Insects of Britain and Ireland: the families of Lepidoptera

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L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz


Olethreutidae, Tortricidae-Olethreutinae; i.e., currently including tribes Enarmoniini, Endothiini, Eucosmini, Olethreutini.

Adults relatively medium-bodied to long-bodied; relatively slender-bodied (wingspan more than 15 times the thoracic width) to medium built (wingspan more than 8 and less than 15 times the thoracic width); wings in repose packed with the forewings directed backwards to cover hindwings and abdomen.

Head rough (-scaled). Antennae very short to of medium length; extending to about 0.4–0.7 times the length of the forewing (less than 2/3); not clubbed. Antennae of males simple; non-ciliate, or simply-ciliate. The antennal scape not forming an ‘eye cap’. Eyes glabrous. Ocelli present (usually). Chaetosemata present. Maxillary palps much reduced (small); 2–4 segmented. Labial palps porrect (usually), or ascending (rarely); 3 segmented. Proboscis fully developed; not scaly.

Wingspan (8–)11–24(–30) mm; 10.5–14(–22) times the thoracic width. Forewings narrow to broad; 2–3 times as long as wide. Tornus clearly defined, or clearly defined to weakly defined. The outer margin convexly curved to more or less straight, or concavely curved, or sigmoid-curved; forewings apically blunt; forewings predominantly shining-metallic, or exhibiting shining-metallic markings, or neither shining-metallic nor with shining metallic markings; forewings eye-spotted above (in the form of a shield-shaped, metallic-edged blotch above the tornus, in some Eucosmini and Grapholitini), or without eye-spots above (Olethreutini). Hindwings ovate to broadly rounded, or broadly angular (sometimes, somewhat); similar in breadth to the forewings; with a rounded apex; the upper surfaces plain; with neither discal spot nor transverse lines; with a frenulum.

Neuration of forewings and hindwings dissimilar. Forewings 12 veined, or 13 veined; with 1 anal vein, or with 2 anal veins, or with 3 anal veins. The anal veins of the forewings comprising 1b and 1c, or comprising 1a and 1b, or comprising 1a, 1b and 1c (1a figured in Olethreutes lacunana). Forewings exhibiting a tubular vein 1c (though this obsolete proximally - according to both Meyrick and Common, although none of the former’s figures show this vein at all). Vein 1b of the forewings furcate proximally. The transverse vein complete, or incomplete. Forewings with an accessory cell, or without an accessory cell. Discal cell of the forewings without a tubular media (M) vein. Vein 2 of the forewings departing from the cell less than three-quarters of the distance from its base. Hindwings 8–10 veined; with 2 anal veins (usually?), or with 3 anal veins (e.g., Olethreutes). The anal veins of the hindwings comprising 1a and 1b (usually), or comprising 1a, 1b and 1c. Hindwings exhibiting vein 1a; exhibiting a tubular vein 1c, or lacking a tubular vein 1c. Vein 1b of the hindwings furcate proximally. Hindwings with a discal cell. The transverse vein complete. The hindwing cell bearing a pecten of hairs on its cubital margin. 6 veins arising from the hindwing cell. The cell-derived hindwing veins 2+3 proximally joined, or 3+4 proximally joined, or 2+3 proximally joined and 5+6 proximally joined. Vein 8 of the hindwings completely independent of the cell (mostly), or anastomosing with the upper margin of the cell (then in the basal half, but mostly only approximating?); not approximating to vein 7.

Fore-legs with a tibial epiphysis. Tibiae of middle legs 2-spurred. Posterior tibiae 4-spurred.

Eggs, larvae and pupae. Eggs markedly flattened; smooth or minutely pitted to ribbed and/or reticulate. Larval prolegs 10. Larvae concealed feeders (mostly in seeding heads, sometimes passing into the roots); subterranean, or not subterranean. On divers Dicot trees, shrubs and herbs, and on conifers, but seemingly rarely if ever with Gramineae or other Monocots.

Pupae concealed; usually above the ground (where the larvae fed). Empty pupae protruded from place of concealment.

British representation. Genera 54 (2 adventive only); about 140 species (7 adventive). Cydia (Laspeyresia) nigricana (Pea Moth), Cydia pomonella (Codling Moth), Epinotia cruciana (Willow Tortrix), Hedya pruniana (Plum Tortrix), Pseudococcyx turionella (Pine Bud Moth), Zeiraphera griseana (Larch Tortrix), etc.

Classification. Microlepidoptera. Suborder Ditrysia. Superfamily Tortricoidea.

See Cochylidae for remarks on the upper-level classification and confusing nomenclature of Tortricoidea.

Comments. Antennae with one ring of scales per flagellar segment. Fore-wings usually with an oblique central fascia, costa usually with paired strigulae but without a pre-apical costal patch, and usually with an ocellus; often with a costal fold. Female genitalia usually with sterigma not connected with anterior apophyses. Pheromones supposedly usually based on a 12-carbon chain..

