Insects of Britain and Ireland: the families of Coleoptera

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L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz

Character list

#1. <Family nomenclature:>/

~ (‘alternatively’) is here used to indicate ‘sometimes not unreasonably included in or reduced to’.

#2. <Colloquial family names:>/

General appearance

#3. <Head-to-tail body length>/

mm long/

Length measured in normal posture (e.g., without tilting up the head).

#4. Body length/maximum body width/

#5. Elytral length/pronotal length <ratio>/

‘Pronotum’: the single, dorsal sclerite of the ‘prothorax’; the latter being the major part of the beetle’s thorax which is visible from above.

#6. Base of prothorax <whether much narrower than elytral bases>/

1. not or scarcely narrower than the combined elytral bases/

2. distinctly narrower than the combined elytral bases/

‘Prothorax’: the first (anterior) segment of the (three-segmented) thorax. In beetles this is usually relatively large, forming with the head a conspicuous, independently movable ‘fore-body’. It is composed of a single dorso-lateral sclerite, ‘the pronotum’, a ventral ‘prosternum’, and lateral ‘proepisterna’, and bears the front pair of legs.

‘Mesothorax’ and (larger) ‘Metathorax’: the second and third thoracic segments. These are fused together, constituting the ‘pterothorax’, which bears the elytra, (hind-)wings and mid- and hind-legs.

‘Notopleural suture’: a groove in the side of the prothorax (q.v.), separating the prosternum (q.v.) from the pronotum (q.v.). .

#7. Greatest prothoracic width <whether much narrower than greatest elytral width>/

1. not narrower or only slightly narrower than the greatest elytral width/

2. distinctly narrower than greatest elytral width/

‘Prothorax’: the first (anterior) segment of the (three-segmented) thorax. In beetles this is usually relatively large, forming with the head a conspicuous, independently movable ‘fore-body’. It is composed of a single dorso-lateral sclerite, ‘the pronotum’, a ventral ‘prosternum’, and lateral ‘proepisterna’, and bears the front pair of legs.

‘Mesothorax’ and (larger) ‘Metathorax’: the second and third thoracic segments. These are fused together, constituting the ‘pterothorax’, which bears the elytra, (hind-)wings and mid- and hind-legs.

‘Notopleural suture’: a groove in the side of the prothorax (q.v.), separating the prosternum (q.v.) from the pronotum (q.v.).

#8. <Elongate> body <whether widest immediately behind the thorax, or distally>/

1. noticeably widest immediately behind the thorax/

2. noticeably widest at the rear/

3. not noticeably widest either behind the thorax, or at the rear/

#9. Beetles <body shape, viewed from above>/

1. <more or less> round/

2. oval/

3. elongate-oval/

4. elongate/

5. slender/

It is safest, and still potentially useful, to bracket the possibilities by entering two or more states of this rather subjective character.

#10. Beetles <whether terrapin-shaped, with clear and flattened margins>/

1. terrapin-like in shape, with flattened and clear margins to thorax and elytra <Peltidae>/

2. not terrapin-like in shape, and without flattened and clear margins to both thorax and elytra /

#11. Beetles <overall body shape: flattened, convex or cylindric>/

1. dorsally flattened/

2. dorsally somewhat convex/

3. dorsally strongly convex/

4. <more or less> cylindric/

#12. Beetles <asymmetric humping>/

1. asymmetrically humped, and tapered to the rear <Rhipiphoridae>/

2. not asymmetrically humped and tapered /

#13. Beetles <presence of ventral cavities>/

1. having ventral body cavities into which the legs fold to conform with the general body surface/

2. without ventral body cavities for reception of the legs/

#14. Beetles <whether necked>/

1. conspicuously necked <distinctly narrowed between head and thorax>/

2. not necked/

#15. Beetles <whether waisted>/

1. not waisted <parallel-sided, or rounded>/

2. somewhat waisted/

3. conspicuously waisted/

States 1/2–3 should more or less correspond with Lawrence et al., “body evenly curved/not evenly curved”.

#16. Beetles <long- or short-legged>/

1. conspicuously long-legged/

2. neither particularly long- nor short-legged/

3. decidedly short-legged/

#17. Beetles <colour>/

#18. Beetles <brightly coloured or marked>/

1. exhibiting bright ‘warning colours’/

2. without ‘warning colouration’ /

#19. Beetles <luminescence>/

1. luminescent from distal abdominal sternites/

2. not luminescent/

#20. Upper surfaces of body <vestiture>/

1. glabrous or subglabrous/

2. non-glabrous <clothed with distinct hairs, setae or scales>/

#21. Upper surfaces of body <vestiture, whether including stiff, erect bristles>/

1. exhibiting stiff, erect, dark bristles/

2. not bristly <without stiff, erect, dark bristles>/

#22. Upper surfaces of body <vestiture, whether including scales or scale-like setae>/

