Insects of Britain and Ireland: the families of Lepidoptera
Adults small; relatively long-bodied; medium built (wingspan more than 8 and less than 15 times the thoracic width); wings in repose packed with the forewings directed backwards to cover hindwings and abdomen.
Head smooth (usually), or rough (e.g., Nothris). Antennae of medium length to long; extending to about 0.75–0.8 times the length of the forewing. Antennae of males simple; shortly simply-ciliate, or non-ciliate. The antennal scape with a pecten (rarely), or without a pecten; not forming an eye cap. Ocelli present (often), or absent. Chaetosemata absent (?). Maxillary palps well developed, or much reduced (short, appressed); 4 segmented; folded. Labial palps ascending (long, recurved, with a slender, pointed terminal segment); 3 segmented. Proboscis fully developed; scaly towards the base.
Wingspan 8–20 mm; about 11–14 times the thoracic width. Forewings narrow; 2.9–5.5 times as long as wide. Tornus weakly defined to undetectable. The outer margin convexly curved; forewings apically blunt; forewings predominantly shining-metallic (e.g., bronzy), or exhibiting shining-metallic markings (e.g., sometimes with silvery or leaden spots), or neither shining-metallic nor with shining metallic markings. Hindwings narrow-elongate and very long-fringed to neither unusually narrow-elongate nor especially long-fringed; trapezoidal; quite markedly narrower than the forewings to markedly broader than the forewings; with a pointed apex to with a rounded apex. The fringe of the hindwings (0.5–)1–3 times the width of the membrane. The upper surfaces plain; with neither discal spot nor transverse lines; hindwings with a frenulum.
Neuration of forewings and hindwings dissimilar. Forewings 12 veined (often), or 10–11 veined (veins 3 and 4, and 7 and 8 sometimes coincident, veins 2, 4 and 7 sometimes absent); with 1 anal vein. The anal veins of the forewings representing 1b only. Forewings lacking a tubular vein 1c. Vein 1b of the forewings furcate proximally. Forewings with a discal cell, or without a discal cell (e.g., Stenolechia). The transverse vein complete, or incomplete, or lacking. Discal cell of the forewings without a tubular media (M) vein. Hindwings (9–)10 veined; with 1 anal vein to with 3 anal veins. The anal veins of the hindwings representing 1b only, or comprising 1a and 1b, or comprising 1a, 1b and 1c. Hindwings exhibiting vein 1a, or lacking vein 1a; exhibiting a tubular vein 1c, or lacking a tubular vein 1c. Vein 1b of the hindwings obsoletely furcate, or simple. The transverse vein complete. The hindwing cell bearing a pecten of hairs on its cubital margin, or without a cubital pecten of hairs. 6 veins arising from the hindwing cell. The cell-derived hindwing veins all arising independently of one another, or 3+4 proximally joined and 6+7 proximally joined (with connation or stalking). Veins 6 and 7 of the hindwings not parallel. Vein 8 of the hindwings completely independent of the cell, or joined to the cell only by a bar, or anastomosing with the upper margin of the cell; not approximating to vein 7.
Fore-legs with a tibial epiphysis. Tibiae of middle legs 2-spurred. Posterior tibiae 4-spurred; hairy.
Eggs, larvae and pupae. Eggs smooth or minutely pitted (?). Larval prolegs 10 (rarely all much reduced). Larvae case-bearing, or not case-bearing; concealed feeders (mostly in spun leaves, fruiting infloresences, flowers or shoots); subterranean (rarely), or not subterranean; leaf-mining (rarely), or not leaf-mining. One in bracken stems, a few associated with conifers. Otherwise mainly associated with divers Dicot trees, shrubs and herbs; seemingly avoiding Monocots, except Sitotroga cerealella, which is a destructive pest in stored cereal grain.
Pupae concealed; on the surface of the ground, or above the ground. Empty pupae not becoming protruded.
British representation. Genera 54 (4 adventive only); about 150 species (8 adventive). Gelechia rhombella, Hypatima rhomboidella (Lobster-clawed Moth), Prolita sexpunctella (Long-horned Flat-back, Groundling), etc.
Classification. Microlepidoptera. Suborder Ditrysia. Superfamily Gelechioidea.
