Insects of Britain and Ireland: the families of Hymenoptera

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L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz


Including Eucoilidae.

Gall Wasps.

Adults minute to small; 1–6 mm long. Insects associated with plant galls (mainly), or not associated with galls.

Head. Antennae geniculate, or not geniculate.

Thorax. Pronotum long, extending back to the tegulae (usually, at least the lateral spiracle cover lobe); not vertically grooved for reception of the fore femur. The spiracle cover lobe of the pronotum not margined with close fine hairs. Cenchri absent. Wings present, or absent. Fore-wings without a pterostigma; with very reduced venation; not combining greatly reduced venation with conspicuous stigmal vein; combining greatly reduced venation with a conspicuous radial cell. Closed fore-wing cells 2, or 3 (with a costal and the conspicuous radial). Discoidal cells 0, or 1. Hind femur with a clear trochantellus, or without a well defined trochantellus (?). Hind tibiae without specialised spurs.

Abdomen. The abdomen with a marked basal constriction. The second or second and third abdominal tergites representing at least half of the gaster. Ovipositor of females not visibly protruding; adapted for piercing.

Larvae. Larvae with segmented legs; phytophagous (inducing galls), or parasitic on hosts selected by the mother (commonly hyper-parasitic on other Hymenoptera or on aphids through braconids); primary inducers of galls, or parasitic on other gall occupants.

British representation. Species in Britain about 130; Andricus, Aulacidea, Alloxysta, Aylax, Biorhiza, Callirhytis, Ceroptres, Chrestosema, Cothonaspis, Cynips, Diastrophus, Diglyphosema, Dilyta, Diplolepis, Disorygma, Episoda, Eucoila, Eutrias, Ganaspis, Glauraspidia, Hexacola, Isocolus, Kleidotoma, Lipostethenus, Microstilba, Neuroterus, Periclistus, Phaenoglyphis, Phanacis, Pseudopsichacra, Psichacra, Rhoptromeris, Saphonecrus, Synergus, Trybliographa, Trigonaspis, Xestophanes.

Classification. Suborder Apocrita; Series Parasitica; Superfamily Cynipoidea.

Illustrations. • Diplolepis nervosa (Curtis): B. Ent. 688. • Diplolepis nervosa (Curtis): B. Ent. 688, legend+text. • Diplolepis nervosa (Curtis): B. Ent. 688, text cont.. • Eucoilinae: Kleidotoma, Psichachra, Trybliographa (Cameron III). • Eucoilinae: Eucoila, Kleidotoma, Microstilba, Trybliographa (Cameron III). • Cynipinae: Alloxysta, Phaenoglyphis (Cameron III). • Cynipinae: Alloxysta, Phaenoglyphis (Cameron III). • Cynipinae: Alloxysta (10 species, Cameron III). • Cynipinae: Aulacidea, Diplolepis, Synergus, Xestophanes (Cameron IV). • Cynipinae: Andricus, Ceroptres, Diastrophus, Liposthenus, Periclistus, Saphonecrus (Cameron IV). • Cynipinae: 7 Andricus species (Cameron IV). • Cynipinae: Andricus (7 spp.), Biorhiza, Trigonaspis (Cameron IV). • Cynipinae: Andricus, Cynips, Neuroterus (Cameron IV). • Rhoptromeris heptoma (Eucoilinae, female).

To view the illustrations with detailed captions, go to the interactive key. This also offers full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting or lacking specified attributes, and distributions of character states within any set of taxa.

Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2003 onwards. Insects of Britain and Ireland: the families of Hymenoptera. Version: 16th May 2016.’.