Insects of Britain and Ireland: the families of Lepidoptera

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L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz


Torticidae-Tortricinae; currently including tribes Archipini, Cnephasiini, Sparganothini and Tortricini, also subfamily Chlidanotinae.

Adults relatively medium-bodied to long-bodied; medium built (wingspan more than 8 and less than 15 times the thoracic width); with fully developed wings (usually), or wingless, or with vestigial wings (exemplified by the females of Exapate congelatella with reduced forewings and no hindwings); wings in repose packed with the forewings directed backwards to cover hindwings and abdomen.

Head rough (-scaled). Antennae very short to of medium length; extending to about 0.4–0.7 times the length of the forewing (less than 2/3); not clubbed. Antennae of males bipectinate (sometimes), or simple (mostly); usually simply-ciliate. The antennal scape not forming an ‘eye cap’. The antennal segments each with one or two rings of scales. Eyes glabrous. Ocelli present (usually). Chaetosemata present. Maxillary palps much reduced (small); 2–4 segmented. Labial palps porrect (usually), or ascending (rarely); 3 segmented. Proboscis fully developed; not scaly.

Wingspan 11–28 mm; 12–14 times the thoracic width. Forewings narrow to broad; 1.9–2.6 times as long as wide; the outer margin convexly curved, or sigmoid-curved; apically blunt; predominantly shining-metallic, or exhibiting shining-metallic markings, or neither shining-metallic nor with shining metallic markings; without eye-spots above. Hindwings ovate to broadly rounded; quite markedly narrower than the forewings. Hindwing width 1.1–1.2 times that of the forewings. Hindwings with a rounded apex; the upper surfaces plain; with neither discal spot nor transverse lines; with a frenulum.

Neuration of forewings and hindwings dissimilar. Forewings 12 veined, or 13 veined; with 1 anal vein (?), or with 2 anal veins (supposedly). The anal veins of the forewings if two are really represented, comprising 1b and 1c, or representing 1b only (?). Forewings exhibiting a tubular vein 1c (this is obsolete proximally, according to both Meyrick and Common, although none of the former’s figures show this vein at all). Vein 1b of the forewings furcate proximally. The transverse vein complete, or incomplete. Forewings with an accessory cell, or without an accessory cell. Discal cell of the forewings containing a tubular media (M) vein, or without a tubular media (M) vein. Vein 2 of the forewings departing from the cell less than three-quarters of the distance from its base. Hindwings 9 veined, or 10 veined; with 3 anal veins. The anal veins of the hindwings comprising 1a, 1b and 1c. Hindwings exhibiting vein 1a; exhibiting a tubular vein 1c. Vein 1b of the hindwings furcate proximally. The transverse vein complete. The hindwing cell without a cubital pecten of hairs; emitting more than six veins, or emitting no more than six veins. 5 veins arising from the hindwing cell (when vein 4 lacking, e.g. in Tortricodes), or 6 veins arising from the hindwing cell (usually), or 7 veins arising from the hindwing cell (when vein 8 involved, e.g. in T. viridana). The cell-derived hindwing veins all arising independently of one another, or 6+7 proximally joined (these then connate or stalked). Vein 8 of the hindwings completely independent of the cell (mostly), or anastomosing with the upper margin of the cell (then in the basal half, but mostly only approximating); not approximating to vein 7.

Fore-legs with a tibial epiphysis. Tibiae of middle legs 2-spurred. Posterior tibiae 4-spurred.

Eggs, larvae and pupae. Eggs markedly flattened; smooth or minutely pitted to ribbed and/or reticulate. Larval prolegs 10. Larvae concealed feeders (often sheltering in folded or rolled leaves of the food plant, hence the common name ‘Leaf-rollers’.); subterranean, or not subterranean. Associated with divers Dicot trees, shrubs and herbs, also Taxus and a few Monocots, seemingly very rarely if ever with Gramineae.

Pupae concealed; usually above the ground (where the larvae fed). Empty pupae protruded from place of concealment.

British representation. Genera 39 (3 adventive only); about 100 species (7 adventive). Acleris cristana (Rufous-margined Button Moth), Acleris literana (Sprinkled Rough-wing), Acleris variegana (Garden Rose Tortrix), Eana penzeana (Pentz's Tortrix or Shade), Philedonides lunana (Walker's Lanark Tortrix), Tortrix viridana (Green Oak Tortrix), etc.

