Insects of Britain and Ireland: the families of Hymenoptera

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L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz


Including Ormyridae,Eucharitidae.

Chalcid Wasps.

Adults minute to medium sized; 0.5–10 mm long. Insects associated with plant galls, or not associated with galls.

Head. Antennae geniculate.

Thorax. Pronotum short, not extending back to the tegulae. Pronotum usually narrower in front or transversely linear, narrower than the (usually reticulate) mesoscutum. The mesepisternum not enlarged to obscure the mesepimeron (and the mid-tibial spur rarely larger than the hind one). Cenchri absent. Wings not folding longitudinally. Fore-wings without a pterostigma; with very reduced venation (reduced to a proximal submarginal vein, which becomes marginal distally before giving off the stigmal vein); combining greatly reduced venation with a conspicuous, blind-ending stigmal vein. Closed fore-wing cells 0. Submarginal cells 0. Discoidal cells 0. Hind-wings without closed cells. The hind coxae not conspicuously larger than the front ones. Fore tibiae with a curved spur. Hind femur toothed below, or not toothed below; with a clear trochantellus. Hind tibiae conspicuously curved around the femora, or not curved around the femora; without specialised spurs. Tarsi 5 segmented.

Abdomen. The abdomen with a marked basal constriction. Visible abdominal segments highly metallic in appearance (especially Ormyrinae and Eucharitinae), or not highly metallic. Ovipositor of females visibly protruding; adapted for piercing.

Larvae. Larvae with segmented legs; mainly or exclusively(?) parasitic on hosts selected by the mother (on insects of numerous Orders, including gall inducing Hymenoptera, and sometimes hyper-parasitic), or predacious (?); primary inducers of galls (?), or parasitic on other gall occupants, or predacious on other gall occupants (?).

British representation. Species in Britain over 500; Ablaxia, Acrocormus, Aggelma, Anisopteromalus, Anogmoides, Anogmus, Apelioma, Apsilocera, Ardilea, Arthrotylus, Asaphes, Atrichomalus, Bairamlia, Bugacea, Caenacis, Callimerismus, Calliprymna, Callitula, Capellia, Catolaccus Cea, Cecidostiba, Cerocephala, Cheiropachus, Chlorocytus, Chrysolampus, Cleonymus, Coelopisthia, Colotrechnus, Conomorium, Coruna, Cratomus, Cricellius, Cryptoprymna, Cyclogastrella, Cyrtogaster, Dibrachoides, Dibrachys, Diglochis, Dimachus, Dinarmus, Dinotiscus, Dinotoides, Dipara, Dirhicnus, Ecrizotes, Endomychobius, Epicopterus, Erdoesia, Erythromalus, Eulonchetron, Eumacepolus, Euneura, Eupteromalus, Eunotus, Gastrancistrus, Gbelcia, Glyphognathus, Gyrinophagus, Habritys, Halticoptera, Hemitrichus, Heteroprymna, Hobya, Holcaeus, Homoporus, Hyperimerus, Isocyrtus, Janssoniella, Kaleva, Lampoterma, Lamprotatus, Lariophagus, Leptomeraporus, Macromesus, Melancistrus, Mesopolobus, Meraporus, Merismus, Merisus, Mesopolobus, Metacolus, Metastenus, Micradelus, Miscogaster, Mokrzeckia, Muscidifurax, Nasonia, Neodipara, Nephelomalus, Nodisoplata, Ormocerus, Ormyrus, Pachycrepoideus, Pachyneuron, Pegopus, Peridesmia, Perniphora, Phaenocytus, Pirene, Platneptis, Platygerrhus, Polycistus, Psilocera, Pseudocatolaccus, Psychophagoides, Psychophagus, Rhaphitelus, Rhopalicus, Rhicnocoelia, Rohatina, Roptrocerus, Sceptrothelys, Schizonotus, Seladerma, Semiotellus, Skeloceras, Spalangia, Spalangiopelta, Spaniopus, Sphaeripalpus, Sphegigaster, Spilomalus, Spintherus, Staurothyreus, Stenomalina, Stenophrus, Stictomischus, Stinoplus, Synedrus, Syntomopus, Systasis, Plutothrix, Psilonotus, Pteromalus, Theocolax, Thinodytes, Tomicobia, Toxeuma, Trichomalus, Tricyclomischus, Trigonoderus, Trineptis, Trychnosoma, Urolepis, Vrestovia, Xestomnaster, Xiphydriophagus (with Gastrancistrus, Halticoptera, Homoporus, Ormyrus, Seladerma, Spalangia, etc., and especially Mesopolobus, Pteromalus and Trichomalus encompassing numerous species).

Classification. Suborder Apocrita; Series Parasitica; Superfamily Chalcidoidea.

Illustrations. • Pteromalus dispar (Curtis) (Northern Colax: B. Ent. 166). • Pteromalus dispar (detail: B. Ent. 166). • Pteromalus dispar (dissections: B. Ent. 166). • Pteromalus dispar: B. Ent. 166, legend+text. • Pteromalus dispar: B. Ent. 166, text cont.. • Cheiropachus quadrum (Spotted-winged Cleonymus: B. Ent. 194). • Cheiropachus quadrum: B. Ent. 194, legend+text. • Cheiropachus quadrum: B. Ent. 194, text cont.. • Halticoptera flavicornis (Emerald Phagonia: B. Ent. 427). • Halticoptera flavicornis: B. Ent. 427, legend+text. • Halticoptera flavicornis: B. Ent. 427, text cont.. • Spalangia nigra: B. Ent. 740. • Spalangia nigra: B. Ent. 740, legend+text. • Spalangia nigra: B. Ent. 740, text cont.. • Eucharis adscendens and Cratomus megacephalus: Stephens 1846. • Cerocephala cornigera: Stephens 1846.

To view the illustrations with detailed captions, go to the interactive key. This also offers full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting or lacking specified attributes, and distributions of character states within any set of taxa.

Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2003 onwards. Insects of Britain and Ireland: the families of Hymenoptera. Version: 16th May 2016.’.