1. exhibiting scales or scale-like setae/

2. with neither scales nor scale-like setae/

#23. The underside <of adults, presence of hydrofuge hairs>/

1. exhibiting a plastron of hydrofuge hairs, detectable as a bubble when the insect is submerged/

2. without a plastron of hydrofuge hairs <implicit>/

#24. Beetles <whether conglobulating>/

1. rolling into a ball <conglobulating> when alarmed/

2. not conglobulating /

#25. Beetles <whether ‘clicking’>/

1. clicking and ‘jumping’ to right themselves when inverted/

2. not clicking and ‘jumping’ /

Detailed morphology

#26. Beetles <presence of rostrum: see Notes>/

1. equipped with a rostrum/

2. without a rostrum /

‘Rostrum’: a marked, rigid elongation of the front of the head (frons and vertex), on which the antennae are carried forward and which bears the (biting/chewing) mouthparts at its tip. This modification, characteristic of the curculionid families (weevils), is utilized by the females to bore holes in plant material (leaves, stems, fruits, bark, etc.) in which the eggs are deposited; but details of its significance for males and in relation to the adults’ feeding habits are elusive. The second character image provides a detailed comparison with a non-rostrate form.

#27. Beetles <whether prognathous>/

1. prognathous/

2. not prognathous/

‘Prognathous’ (in this context): having the mandibles projecting and clearly visible when the beetle is viewed from above.

#28. The head <of the beetle, whether visible from above>/

1. covered by the thorax <i.e., when the beetle is viewed from above>/

2. not covered by the thorax /

#29. Inclination of the head <from occipital foramen to mouth cavity, inclination from the longitudinal axis of the body in the living beetle>/

1. slight <at an angle of less than 45 degrees from the longitudinal axis of the beetle’s body>/

2. strong <at 45 to 90 degrees from the longitudinal axis of the beetle’s body>/

3. very strong <more than 90 degrees from the longitudinal axis of the beetle’s body>/

#30. Eyes <compound, presence>/

1. present /

2. absent/

#31. Eyes <compound, apparent number>/

1. two, entire /

2. ostensibly four <the oft-encountered partial division into an upper and lower eye being complete>/

#32. Eyes <whether strongly protuberant>/

1. strongly protuberant/

2. not strongly protuberant/

#33. Eyes <whether notched to accommodate antenna>/

1. accommodating the antennae in an anterior notch/

2. <occasionally notched, but> not accommodating the antennae in a notch /

#34. Eyes <pubescent or not>/

1. bristly <with interfacetal setae>/

2. without <interfacetal> bristles/

#35. Eyes <finely or coarsely facetted>/

1. finely facetted/

2. coarsely facetted/

#36. Ocelli <presence>/

1. present/

2. absent/

‘Ocelli’: simple eyes, additional to and located between or behind the compound eyes.

#37. Ocelli <when present, number>/

1. solitary/

2. paired/

‘Ocelli’: simple eyes, additional to and located between or behind the compound eyes.

#38. The frons <whether transversely ridged>/

1. with a transverse ridge between the eyes/

2. without a transverse ridge between the eyes/

#39. The labrum <upper lip, visibility>/

1. at least partly visible in antero-dorsal <or dorsal> view/

2. concealed beneath the clypeus <apparently absent>/

#40. Labrum <texture>/

1. mostly moderately to heavily sclerotized <exlusive of base and apex>/

2. mostly membranous or only very lightly sclerotized/

#41. Mandibles <presence>/

1. present <implicit>/

2. absent or vestigial/

#42. Mandibles <presence of mola>/

1. with a well developed mola/

2. with a reduced mola/

3. without a mola/

#43. Mandibles <prosthecae, presence and degree of development>/

1. with well developed prosthecae/

2. with reduced prosthecae/

3. without prosthecae/

‘Mandibular prostheca’: a membranous (sometimes partly hardened), usually setose appendage borne on the basal part of the internal ridge of the mandible, distal to its grinding part (or ‘mola’).

#44. The mandibular apices <teeth or lobes>/

1. simple <without teeth or lobes, truncate or rounded>/

2. bidentate or bilobed/

3. multidentate or multilobed/

#45. The incisor edges of the mandibles <teeth>/

1. simple/

2. with a single tooth/

3. with two or more teeth/

#46. The maxillae <apical structures, additional to the palp>/

1. with distinct galea and lacinia apically to the palp/

2. with a single apical structure additional to the palp/

3. comprising the palp, without conspicuous apical lobes/

Cf. Lawrence et al.: “The galea or outer lobe is always laterad of the lacinia or inner lobe. Either the galea or lacinia or both may be reduced in state 1 maxillae, and the lacinia may no more than a slight expansion of the stipes. In some doubtful cases, the maxilla has been coded as 1/2. In state 2 maxillae, the single lobe may represent a galea, a lacinia or a fusion product of these. A state 3 maxilla may appear to consist of a palp only.”

