Insects of Britain and Ireland: the families of Hymenoptera

DELTA home

L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz



Adults minute to large; (2–)4–12(–14) mm long. Insects associated with plant galls (rarely), or not associated with galls.

Head. Sub-antennal grooves absent. Antennal segments 9(–15). Antennae not geniculate.

Thorax. Pronotum deeply indented or emarginate at the back. Mesoscutellum not separated from the scutum laterally, axillae not defined. Cenchri present. Fore-wings with a conspicuous pterostigma; with the venation well developed. Hind-wings with closed cells. Hind tibiae without specialised spurs.

Abdomen. The abdomen broadly sessile at its base, without a marked constriction. Ovipositor of females not visibly protruding; adapted as a saw.

Larvae. Larvae with segmented legs, or legless or the legs vestigial (in leaf mining and tunnelling species); phytophagous (mostly feeding in the open on leaves, often in colonies, but a few stem borers and leaf miners); rarely primary inducers of galls.

General comments. Associated with ferns, as well as monocots and woody and herbaceous dicots, and ecologically divers. The fore tibiae with two apical spurs more or less equal in size. Broad-bodied insects, with the abdomen dorso-ventrally compressed; readily distinguished from Diprionidae via the characteristic, serrated or pectinate antennae of the latter.

British representation. Species in Britain about 400 (i.e., the majority of the approximately 500 sawfly species recorded in Britain); about 75 genera, some of the most strongly represented in species numbers being Dolerus, Empria, Nematus, Pristiphora, and Tenthredo.

Classification. Suborder Symphyta; Superfamily Tenthredinoidea.