Classification. Microlepidoptera. Suborder Ditrysia. Superfamily Tortricoidea.

See the description of Cochylidae for remarks on the upper-level classification and confusing nomenclature of Tortricoidea.

Comments. Antennae usually with two rings of scales per flagellar segment. Female genitalia with the sterigma connected with the ventral arms of the anterior apophyses except in the Cnephasiini. Fore-wings usually with an oblique central fascia, usually with a pre-apical costal patch, and without an ocellus. Pheromones generally based on either a 14-carbon chain or (Cnephasiini) a 12-carbon one..

Illustrations. • Acleris, Archips, Croesa, Eana, Pandemis: Wilkinson. • Acleris, Eana, Exapate, Lozotaenia, Olindia, Pandemis (Stainton). • Acleris, Tortrix, Choristoneura: Kirby 54 and 55. • Acleris emargana (Iron Notchwing): B. Ent. 699. • Acleris emargana: B. Ent. 699, legend+text. • Acleris emargana: B. Ent. 699, text cont.. • Acleris emargana: Stephens IV, 1834. • Acleris (Peronea) literana (Sprinkled Rough-wing: B. Ent. 440). • Acleris (Peronea) literana : B. Ent. 440, legend+text. • Acleris (Peronea) literana : B. Ent. 440, text cont.. • Acleris (Peronea) cristana (Rufous-margined Button Moth: B. Ent. 16). • Acleris (Peronea) cristana: B. Ent. 16, legend+text. • Acleris (Peronea) cristana: B. Ent. 16, text cont.. • Acleris hastiana: Stephens IV, 1834. • Acleris cristana: Stephens IV, 1834. • Acleris schalleriana: Stephens IV, 1834. • Aphelia viburnana (Sweet Gale Tortrix): B. Ent. 763. • Aphelia viburnana: B. Ent. 763, legend+text. • Aphelia viburnana: B. Ent. 763, text cont.. • Eana penzeana (Pentz's Tortrix: B. Ent. 100). • Eana penzeana: B. Ent. 100, legend+text. • Eana penzeana: B. Ent. 100, text cont.. • Olindia schumacherana (Chlidanotinae): B. Ent. 711. • Olindia schumacherana: B. Ent. 711, legend+text. • Olindia schumacherana: B. Ent. 711, text cont.. • Tortricinae-Archipini (Hübner 1796). • Tortricinae-Archipini (Hübner 1796–1830). • Tortricinae-Archipini (Hübner 1796–1799). • Tortricinae-Archipini (Hübner 1796–1824). • Tortricinae-Cnephasiini (Hübner 1796–1813). • Tortricinae-Cnephasiini (Hübner 1813–1830). • Olindia and Isotrias (Chlidanotinae): Hubner, 1814–1823. • Philedonides lunana (Walker's Lanark Tortrix: B. Ent. 209). • Philedonides lunana (detail+dissections: B. Ent. 209). • Philedonides lunana: legend+text: B. Ent. 209. • Philedonides lunana: text, cont.: B. Ent. 209. • Tortricinae-Sparganothini: Sparganothis pilleriana (Hübner VII, 1796–1799). • Tortricinae-Tortricini: 10 Acleris spp. and Aleimma loeflingiana (Hübner VII, 1796–1799). • Tortricinae-Tortricini: forms of Acleris literana (Hübner VII, 1796–1799). • Tortricinae-Tortricini: 9 Acleris spp. (Hübner VII, 1796–1817). • Tortricinae-Tortricini: 9 Acleris spp. (Hübner VII, 1796–1817). • Tortricinae-Tortricini: 7 Acleris spp. (Hübner VII, 1796–1799). • Tortricinae-Tortricini: 11 Acleris spp., Croesia (Acleris) bergmanniana, Tortrix viridana (Hübner VII, 1796–1833). • Tortrix viridana: neuration. • Acleris variegana: neuration. • Tortricodes alternella: neuration.

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Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2003 onwards. Insects of Britain and Ireland: the families of Lepidoptera. Version: 8th June 2016.’.