Illustrations. • 9 genera (Wilkinson). • Ancylis, Apotomis, Epiblema and Epinotis: Stainton (1859). • Archips, Cydia, Dichrorampha, Eucosma, Eucosmomorpha, Olethreutes, Pammene: Stainton (1859). • Assorted Eucosmidae: Kirby. • Pammene fasciana: B. Ent. 583. • Pammene fasciana: B. Ent. 583, legend+text. • Pammene fasciana: B. Ent. 583, text cont.. • Rhopobota stagnana: Stephens IV, 1834. • Rhopobota ustomaculana (Curtis): Loch Rannoch Tortrix, Rannoch Bell: B. Ent. 376). • Rhopobota ustomaculana: B. Ent. 376, legend+text. • Rhopobota ustomaculana: B. Ent. 376, text cont.. • Rhopobota ustomaculana (detail and dissections: B. Ent. 376). • Selania leplastriana (Leplastrier's Piercer: B. Ent. 352). • Selania leplastriana: B. Ent. 352, legend+text. • Selania leplastriana: B. Ent. 352, text cont.. • Apotomis semifasciana (Short-barred Grey Marble: B. Ent. 571). • Apotomis semifasciana: B. Ent. 571, legend+text. • Apotomis semifasciana: B. Ent. 571, text cont.. • Apotomis sauciana (ssp. grevillana Curtis: Sutherland Long-cloak, Greville's Marble: B. Ent. 567). • Apotomis sauciana (ssp. grevillana Curtis: B. Ent. 567, legend+text). • Apotomis sauciana (ssp. grevillana Curtis: B. Ent. 567, text cont.). • Celypha aurofasciana: Stephens IV, 1834. • Epinotia caprana: Stephens IV, 1834. • Eucosma pupillana (cf. E. hohenwartiana): Stephens IV, 1834. • Ancylis laetana, Grapholita compositella, Epiblema costipunctana: Stephens IV, 1834. • Pseudococcyx turionella (Orange and Silver Ribbon: B. Ent. 364). • Pseudococcyx turionella: B. Ent. 364, legend+text. • Pseudococcyx turionella: B. Ent. 364, text cont.. • Cydia pomonella (Codling Moth: Kirby). • Aterpia, Endothenia, Hedya, Spilonota: Hübner VII, 3 (1796–1799). • Epiblema, Eucosma, Eudemis, Lathronympha, Pammene, Spilonota: Hübner VII, 4 (1796–1799). • Ancylis, Eudemis, Pelochrista, Phiaris, Retinia: Hübner VII, 5 (1796–1799). • Cydia, Enarmonia, Eucosma, Olethreutes: Hübner VII, 6 (1796–1799). • Cydia, Epiblema, Pammene: Hübner VII, 7 (part, 1796–1799). • Cydia, Dichrorampha, Hedya, Pammene: Hübner VII, Plate 8 (1796–1799). • Ancylis and Epinotia: Hübner VII, 9 (part, 1796–1799). • Apotomis and Olethreutes: Hübner VII, 10 (part, 1796–1799). • 5 Ancylis spp. and Bactra lancealana: Hübner VII, Plate 13 (1796–1799). • Apotomis, Celypha, Notocelia, Olethreutes, Pristerognatha, Pseudosciaphila, Zeiraphera: Hübner VII (1796–1799). • Celypha, Epinotia, Olethreutes, Thiodia: Hübner VII, 1796–1799. • Ancylis, Epiblema, Rhopobota: Hübner VII, 1799–1800). • Argyroploce, Aterpia, Cnephasia, Cydia, Endothenia: Hübner VII (1811–1813). • Cydia, Epinotia, Zeiraphera: Hübner VII, Plate 33 (1811–1813). • Aethes, Blastesthia, Celypha, Eriopsela, Eucosmomorpha: Hübner VII, Plate 35 (1811–1813). • Clepsis, Dichrorampha, Endothenia, Epinotia, Rhyacionia: Hübner VII (1811–1813). • Apotomis, Bactra, Epiblema, Olethreutes, Pammene, Rhyacionia, Zeiraphera: Hübner VII (1814–1817). • Aterpia, Celypha, Cydia, Epinotia, Eucosma, Rhopobota: Hübner VII (1814–1817). • Epinotia sordidana, Pelochrista infidana: Hübner VII (1823–1824). • Apotomis sauciana, Hedya ochroleucana, Pammene aff. rhediella: Hübner VII (1830). • Endothenia oblogana and Selenodes karelicus: Hübner VII (1830). • Epinotia spp., Phiaris schulziana, Rhyacionia cf. duplana, Thiodia trochilana: Hübner VII (1830). • assorted Cydia, Enarmonia, Epinotia, Olethreutes, Pammene: Hübner VII, Plate 51 (1830). • Olethreutes lacunana: neuration. • neuration: Rhopobota unipunctata. • neuration: Dochroramphia, Pammene.

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Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2003 onwards. Insects of Britain and Ireland: the families of Lepidoptera. Version: 8th June 2016.’.