found at large in the British Isles as a result of migrations beyond the normal range of a species, or of accidental transport by human agencies, are hard to disentangle from honest but erroneous records and cases of fraud. Migrant species recorded regularly in Britain as adults but which are unable breed successfully there are treated as ‘native’ in this connection.

#115. <Scientific and common names of British genera and species:>/

Complete lists of species and genera are given here (cf. Bradley et al., 1972, 2000) for British Macrolepidoptera. For Microlepidoptera, only examples illustrated by Curtis are listed, although nearly all the families are represented in the package by at least one illustration.

Bradley (2000) details in precise terms the national status of species here tagged ‘adventive’. The latter term here denotes ‘not native to this environment’, and includes species usually indicated in check lists as ‘of doubtful British status’. Assignment is inevitably somewhat arbitrary, because situations where specimens have been rarely but genuinely found at large in the British Isles as a result of migrations beyond the normal range of a species, or of accidental transport by human agencies, are hard to disentangle from honest but erroneous records and cases of fraud. Migrant species recorded regularly in Britain as adults but which are unable breed successfully there are treated as ‘native’ in this connection.

#116. The adults abroad <months>/

1. May/

2. June/

3. July/

4. August/

5. September/

6. October/

7. November/

8. December/

9. January/

10. February/

11. March/

12. April/

#117. The adults <whether hibernating>/

1. hibernating/

2. not hibernating /

Status in Britain

#118. <Native status: indigenous, immigrant, extinct or adventive>/

1. indigenous <populations self-sustaining in Britain>/

2. common occurrence in Britain entirely reflecting regular immigration <arrivals often producing offspring, but populations not surviving the winter>/

3. rare ocurrence <in Britain> representing occasional, genuine immigrants/

4. adventive <accidental introductions, frauds, etc. - not genuinely ‘British’>/

5. formerly indigenous <in Britain> but now extinct/

#119. <Comments on British status>/

Distribution

#120. <Summary of distribution in the British Isles:>/

1. northern Scotland/

2. southern Scotland/

3. northern England/

4. English Midlands/

5. East Anglia/

6. Wales/

7. southeast England/

8. central southern England/

9. southwest England/

10. Isle of Wight/

11. Ireland/

Known distributions of organisms are obviously taxonomically useful, but equally obviously, they have to be used with caution. The accessible data have here been geographically generalized to render them practicable and reasonably reliable when checking identifications. Known distributions have been widened by recording them quite liberally under the broad regions used here.

Southern Scotland: south of the Firth of Forth.

Northern England: including north Derbyshire, Cheshire, Lancashire, Yorkshire, north Lincolnshire.

English Midlands: central England, including Warwickshire, Northamptonshire, Leicestershire, Nottinghamshire, southern Lincolnshire, Derbyshire, Staffordshire, Worcestershire, Shropshire, Herefordshire, etc.

East Anglia: eastern England south of The Wash, including Norfolk, parts of Cambridgeshire and Essex.

Southeast England: including London and the Home Counties, Kent, East Sussex.

Central southern England: including Oxfordshire, Gloucestershire, Buckinghamshire, Hampshire, east Dorsetshire, Wiltshire.

Southwest England: west Dorset, Somerset, Devonshire, Cornwall.