#47. The maxillae <whether with stylet-like lobes>/

1. with stylet-like lobes/

2. without stylet-like lobes <implicit>/

#48. The maxillary palps <whether normal>/

1. normal, flexible/

2. if visible, short and rigid/

The maxillae and their palps are borne under (posteriorly to) the mandibles, between the upper (labrum) and lower (labium) lips. The (1-)4(-7)-segmented maxillary palps are to be distinguished from the (1-)2(-4)-segmented labial palps, which are located posteriorly to them.

#49. The maxillary palps <elongation>/

1. conspicuously elongated, sometimes longer than the antennae/

2. not especially elongated /

#50. The apical segment of the maxillary palps <shape>/

1. cylindrical to fusiform/

2. somewhat expanded and truncate to subtriangular/

3. securiform to cultriform <axe- to knife-shaped>/

4. aciculate/

#51. The apical segment of the labial palps <shape>/

1. more or less expanded apically/

2. not expanded apically <cylindrical to fusiform>/

#52. Antennae <length relative to length of insect>/

1. very short <less than a fifth of the insect’s head to tail length; antenna/insect length = 0.1–0.2>/

2. short <less than half of the insect’s head to tail length; antenna/insect length = 0.2–0.4>/

3. about half the insect's head to tail length <antenna/insect length = 0.4–0.6>/

4. long, but not exceeding the insect’s head to tail length <more than half the insect's length; antenna/insect length = 0.6–1.0>/

5. longer than the insect's head to tail length <antenna/insect length = 1.0+>/

Antennae of beetles nearly always have more than three segments (usually 7–11). The palps, with which they might otherwise be may be confused, usually have (1-)3 segments (labial palps) or (2-)4(-5) segments (maxillary palps).

#53. Antennae <whether strongly asymmetric>/

1. strongly asymmetric <as distinct from elbowed or bent>/

2. not strongly asymmetric /

#54. Antennae <whether elbowed>/

1. conspicuously elbowed <bent>/

2. not elbowed /

#55. Antennae <number of segments>/

segmented/

#56. Antennae <whether hairy>/

1. hairy/

2. not hairy/

#57. Antennae <of beetles, presence of an elongate scape>/

1. with the scape much-elongated <a single, elongated basal segment>/

2. without a much-elongated scape <though it is often longer than the adjoining, second segment>/

#58. Antennal scape <whether swollen>/

1. swollen/

2. not swollen /

#59. Antennae <shape>/

1. filiform <including moniliform>/

2. gradually expanding towards the apex <clavate>/

3. clubbed/

4. serrate/

5. pectinate <or bipectinate>/

6. plumose or biplumose/

#60. Antennal clubs <whether lamellate (laminate)>/

1. lamellate <laminate>/

2. not lamellate /

#61. Antennal clubs <number of segments>/

segmented/

#62. Antennal clubs <detailed construction>/

1. spherical, comprising two small basal segments and a large terminal one <Cerylonidae>/

2. not comprising two small basal segments and a large terminal one /

#63. Antennal clubs <whether preceded by a cupular segment>/

1. preceded by a cupule/

2. without a cupule /

#64. Antennal segment 8 <within the club, whether smaller than 7 and 9>/

1. <markedly> smaller than segments 7 and 9 <Leiodidae>/

2. not <markedly> smaller than 7 and 9 /

#65. Antennal insertions <whether visible from above>/

1. visible from above/

2. hidden from above/

#66. Antennal insertions <whether covered by extensions from the frons>/

1. hidden by lateral extensions of the frons <Tenebrionidae>/

2. not hidden by lateral extensions of the frons/

‘Frons’ (of insects): the upper front part of the head.

Antennae of beetles nearly always have more than three segments (usually 7–11). The palps, with which they might be might otherwise be confused, usually have (1-)3 segments (labial palps) or (2-)4(-5) segments (maxillary palps).

#67. Antennal insertions <whether located in fossae>/

1. ‘countersunk’ within saucer-like fossae/

2. not in fossae <flush or raised>/

#68. Cervical sclerites <presence>/

1. present/

2. absent/

#69. Prothorax <length relative to width>/

1. shorter than wide/

2. about as long as wide/

3. longer than wide/

‘Prothorax’: the first (anterior) segment of the (three-segmented) thorax. In beetles this is usually relatively large, forming with the head a conspicuous, independently movable ‘fore-body’. It is composed of a single dorso-lateral sclerite, ‘the pronotum’, a ventral ‘prosternum’, and lateral ‘proepisterna’, and bears the front pair of legs.

‘Mesothorax’ and (larger) ‘Metathorax’: the second and third thoracic segments. These are fused together, constituting the ‘pterothorax’, which bears the elytra, (hind-)wings and mid- and hind-legs.

‘Notopleural suture’: a groove in the side of the prothorax (q.v.), separating the prosternum (q.v.) from the pronotum (q.v.).