Illustrations. • Anacampsis scintillella, A. temerella, Mirificarma lentiginosella: Stainton 9, II (1865). • Stainton 9, II (1865): original legend.. • Gelechia hippophaŽlla, Helcystogramma rufescens, Monopis ferruginella (or obviella? - mainland-European): Stainton 9, I (1865). • Stainton 9, I (1865): original legend.. • Aroga flavicomella (mainland-European), Neofaculta ericetella, Mirificarma mulinella: Stainton 9, III (1865). • Stainton 9, III (1865): original legend.. • Neofriseria peliella, Scrobipalpa acuminatella, Anthrips mouffetella: Stainton 9, IV (1865). • Stainton 9, IV (1865): original legend.. • Bryotropha domestica, Bryotropha affinis, Teleiodes vulgella: Stainton 9, V (1865). • Stainton 9, V (1865): original legend.. • Altenia scriptella, Pseudotelphusa paripunctella (as triparella), Recurvaria leucatella: Stainton 9, VI (1865). • Stainton 9, VI (1865): original legend.. • Scrobipalpa artemisiella, Xenolechia aethiops, (mainland-European) Mirificarma maculatella: Stainton 9, VII (1865). • Stainton 9, VII (1865): original legend.. • Athrips tetrapunctella (as nigricostella), Chrysoesthia sexguttella (as naeviferella), Chrysoesthia drurella (as hernannella): Stainton 9, VIII (1865). • Stainton 9, VIII (1865): original legend.. • Caryocolum vicinella (as leucomelanella), C. cauliginella (mainland-European), Scrobipalpa costella: Stainton 10, IX (1867). • Stainton Stainton 10, IX (1867): original legend.. • Caryocolum marmorea (as maculea), C. tricolorella, C. viscariella: Stainton 10, X (1867). • Stainton 10, X (1867): original legend.. • Caryocolum fraternella, C. fischerella,, C. marmorea: Stainton 10, XI (1867). • Stainton 10, XI (1867): original legend.. • Caryocolum proxima (as maculiferella), Monochroa servella (as farinosae), Teleiodes sequax: Stainton 10, XII (1867). • Stainton 10, XII (1867): original legend.. • Syncopacma taeniolella, S. coronillella (mainland-European), S. albipalpella: Stainton 10, XIII (1867). • Stainton 10, XIII (1867): original legend.. • Aproaerema anthyllidella, Monochroa arundinetella, Epithectis lathyri: Stainton 10, XIV (1867). • Stainton 10, XIV (1867): original legend.. • Apodia bifractella, Ptocheuusa inopella), Aristotelia brizella: Stainton 10, XV (1867). • Stainton 10, XV (1867): original legend.. • Eulamprotes wilkella (as pictella), Aristotelia ericinella, Thiotricha subocellea: Stainton 10, XVI (1867). • Stainton 10, XVI (1867): original legend.. • Carpotolechia decorella (as Laverna), with Mompha and Sorhagenia: Stainton 11, VI (1870). • Stainton 11, VI (1870): original legend.. • Dichomeris derasella and Dichomeris limosellus (as Ypsolophus, with Y. ustella): Stainton 13, II (1873).. • Stainton 13, II (1873): original legend.. • Hypatima, Pseudotelphusa, Recurvaria, Teleiodes: Stainton (1859). • Monochroa cytisella (Curtis), Broom Tinea: B. Ent. 671. • Monochroa cytisella (Curtis): B. Ent. 671, legend+text. • Monochroa cytisella (Curtis): B. Ent. 671, text cont.. • Prolita sexpunctella (Long-horned Flat-back, Groundling: B. Ent. 189). • Prolita sexpunctella (detail: B. Ent. 189). • Prolita sexpunctella (legend+text: B. Ent. 189). • Prolita sexpunctella (text, cont.: B. Ent. 189). • Hypatima rhomboidella (Lobster-clawed Moth: B. Ent. 368). • Hypatima rhomboidella: B. Ent. 368, legend+text. • Hypatima rhomboidella: B. Ent. 368, text cont.. • 8 genera (from Stainton). • Larvae of 'Tineina' (Stainton). • 6 genera: neuration.
To view the illustrations with detailed captions, go to the interactive key. This also offers full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting or lacking specified attributes, and distributions of character states within any set of taxa.
Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2003 onwards. Insects of Britain and Ireland: the families of Lepidoptera. Version: 8th June 2016. delta-intkey.com’.