British Insects: the Families of Diptera


L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz


Fungivoridae; including Sciophilinae.


Adult insects. Slender-bodied; stilt-legged. Antennae 8–16 segmented; long and threadlike; ‘simple’ (long, threadlike); not aristate. Ocelli present; 3 (the laterals usually distant from the eye margins in Sciophilinae, touching them in Mycetophilinae). Eyes rounded, well separated. The maxillary palps 3–5 segmented; drooping. Wing veins reaching the margin 9–11(–13) (? - at least 9, with vein 2 absent). Wings without a discal cell; without a sub-apical cell; without a closed anal cell. The costa not extending around the entire wing. Sub-costa apparent; reaching the costa independently of vein 1 (?), or terminating blind (e.g., Mycetophila). The leading edge veins markedly stronger than the rest. Wing vein 7 present; reaching the wing margin. Media and cubitus veins not connected by a cross-vein or a fusion. Wings with the lower calypter much reduced or absent; patterned, or unpatterned. Tibiae spurred (with a pair of apical spurs on all tibiae). Feet without a triple pad. Abdomen constricted basally.

Larvae and pupae. The larvae terrestrial; mostly mycophagous (either inside the fruiting bodies, or externally in webs or mucilaginous tubes); eucephalic. The pupae without a puparium.

Comments. Delicate, humped-backed flies. Head overhung by the humped thorax. Anterior wing venation heavier than posterior. Males sometimes congregating in dancing swarms.

Classification. Suborder Nematocera; Division Bibionomorpha; Superfamily Sciaroidea.

British representation. 452 species in Britain. Genera 57; Acnemia, Alloctocera, Allodia, Allodiopsis, Anaclileia, Anatella, Apolephthisa, Azana, Boletina, Brachypeza, Brevicornu, Clastobasis, Coelophthinia, Coelosia, Cordyla, Docosia, Dynatosoma, Dziedzickia, Ectrepesthoneura, Epicypta, Eudicrana, Exechia, Exechiopsis, Gnoriste, Grzegorzekia, Leia, Leptomorphus, Manota, Megalopelma, Megaphthalmidia, Monoclona, Mycetophila, Mycomya, Neoempheria, Neuratelia, Palaeodocosia, Paratinia, Phronia, Phthinia, Platurocypta, Polylepta, Pseudobrachypeza, Pseudoexechia, Pseudorymosia, Rondaniella, Rymosia, Saigusaia, Sceptonia, Sciophila, Speolepta, Stigmatomeria, Synapha, Synplasta, Syntemna, Tarnania, Tetragoneura, Trichonta, Zygomyia.

Illustrations. • 12 genera (Walker). • Leia bimaculata (Walker). • Leptomorphus walkeri Curtis (Original genus and species descriptions. Southgate Crane-fly: B. Ent. 365). • Leptomorphus walkeri (detail: B. Ent. 365). • Leptomorphus walkeri (dissections: B. Ent. 365). • Leptomorphus walkeri (legend+text: B. Ent. 365). • Leptomorphus walkeri (text, cont.: B. Ent. 365). • Details of Leptomorphus walkeri (from Walker). • Tetragoneura sylvatica (Curtis): B. Ent. 641. • Tetragoneura sylvatica (Curtis): B. Ent. 641, legend+text. • Tetragoneura sylvatica (Curtis): B. Ent. 641, text cont.. • Allocotocera pulchella (Curtis): B. Ent. 645. • Allocotocera pulchella (Curtis): B. Ent. 645, legend+text. • Allocotocera pulchella (Curtis): B. Ent. 645, text cont.. • Symmerusannulatus: as ?Mycetophila zonata, Stephens 1846.

To view the illustrations with detailed captions, go to the interactive key. This also offers full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting or lacking specified attributes, and distributions of character states within any set of taxa.

Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2003 onwards. British insects: the families of Diptera. Version: 1st January 2012.’.