#70. Pronotal length/maximum pronotal width <ratio>/

#71. The pronotum <presence of lateral keels (pronotal carinae) separating the disc from the hypomeron on each side>/

1. with lateral keels (pronotal carinae)/

2. without lateral keels/

#72. The <pronotal> keels <complete or incomplete>/

1. complete/

2. incomplete/

#73. Posterior edge of the pronotum <whether crenulate>/

1. distinctly crenulate/

2. not crenulate <implicit>/

#74. Prothorax <whether hooded, with large bumps>/

1. hooded and concealing the head, its front covered with large bumps <Bostrychidae>/

2. not hooded with anterior bumps /

#75. Prothorax <of elongate beetle> at its widest <width relative that of the abdomen>/

1. markedly narrower than the adjoining part of the abdomen/

2. not markedly narrower than the adjoining part of the abdomen/

#76. Prothorax <whether with produced front corners>/

1. having the front corners produced, or with serrated sides <Silvanidae>/

2. with neither produced front corners nor serrated sides/

#77. Prothorax <presence of a suture between pronotum and propleuron>/

1. with notopleural sutures/

2. without notopleural sutures/

#78. Hind corners of the thorax <whether pointed>/

1. extended rearwards into sharp points/

2. not extended rearwards into sharp points/

#79. Scutellum <presence, development>/

1. conspicuous <well developed>/

2. highly reduced/

3. absent <or obscured>/

#80. Scutellum <elevation>/

1. elevated <abruptly and fairly sharply> above the mesoscutum in lateral view/

2. not elevated/

#81. <Scutellum> anteriorly <shape>/

1. simple/

2. <one-> notched/

3. crenulate/

#82. <Scutellum> posteriorly <shape>/

1. narrowly rounded or acute/

2. broadly rounded or obtusely angulate/

3. truncate/

4. emarginate/

#83. The prosternal process <presence or absence>/

1. present <implicit>/

2. absent <or inapplicable>/

#84. The prosternal process <when complete, whether interrupted>/

1. interrupted/

2. entire <not interrupted>/

#85. The prosternal process <complete or not>/

1. complete <implicit>/

2. incomplete <not traversing the fossae>/

#86. The prosternal process <length of posterior extension between the countersunk coxae>/

1. falling short of the mesoventrite/

2. slightly overlapping the mesoventrite/

3. moderately or strongly overlapping the mesoventrite/

4. concealing most or all of the mesoventrite/

#87. Metaventrite <‘mesosternum’, whether exhibiting a transverse groove>/

1. with a transverse groove/

2. without a transverse groove/

‘Metaventrite' (often but unsatisfactorily called the ‘metasternum’: the main ventral sclerite of the metathorax.

‘Sclerites’: the conspicuously hardened (scerotised) regions of the segments. Those of adjoining segments may be fused (disguising the segmentation), or separated by zones of membranous cuticle (in flexible parts of the body).

#88. Mid- and hind-legs <whether much modified>/

1. oar-like and much shorter than the fore-legs, which are elongated and modified for grasping prey <Gyrinidae>/

2. not as in Gyrinidae (q.v.) /

#89. The fore-leg coxae <procoxae, attachment>/

1. countersunk in ‘procoxal cavities’ <implicit>/

2. attached externally, in the absence of procoxal cavities/

#90. The fore-leg coxal cavities <closed or open behind>/

1. open behind externally/

2. closed behind externally/

The beetle leg exhibits six primary segments, viz., coxa, trochanter, femur, tarsus, and the terminal ‘pretarsus’.

1. ‘Coxa’: the short first segment, which usually articulates proximally with the abdomen, and distally with the trochanter.

(‘Coxal cavity’: a cavity in the thorax into which the coxa fits.)

2. ‘Trochanter’: the short second segment, between coxa and femur, which in beetles freely articulates with the former but is firmly attached to the latter.

3. ‘Femur’: the third leg segment, articulating distally with the tibia. This is usually the stoutest and strongest segment, and is sometimes the longest. It sometimes bears long spines, but never exhibits movable spurs, and is enlarged in the hind legs of species that jump.

4. ‘Tibia’: the fourth leg segment, articulating distally with the tarsus. Tibiae are usually expanded towards their apices, which bear combs of spines, two of which are enlarged, articulated, and known as ‘spurs’. The fore tibiae are often expanded and toothed on the outer side, associated with digging.

5. ‘Tarsus’: the fifth primary segment of the beetle leg, which articulates proximally with the tibia, and distally with the pretarsus, and is usually itself resolvable into (2-)4–5 movable segments (‘tarsomeres’).

6. ‘Pretarsus’: the terminal leg component, which usually comprises paired ‘claws’ and the median ‘empodium’.

