British Insects: the Families of Diptera


L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz


Trypetidae, Euribiidae, Trupaneidae.

Large Fruit-flies, Gall-flies.

Adult insects. Small (mostly), or medium-sized. Not shining black. Winged; not stilt-legged. The face in lateral view not deeply excavated between the antennae and the edge of the mouth. Antennae 3 segmented; ‘modified’; aristate; the arista dorsal. The arista not forked at the tip. The second antennal segment not grooved. Ptilinal suture clearly defined. Ocelli present; 3. Eyes rounded, well separated. Lower orbital bristles present (one to three pairs); incurved (black). Post-vertical orbital bristles present; parallel. Mouthparts functional. The maxillary palps 1 segmented; porrect. Vibrissae absent. Thorax without a continuous dorsal suture; without well defined posterior calli. Wing venation complete, in the sense of exhibiting 1st and 2nd basal, anal and discal cells. Wings with a discal cell; without a sub-apical cell; with a closed anal cell. The anal cell short. The costa with two breaks (near the apex of the sub-costa, and less distinctly near the humeral cross-vein). Sub-costa apparent; terminating blind (but represented distally by a fold, extending from its end to the costal break). The leading edge veins not noticeably stronger than the rest. Wing vein 1 bare. Wing vein 4 extending far beyond the end of the first basal cell. Wing vein 6 present; reaching the wing margin, or falling short of the wing margin. Wings with the lower calypter much reduced or absent; patterned (mostly), or unpatterned. Tibiae spurred (sometimes with short black spurs beneath), or without spurs; without a dorsal pre-apical bristle. Hind tibiae without strong bristles in the basal 4/5.

Larvae and pupae. The larvae terrestrial; phytophagous (with many pests of fruits); forming galls, or not gall-forming; acephalic. The pupae enclosed within a puparium.

Comments. Small, compact flies. Females with a horny, flattened ovipositor with non-retractile sheath.

Classification. Suborder Brachycera; Division Muscomorpha Schizophora Acalyptratae; Superfamily Tephritoidea.

British representation. About 75 species in Britain. Genera 33; Acanthiophilus, Acidia, Acinia, Anomoia, Campiglossa, Chaetorellia, Chaetostomella, Chetostoma, Cornutripeta, Cryptaciura, Ensina, Euleia, Dioxyna, Dithryca, Euphranta, Goniglossum, Merzomyia, Myopites, Noeeta, Orellia, Oxyna, Philiphylla, Platyparea, Plioreocepta, Rhagoletis, Sphenella, Stemonocera, Tephritis, Terellia, Trupanea, Trypeta, Urophora, Xyphosia (plus Anastrepha, Bactrocera, Ceratitis, Dacus and Taomyia represented by exotic species occasionally imported.

Illustrations. • Acinia, Eucleia, Terellia (from Walker). • Terellia ceratocera (Hendel) (Long-horned Aster-fly: B. Ent. 241). • Terellia ceratocera (detail: B. Ent. 241). • Terellia ceratocera (dissections: B. Ent. 241). • Terellia ceratocera (B. Ent. 241, legend+text). • Terellia ceratocera (text, cont.: B. Ent. 241).

To view the illustrations with detailed captions, go to the interactive key. This also offers full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting or lacking specified attributes, and distributions of character states within any set of taxa.

Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2003 onwards. British insects: the families of Diptera. Version: 1st January 2012.’.