#121. <Distribution - Britain/Ireland:> /

1. Britain <England, Scotland, Wales, Isle of Man, Channel Islands>/

2. Ireland <including Northern Ireland>/

#122. Britain: <distribution in the vice counties of Britain; see 'Notes'):> /

1. West Cornwall/

2. East Cornwall/

3. South Devon/

4. North Devon/

5. South Somerset/

6. North Somerset/

7. North Wiltshire/

8. South Wiltshire/

9. Dorset/

10. Isle of Wight/

11. South Hampshire/

12. North Hampshire/

13. West Sussex/

14. East Sussex/

15. East Kent/

16. West Kent/

17. Surrey/

18. South Essex/

19. North Essex/

20. Hertfordshire/

21. Middlesex/

22. Berkshire/

23. Oxfordshire/

24. Buckinghamshire/

25. East Suffolk/

26. West Suffolk/

27. East Norfolk/

28. West Norfolk/

29. Cambridgeshire/

30. Bedfordshire/

31. Huntingdonshire/

32. Northamptonshire/

33. East Gloucestershire/

34. West Gloucestershire/

35. Monmouthshire/

36. Herefordshire/

37. Worcestershire/

38. Warwickshire/

39. Staffordshire/

40. Shropshire/

41. Glamorgan/

42. Breconshire/

43. Radnorshire/

44. Carmarthenshire <Caerfyrddyn>/

45. Pembrokeshire/

46. Cardiganshire <Ceredigion>/

47. Montgomeryshire/

48. Merionethshire <Meirionydd>/

49. Caernarvonshire <Caernarfon>/

50. Denbighshire/

51. Flintshire/

52. Anglesey/

53. South Lincolnshire/

54. North Lincolnshire/

55. Leicestershire <with Rutland>/

56. Nottinghamshire/

57. Derbyshire/

58. Cheshire/

59. South Lancashire/

60. West Lancashire/

61. South-east Yorkshire/

62. North-east Yorkshire/

63. South-west Yorkshire/

64. Mid-west Yorkshire/

65. North-west Yorkshire/

66. Durham/

67. South Northumberland/

68. North Northumberland <Cheviot>/

69. Westmorland <with North Lancashire>/

70. Cumberland/

71. Isle of Man/

72. Dumfriesshire/

73. Kirkcudbrightshire/

74. Wigtownshire/

75. Ayrshire/

76. Renfrewshire/

77. Lanarkshire/

78. Peeblesshire/

79. Selkirkshire/

80. Roxburghshire/

81. Berwickshire/

82. East Lothian <Haddington>/

83. Midlothian <Edinburgh>/

84. West Lothian <Linlithgow>/

85. Fifeshire <with Kinross>/

86. Stirlingshire/

87. West Perthshire <with Clackmannan>/

88. Mid Perthshire/

89. East Perthshire/

90. Angus <Forfar>/

91. Kincardineshire/

92. South Aberdeenshire/

93. North Aberdeenshire/

94. Banffshire/

95. Moray <Elgin>/

96. East Inverness-shire <with Nairn>/

97. West Inverness-shire/

98. Argyll Main/

99. Dunbartonshire/

100. Clyde Isles/

101. Kintyre/

102. South Ebudes/

103. Mid Ebudes/

104. North Ebudes/

105. West Ross/

106. East Ross/

107. East Sutherland/

108. West Sutherland/

109. Caithness/

110. Outer Hebrides/

111. Orkney islands/

112. Shetland <Zetland>/

113. Channel Islands/

It is axiomatic that no identification can be relied upon until it has been confirmed with reference to a detailed description.

Known distributions of organisms are obviously taxonomically useful, but they have to be used with caution for identification. Detailed vice-county records have not been available for the present purpose, and distributional data (mainly from Meyrick and Ford) have been deliberately widened for encoding in terms of vice-counties. The geographical generalization should render the information more reliable for helping with identifications, and the routine advice we advocate when using INTKEY (if in doubt, select more than one character state) remains available to users as a further precaution.

#123. Ireland: <distribution in the vice counties of Ireland; see 'Notes'):> /

1. South Kerry/

2. North Kerry/

3. West Cork/

4. Mid Cork/

5. East Cork/

6. Waterford/

7. South Tipperary/

8. Limerick/

9. Clare/

10. North Tipperary/

11. Kilkenny/

12. Wexford/

13. Carlow/

14. Leix <Queen's County>/

15. South-east Galway/

16. West Galway/

17. North-east Galway/

18. Offaly <King's County>/

19. Kildare/

20. Wicklow/

21. Dublin/

22. Meath/

23. West Meath/

24. Longford/

25. Roscommon/

26. East Mayo/

27. West Mayo/

28. Sligo/

29. Leitrim/

30. Cavan/

31. Louth/

32. Monaghan/

33. Fermanagh/

34. East Donegal/

35. West Donegal/

36. Tyrone/

37. Armagh/

38. Down/

39. Antrim/

40. Londonderry/

It is axiomatic that no identification can be relied upon until it has been confirmed with reference to a detailed description.