#91. The fore-leg coxal cavities <extent of closure>/

1. broadly open/

2. narrowly open/

3. narrowly closed/

4. broadly closed/

#92. The fore-leg coxal cavities <separation>/

1. medianly confluent <contiguous>/

2. narrowly separated/

3. quite widely separated <by more than 0.4 times their shortest diameter>/

#93. The fore-leg coxal cavities <shape>/

1. strongly transverse/

2. slightly transverse/

3. circular to longer than wide/

#94. The fore-leg coxal cavities <presence of lateral extensions>/

1. with narrow lateral extensions/

2. without lateral extensions/

#95. The fore-leg coxal cavities <whether closed or open internally>/

1. internally open/

2. internally closed by a slender bar/

3. broadly closed internally/

#96. The mid-leg coxae <mesocoxae, attachment>/

1. countersunk in ‘mesocoxal cavities’/

2. attached externally, in the absence of mesocoxal cavities/

#97. The mid-leg coxae <mesocoxae> separated by <amount>/

1. less than the shortest diameter of the cavity/

2. more than the shortest diameter of the cavity/

#98. The mid-leg coxal <mesocoxal> cavities <separation>/

1. contiguous/

2. narrowly separated/

3. moderately to widely separated <by at least 0.4 times the shortest diameter of the cavity>/

#99. The mid-leg coxal <mesocoxal> cavities <obliquity>/

1. not or scarcely oblique/

2. markedly oblique/

#100. The mid-leg coxal <mesocoxal> cavities <whether open laterally>/

1. open laterally/

2. closed laterally/

#101. Hind-leg coxae <extent of separation>/

1. contiguous or narrowly separated/

2. widely separated <by at least half the greatest coxal diameter>/

#102. Hind-leg coxae <metacoxae, enlargement>/

1. much enlarged/

2. not much enlarged/

#103. Hind-leg coxae <metacoxae, lateral extension>/

1. extending laterally to meet the elytra <or sides of the body>/

2. not markedly extended laterally <not meeting the elytra>/

#104. Hind-leg coxae <metacoxae of beetles, whether moveable. Applicable, with caution, only to living specimens>/

1. moveable /

2. immoveably fixed to the metasternum and dividing the first abdominal sternite/

This character appears to be taxonomically meaningful, but apparently cannot be applied reliably for identifying dead specimens.

The beetle leg exhibits six primary segments, viz., coxa, trochanter, femur, tarsus, and the terminal ‘pretarsus’.

1. ‘Coxa’: the short first segment, which usually articulates proximally with the abdomen, and distally with the trochanter.

(‘Coxal cavity’: a cavity in the thorax into which the coxa fits.)

2. ‘Trochanter’: the short second segment, between coxa and femur, which in beetles freely articulates with the former but is firmly attached to the latter.

3. ‘Femur’: the third leg segment, articulating distally with the tibia. This is usually the stoutest and strongest segment, and is sometimes the longest. It sometimes bears long spines, but never exhibits movable spurs, and is enlarged in the hind legs of species that jump.

4. ‘Tibia’: the fourth leg segment, articulating distally with the tarsus. Tibiae are usually expanded towards their apices, which bear combs of spines, two of which are enlarged, articulated, and known as ‘spurs’. The fore tibiae are often expanded and toothed on the outer side, associated with digging.

5. ‘Tarsus’: the fifth primary segment of the beetle leg, which articulates proximally with the tibia, and distally with the pretarsus, and is usually itself resolvable into (2-)4–5 movable segments (‘tarsomeres’).

6. ‘Pretarsus’: the terminal leg component, which usually comprises paired ‘claws’ and the median ‘empodium’.

#105. Hind-leg coxae <whether posteriorly shaped to receive the femur>/

1. posteriorly shaped <e.g., declinate or concave> to receive the retracted femur/

2. not shaped posteriorly to receive the femur /

#106. Hind-leg coxae <whether expanded and plate-like>/

1. produced behind into flat plates which conceal the hind femora when these are retracted/

2. not concealing the hind femora /

The beetle leg exhibits six primary segments, viz., coxa, trochanter, femur, tarsus, and the terminal ‘pretarsus’.

1. ‘Coxa’: the short first segment, which usually articulates proximally with the abdomen, and distally with the trochanter.

(‘Coxal cavity’: a cavity in the thorax into which the coxa fits.)

2. ‘Trochanter’: the short second segment, between coxa and femur, which in beetles freely articulates with the former but is firmly attached to the latter.

3. ‘Femur’: the third leg segment, articulating distally with the tibia. This is usually the stoutest and strongest segment, and is sometimes the longest. It sometimes bears long spines, but never exhibits movable spurs, and is enlarged in the hind legs of species that jump.

4. ‘Tibia’: the fourth leg segment, articulating distally with the tarsus. Tibiae are usually expanded towards their apices, which bear combs of spines, two of which are enlarged, articulated, and known as ‘spurs’. The fore tibiae are often expanded and toothed on the outer side, associated with digging.

5. ‘Tarsus’: the fifth primary segment of the beetle leg, which articulates proximally with the tibia, and distally with the pretarsus, and is usually itself resolvable into (2-)4–5 movable segments (‘tarsomeres’).

6. ‘Pretarsus’: the terminal leg component, which usually comprises paired ‘claws’ and the median ‘empodium’.