Illustrations. • Allantus flavipes Fourc., cf. Tenthredo flaveola: B. Ent. 764. • Allantus flavipes Fourc.: B. Ent. 764, legend+text. • Allantus flavipes Fourc.: B. Ent. 764, text cont.. • Allantus rufocinctus (Retz.), as Emphytus fasciatus Le Pel. (Banded Tenthredo). B. Ent. 436. • Allantus rufocinctus (Retz.), as Emphytus fasciatus Le Pel. B. Ent. 436, legend+text. • Allantus rufocinctus (Retz.), as Emphytus fasciatus Le Pel. B. Ent. 436, text cont.. • Croesus septentrionalis (Flat-legged Tenthredo: B. Ent. 17). • Croesus septentrionalis (detail: B. Ent. 17). • Croesus septentrionalis (dissections: B. Ent. 17). • Croesus septentrionalis: B. Ent. 17, legend+text. • Croesus septentrionalis: B. Ent. 17, text cont.. • Athalia rosae: B. Ent. 617. • Athalia rosae: B. Ent. 617, legend+text. • Athalia rosae: B. Ent. 617, text cont.. • Priophorus pilicornis (Curtis) (Simple Hairy-horned Cladius; B. Ent. 457). • Priophorus pilicornis (B. Ent. 457, legend+text). • Priophorus pilicornis (B. Ent. 457, text cont.). • Athalia rosae (Turnip Sawfly): Curtis (1860, Plate B). See next image for legend. • Athalia rosae (Turnip Sawfly): Curtis (1860, Plate B, legend). • Strongylogaster lineata: B. Ent. 692. • Strongylogaster lineata: B. Ent. 692, legend+text. • Strongylogaster lineata: B. Ent. 692, text cont.. • Emphytus fasciatus Le Pel. (Banded Tenthredo): B. Ent. 436. • Emphytus fasciatus Le Pel.: B. Ent. 436, legend+text. • Emphytus fasciatus Le Pel.: B. Ent. 436, text cont.. • Nematus spp., Pachynematus spp., Pristiphora spp. (Cameron II, i). 1. Nematus lucidus (m). 2. Pristiphora quercus (f). 3. Pachynematus imperfectus (f). 4. Nematus ferrugineus (f). 5. Nematus cadderensis (m). 6. Pristiphora breadalbanensis (f). 7. Pachynematus rumicis (m). 8. Pachynematus rumicis (f). 9. Pristiphora pallipes (f). • Amauronematus, Nematinus, Nematus, Pristiphora (Cameron II, ii). Pristiphora pallidiventris (f). Nematus tibialis (f). Nematus pavidus (f). "Nematus bilineatus" (m). Nematinus acuminatus (f). Amauronematus histio (f). Nematus caeruleocarpus (f). Nematus ribesii (f). • Nematus, Phyllocolpa, Pontania (Cameron II, iii). Nematus leucotrochus (f). Nematus polyspilus (f). Nematus oligospilus (f). Nematus bipartitus (f). Nematus bergmani (f). Phyllocolpa leucosticta (f). Pontania vesicator (f). Pontania crassipes (f). Pontania bridgmanii (f). • Amauronematus, Euura, Nematus, Pristiphora (Cameron II, iv). "Nematus fraternus" (f). Pristiphora crassicornis (f). Pristiphora ambigua (f). Amauronematus humeralis (f). Nematus umbratus (f). Nematus monticola (f). Nematus fuscomaculatus (f). "Nematus capreae" (m). Euura amerinae (f). • Aglaostigma, Macrophya, Perineura, Rhogogaster, Tenthredo, Tenthredopsis (Cameron I, viii). 1. Tenthredo moniliata. 2. Tenthredo maculata. 6. Tenthredo velox. 7. Rhogogaster picta. 8. Aglaostigma aucupariae. 9. Tenthredopsis litterata. 10. Perineura rubi. 11. Macrophya punctum-album. 12. Macrophya albipuncta. 4&5: saws of Rhogogaster viridis and Tenthredo atra. • Dolerus, Pachyprotasis, Tenthredo (Cameron I, ix). 1. Pachyprotasis antennata. 3. "Allantus viduus". 2. Saw of Pachyprotasis rapae. 6. "Sciapteryx costalis". 5. Saw of Tenthredo arcuata. 4. Tenthredo vespa. 7. Dolerus germanicus. 8. Dolerus madidus. 9. Dolerus germanicus. 10. Dolerus gonager. 11. Dolerus haematodes. • Ametastegia, Athalia, Emphytus, Empria, Protoemphytus, Strombocerus, Strongylaster, Taxonus (Cameron I, xi). 1. Athalia scutellariae. 2. Strongylaster mixta. 3. Strombocerus delicatulus (a, anal cellule). 4. Empria fletcheri. 5. Empria klugii. 6. Taxonus agrorum. 7. Ametastegia equiseti. 8. Emphytus togatus. 9. Protoemphytus perla. • Claremontia, Dolerus, Endelomyia, Eriocampa, Eutomostethus, Hoplocampa, Periclista, Pseudodineura, Selandria, Tenthredo, Tenthredopsis (Cameron I, xii). 1. Selandria sixii. 2. Eriocampa ovata. 3. Endelomyia aethiops. 4. Pseudodineura fuscula. 5. Periclista linoelata. 6. Eutomostethus eppiphium. 7. Claremontia tenuicornis. 8. Periclista albida. 9. Hoplocampa pectoralis. • Allantus, Apethymus, Fenella, Harpiphorus, Heptamelus, Heterarthrus, Metallus, Neoselandria (Cameron I, xiii). 1. Allantus calceatus. 2. Apethymus braccatus. 3. Neoselandria moria. 4. Harpiphorus lepidus. 5. Heterarthrus ochropoda. 6. Heterarthrus nemoratus. 7. Metallus albipes. 8. Heptamelus ochroleucus. 9. "Selandria aperta". • Athalia, Croesus, Dineura, Hemichroa, Hoplocampa, Pachynematus, Strongylaster (Cameron I, xiv). 1. Hoplocampa chrysorrhoea. 2. Athalia rosae. 3. "Blennocampa aterrima". 4. Dineura mesoneura. 5. Dineura stilata. 6. Croesus septentrionalis. 7. Strongylaster lineata. 8. Hemichroa australis. 9. Pachynematus imperfectus. • Cladius, Dolerus, Trichiocampus (Cameron I, xv). 1. Cladius difformis (m). 2. Cladius difformis (f). 3. Trichiocampus viminalis. 4. "Cladius padi" (= C. pallipes? f, antenna). 8–10: claws. 8, simple (Cimbex); 9, toothed (Dolerus); 10, bifid (Tenthredo). • Larvae: Cladius, Euura, Hemichroa, Nematus, Pristiphora, Stauronematus (Cameron II, viii). 1. Cladius pecticornis; 1a, at moult. 2. Hemichroa australis. 3. Stauronematus compressicornis. 4. Pristiphora pallipes; 4a, head. 5. Nematus myosotidis. 5a, head; 5b&c, dorsal and lateral views of segments. 6. Nematus sp. on Salix. 7, Nematus oligospilus. 7a, anal segment; 7b, head. 8. "Nematus sylvestris". 9. Nematus flavescens. 9a, at last moult; 9b, abdominal segment. 10. "Nematus bilineatus". 11. Euura amerinae. 12. Euura mucronata. 12a, gall. 13. "Nematus sp.", on hawthorn. • Larvae, galls, cocoons: Endelomyia, Heterarthrus, Nematus, Phyllocolpa, Pontania, Priophorus, Profenusa (Cameron II, ix). 1. Pontania bridgmanii, gall and larva. 2. Nematus lucidus. 3. Pontania crassipes. 3a, segment; 3b, gall. 4. Priophorus rufipes; 4a, cocoon. 5. Endelomyia aethiops; 5b, head. 6. Profenusa pygmaea, dorsal; 6a, ventral; 6b, mine. 7. Heterarthrus ochropoda, dorsal; 7a, ventral; 7b, mine. 8. Phyllocolpa piliserra; 8a, head; 8b, rolled and eaten willow leaf. • Larvae: Nematus spp., Pristiphora ruficornis (Cameron II, x). 1. Nematus pavidus. 1a, eggs. 2. Pristiphora ruficornis. 5. Nematus capreae. 5a, eggs. • Larvae: Apethymus, Caliroa, Dolerus, Hoplocampa, Messa, Rhogogaster, Tenthredo (Cameron II, xiii). 2. Apethymus braccatus. 3. Tenthredo balteata. 3a-b, trophi; 3c, segment; 3d, at last moult. 4. Rhogogaster punctulata. 4a, at last moult. 5. Dolerus cothurnatus. 5a, head; 5b, anal segment. 6. Caliroa varipes. 6a, head. 7. Hoplocampa testudinea. 8. Messa hortulana. • Larva and galls: Euura amerinae (Cameron II, xi). Euura amerinae: larva and galls.

To view the illustrations with detailed captions, go to the interactive key. This also offers full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting or lacking specified attributes, and distributions of character states within any set of taxa.

Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2003 onwards. Insects of Britain and Ireland: the families of Hymenoptera. Version: 16th May 2016.’.