Known distributions of organisms are obviously taxonomically useful, but they have to be used with caution for identification. Detailed vice-county records have not been available for the present purpose, and distributional data (mainly from Meyrick and Ford) have been deliberately widened for encoding in terms of vice-counties. The geographical generalization should render the information more reliable for helping with identifications, and the routine advice we advocate when using INTKEY (if in doubt, select more than one character state) remains available to users as a further precaution.

#124. Frequenting <usual habitats>/

1. woodland/

2. open places/

#125. Habitats <calcareous or non-calcareous>/

1. calcareous/

2. non-calcareous/

Comments

#126. <General comments:>/

#127. <Incidence of melanism in the family>/

Melaninism. Melanin is a complex of dark (black, brown, yellowish or dull red) animal pigments, and “melanism” in the present context is the occurrence in a species of some individuals that are darker than the typical form, due to a heritable increase in the proportions of melanins in the epidemis (cf. Kettlewell, 1973). Melanism occurs in numerous moth species. In some it is known only as a rare mutation, but others exhibit populations in which melanic individuals are common or even predominant in certain habitats and/or geographical locations. From an evolutionary standpoint, persistence of melanic populations in relatively natural habitats (“rural” or “non-industrial” melanism”) is sometimes reasonably interpretable with reference to Darwinian natural selection , as in the genus Spilosoma, although few cases have yet been thoroughly investigated (see Majerus, 2002). However, spectacular changes in the proportions of melanic versus “normal” individuals in the populations of some moth species have been observed and quantitatively detailed in Britain for over a hundred years. Being rather obviously correlated with probable habitat pollution consequent on industrialisation, this phenomenon is termed “industrial melanism”, and in the case of the Peppered Moth (Biston betularia) in particular, a causal relationship involving Darwinian selection has been rather convincingly demonstrated via numerous, laborious experiments. Researchers’ disagreements over experimental design and interpretation of results leads to spurious claims by religious extremists, who fail to grasp that the obvious fact of organic evolution is not in the least undermined by arguments over details of the complex mechanisms. For detailed discussion of the Peppered Moth in the context of evolutionary debate in the 21st century, see Majerus (1998, 2002).

Examples of melanism are illustrated under the appropriate family descriptions in the present package (‘The families of Lepidoptera’), or in the generic descriptions in the accompanying ‘Geometridae’ or ‘Noctuidae’ packages, with references to the phylogenetic status of melanism largely following Ford (1955) and Majerus (2002). In the latter connection, “non-industrial to industrial" here implies occurrence of melanics in natural, unpolluted habitats, with observed increased proportions of them in habitats affected by industrialization.

Non-industrial melanism (= “rural melanism”, cf. Ford 1955). The intra-specific variation encompassed by all moth species frequently includes significant levels of heritable melanism (q.v.), which existed prior to the Industrial Revolution and cannot be attributed to selective advantages in the face of environmental pollution. A range of possible, “natural” selective factors that may have been operative in different cases have been postulated (cf. Majerus 2002), mostly assuming either increased crypsis of darker individuals in habitats with low light intsnsity, or associated with deceiving predators that have learned to associate the “normal” colouring with palatability.

Classification

#128. Superfamily/

1. Hesperoidea/

2. Papilionoidea/

Classification after Bradley et al. (1972, 2000).

#129. <Family:>/

1. Danaidae/

2. Hesperiidae/

3. Lycaenidae/

4. Nymphalidae/

5. Papilionidae/

6. Pieridae/

7. Riodinidae/

8. Satyridae/

#130. <Classificatory comments>/

#131. <Level of description:> /

1. generic description/

2. family description/

Miscellaneous

#132. Abbreviated taxon name:/

#133. <Illustrations>/


To view the illustrations with detailed captions, go to the interactive key. This also offers full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting or lacking specified attributes, and distributions of character states within any set of taxa.

Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2008 onwards. Insects of Britain and Ireland: butterflies. Version: 16th May 2016. delta-intkey.com’.

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