#107. Hind-leg coxae <whether their inner parts are fused into a flat longitudinal keel>/

1. constituting longitudinal plates that are fused to one another and joined with the metasternum, endowing the beetle ventrally with a flat, median longitudinal keel/

2. not incorporated with the metasternum in a flat, median longitudinal keel /

#108. Hind-leg coxae <whether steeply, transversely declined>/

1. with a steep transverse declivity against which the femur retracts/

2. without the steep transverse declivity characteristic of Dryopoidea/

#109. Tarsal segmentation formula <fore-, mid-, hind-leg: ostensible segmentation, ignoring any small cylindrical segments obscured by lobes on those preceding them>/

1. 0, 5, 5/

2. 5, 5, 5/

3. 5, 5, 4/

4. 4, 4, 4/

5. 4, 4, 3/

6. 3, 4, 4/

7. 3, 3, 3/

8. 5, 4, 4/

9. 4, 4, 5/

10. 5, 3, 3/

11. 4, 3, 3/

12. 0–2, 3, 3/

#110. The tarsi <presence of bilobed segments>/

1. exhibiting <one or more> bilobed segments/

2. without bilobed segments/

#111. The tarsi <presence and location of hidden segments>/

1. with a tiny penultimate segment hidden by distal lobing of the fourth and fused to the fifth/

2. with a tiny basal segment that is hard to detect/

3. without ‘hidden’ segments/

#112. The front tarsi <reduction>/

1. present and well developed /

2. reduced or absent/

#113. Front tarsi <number of segments, relative to mid-tarsi>/

1. with <at least> as many segments as the mid-tarsi/

2. with one segment fewer than the mid-tarsi/

#114. Front tarsi <number of segments, including any ‘hidden’ segments>/

1. 3-segmented/

2. 4-segmented/

3. 5-segmented/

#115. Mid-leg tarsi <total number of segments, including any ‘hidden’ segments>/

1. 3-segmented/

2. 4-segmented/

3. 5-segmented/

#118. The claws of the mid-leg tarsi <whether appendaged>/

1. with an appendage <on each>/

2. not appendaged/

#119. The appendages <of the claws of the mid-leg tarsi, type>/

1. not or only lightly sclerotized <usually pubescent>/

2. heavily sclerotized, blade-like/

3. heavily sclerotized, spine-like or bristle-like/

#120. The claws of the mid-leg tarsi <whether simple or ornamented>/

1. simple/

2. one-toothed or bifid/

3. serrate, denticulate or pectinate/

#121. The claws of the mid-leg tarsi <whether associated with an empodium>/

1. with an empodium between them <with or without bristles>/

2. without an associated empodium/

#122. Hind tarsi <presence of swimming hairs>/

1. equipped with ‘swimming hairs’ <sometimes requiring careful observation>/

2. without ‘swimming’ hairs /

#123. Hind tarsi <number of segments, relative to mid-tarsi>/

1. with <at least> as many segments as the mid-tarsi/

2. with one segment fewer than the mid-tarsi/

#124. Hind tarsi <number of segments, including any ‘hidden’ segments>/

1. 3-segmented/

2. 4-segmented/

3. 5-segmented/

#125. Hind tarsi <of beetles, whether modified for swimming>/

1. flattened and oar-like for swimming/

2. not flattened and oar-like /

#126. <Adult> elytra <presence>/

1. present /

2. absent/

‘Elytra’: paired organs representing the mesothoracic wings, which when closed usually (but not always) meet along the median line, and constitute a hardened cover for the beetle's hind-wings and abdomen. They are usually held open in flight, allowing free movement of the hind-wings.

#127. Elytral length/maximum width across the elytra <i.e., with the elytra closed>/

Measurements made in the resting position, with the elytra closed. The length of the elytra is measured from the base of the scutellum (or mid-posterior edge of the pronotum if the scutellum is concealed) to the conjoined elytral apices or to an imaginary line joining the separated elytral apices. The ‘elytral width’ is the greatest combined width or, when the elytra are widely separated their tips, the length of the longest line joining their two outside edges.

#128. Elytra <whether unusually elongate and tapered>/

1. individually distinctly tapered to their apices <markedly posteriorly separated when closed>/

2. not individually tapered /

‘Elytra’: paired organs representing the mesothoracic wings, which when closed usually (but not always) meet along the median line, and constitute a hardened cover for the beetle's hind-wings and abdomen. They are usually held open in flight, allowing free movement of the hind-wings.

#129. Elytra <when closed, whether meeting on the mid-line>/

1. meeting along the length of the mid-line /

2. not meeting along the full length of the mid-line/

‘Elytra’: paired organs representing the mesothoracic wings, which when closed usually (but not always) meet along the median line, and constitute a hardened cover for the beetle's hind-wings and abdomen. They are usually held open in flight, allowing free movement of the hind-wings.

#130. Elytra <when closed, length relative to abdomen>/

1. covering most to all of the abdomen /

2. short, exposing several <(2-)3–6> terminal abdominal tergites/

3. greatly reduced <vestigial>/

‘Elytra’: paired organs representing the mesothoracic wings, which when closed usually (but not always) meet along the median line, and constitute a hardened cover for the beetle's hind-wings and abdomen. They are usually held open in flight, allowing free movement of the hind-wings.

‘Abdominal tergite’: the sclerotised dorsal region (‘sclerite’, q.v.) of a visible body segment. Of the abdomen, usually equivalent to ‘segment’.

‘Abdominal ventrite’: the sclerotised ventral region (‘sclerite’, q.v.) of a visible abdominal segment. The number of ventrites is often fewer than the number of true segments.

‘Abdominal sternite’: the sclerotised ventral region (‘sclerite’, q.v.) of an abdominal segment, whether visible or not. The number of sternites corresponds with the number of segments.

#131. Elytra <when closed> exposing <number of abdominal tergites>/

1. no more than part of the terminal tergite <usually the pygidium>/

2. at least one but fewer than three complete abdominal tergites/

3. at least three complete abdominal tergites/

‘Elytra’: paired organs representing the mesothoracic wings, which when closed usually (but not always) meet along the median line, and constitute a hardened cover for the beetle's hind-wings and abdomen. They are usually held open in flight, allowing free movement of the hind-wings.

‘Abdominal tergite’: the sclerotised dorsal region (‘sclerite’, q.v.) of a visible body segment. Of the abdomen, usually equivalent to ‘segment’.

‘Pygidium’: the terminal (tail-end) exposed and sclerotised abdominal tergite. It may be either tergite 7 or 8.

#132. The pygidium <exposure>/

1. at least partly exposed beyond the long elytra/

2. entirely concealed by the ends of the elytra even when viewed from behind/

‘Pygidium’: the last (i.e., the eighth) visible abdominal tergite in Coleoptera. This character seems to provide the only absolute distinction between Aphodiidae and assorted other Scarabaeidae sensu lato. Cf. Britton (1970).

#133. Elytra <whether truncate>/

1. truncate/

2. not truncate/

‘Elytra’: paired organs representing the mesothoracic wings, which when closed usually (but not always) meet along the median line, and constitute a hardened cover for the beetle's hind-wings and abdomen. They are usually held open in flight, allowing free movement of the hind-wings.

#134. Elytra <hard or soft>/

1. hard/

2. soft/

‘Elytra’: paired organs representing the mesothoracic wings, which when closed usually (but not always) meet along the median line, and constitute a hardened cover for the beetle's hind-wings and abdomen. They are usually held open in flight, allowing free movement of the hind-wings.

#135. Elytra <glossy or dull>/

1. glossy/

2. dull/

‘Elytra’: paired organs representing the mesothoracic wings, which when closed usually (but not always) meet along the median line, and constitute a hardened cover for the beetle's hind-wings and abdomen. They are usually held open in flight, allowing free movement of the hind-wings.

#136. Elytra <iridescent or not>/

1. iridescent/

2. not iridescent /

‘Elytra’: paired organs representing the mesothoracic wings, which when closed usually (but not always) meet along the median line, and constitute a hardened cover for the beetle's hind-wings and abdomen. They are usually held open in flight, allowing free movement of the hind-wings.

#137. Elytra <whether smooth>/

1. rough/

2. tuberculate/

3. spiny/

4. ribbed/

5. smooth/

‘Elytra’: paired organs representing the mesothoracic wings, which when closed usually (but not always) meet along the median line, and constitute a hardened cover for the beetle's hind-wings and abdomen. They are usually held open in flight, allowing free movement of the hind-wings.

#138. Elytra <vestiture - glabrous or not>/

1. non-glabrous <i.e., with hairs, bristles or scales>/

2. glabrous/

‘Elytra’: paired organs representing the mesothoracic wings, which when closed usually (but not always) meet along the median line, and constitute a hardened cover for the beetle's hind-wings and abdomen. They are usually held open in flight, allowing free movement of the hind-wings.

#139. Elytra <presence of striae>/

1. striate/

2. without striae/

‘Elytra’: paired organs representing the mesothoracic wings, which when closed usually (but not always) meet along the median line, and constitute a hardened cover for the beetle's hind-wings and abdomen. They are usually held open in flight, allowing free movement of the hind-wings.

#140. Elytra <longitudinal rows of impressed punctures or striae>/

1. <each> with six or more longitudinal lines of punctures/

2. <each> with six or more impressed striae/

3. apunctate, irregularly punctate, or each with fewer than 6 longitudinal lines of punctures or impressed striae/

#141. The lines <of elytral punctures or striae, number> per elytron <when more than 5>/

1. 6–7/

2. 8/

3. 9/

4. 10/

5. 11/

6. 12 or more/

#142. Scutellary striole <of elytra, presence>/

1. present/

2. absent/

‘Scutellary striole’: a short stria or row of punctures situated laterally to the scutellum and not extending very far posteriorly.

#143. Elytra <presence of epipleura>/

1. with epipleura/

2. without epipleura/

‘Elytra’: paired organs representing the mesothoracic wings, which when closed usually (but not always) meet along the median line, and constitute a hardened cover for the beetle's hind-wings and abdomen. They are usually held open in flight, allowing free movement of the hind-wings.

‘Epipleuron’: an infolding or incurving of the costa of the elytron (i.e., its leading edge, when the elytra are opened), which usually fits against the sides of the abdomen when the elytra are closed.

#144. Elytral epipleura <extent>/

1. reaching to the tips of the elytra/

2. falling short of the elytral tips/

‘Elytra’: paired organs representing the mesothoracic wings, which when closed usually (but not always) meet along the median line, and constitute a hardened cover for the beetle's hind-wings and abdomen. They are usually held open in flight, allowing free movement of the hind-wings.

#145. <Hind, metathoracic> wings <presence>/

1. well developed <presumed propellant: implicit>/

2. absent or much reduced/

The metathoracic wings of beetles, when functional for flying, are usually longer than the elytra (q.v.), and are normally folded and stored beneath the elytra when the insect is not flying. Not uncommonly (especially island and montane forms), however, they are more or less atrophied.

#146. <Hind, metathoracic> wings <spiral rolling>/

1. with the apical part spirally rolled/

2. not apically rolled /

#147. <Hind, metathoracic> wings <absence of venation>/

1. veined /

2. without veins/

#148. <Hind, metathoracic> wings <fringing>/

1. fringed with long hairs on the hind margin/

2. not fringed /

#149. <Hind, metathoracic> wings <anal lobe>/

1. with an anal lobe/

2. without an anal lobe/

#150. <Hind, metathoracic> wings <presence of a medial fleck>/

1. with a medial fleck/

2. without a medial fleck/

#151. The medial fleck <of hind, metathoracic wings, when present, bisection>/

1. bisected by a vein/

2. not bisected by a vein/

#152. Abdominal tergites <number>/

‘Abdominal tergite’: the sclerotised dorsal region (‘sclerite’, q.v.) of a visible body segment. Usually, 8 tergites (representing 10 segments) can be counted on the upper surface of the abdomen: segment 9 is the much modified genital segment, which is hidden within the body, and segment 10 is greatly reduced. The visible tail-end tergite represents segment 8, and is called the ‘pygidium’.

‘Abdominal ventrite’: the sclerotised ventral region (‘sclerite’, q.v.) of a visible abdominal segment. The number of ventrites is often fewer than the number of true segments.

‘Abdominal sternite’: the sclerotised ventral region (‘sclerite’, q.v.) of an abdominal segment, whether visible or not. The number of sternites corresponds with the number of segments.

#153. The end of the abdomen <extension-pointed>/

1. extended as a long, narrow point beyond the ends of the truncate elytra/

2. not extended as a long, narrow point beyond the ends of the elytra /

#154. <Exposed> abdominal sternites <= ventrites: number>/

‘Abdominal ventrite’: the sclerotised ventral region (‘sclerite’, q.v.) of a visible abdominal segment. The number of ventrites is often fewer than the number of true segments.

‘Abdominal sternite’: the sclerotised ventral region (‘sclerite’, q.v.) of an abdominal segment, whether visible or not. The number of sternites corresponds with the number of segments.

#155. <Exposed> abdominal sternites <articulation>/

1. all articulated and moveable/

2. comprising both fused and moveable components/

3. all fused and immoveable/

#156. <Exposed> basal abdominal sternites <= ‘connate ventrites’> immovably joined <number>/

#157. Abdominal segment 8 <with or without functional spiracles>/

1. with apparently functional spiracles/

2. apparently without functional spiracles/

#158. The male external genitalia <aedeagus sensu lato, form>/

1. trilobate/

2. bilobate/

3. histeroid/

4. buprestoid/

5. adephagan/

6. staphylinoid/

7. bostrichoid/

8. cucujiform/

9. tenebrionoid/

10. chrysomeloid/

11. curculionoid/

12. not classified/

Entomologists have made extensive taxonomic use of variations in male genitalia for classificatory purposes, and the groupings represented by this character seem reliably indicative of coleopteran taxonomic relationships. However, in the absence of comparative data for the anatomical details, which are in any case rather inaccessible and applicable only to males, these are of little use for conducting identifications.

Cf. Lawrence et al. (1999). ‘Aedeagus’ refers here to the external genitalia, including the intromittent organ (penis, representing two fused valves) and associated structures (phallobase and parameres, or tegmen) but excluding modifications of apical or pregenital abdominal segments. Some coleopterists restrict it to the penis combined with phallobase and parameres or tegmen, while others refer to the phallobase as fused gonocoxites, the parameres as gonostyli, and the two together as gonoforceps. See Crowson (1984), D'Hotman and Scholtz (1990), Gilbert (1952), Iablokoff-Khnzorian (1980), Jeannel (1955), Jeannel and Paulian (1944), Lindroth (1957), Matsuda (1976), Nichols (1989), Tuxen (1970) and Wood (1952).

Adult habitat, ecology

#159. <Whether adults aquatic: water-beetles or land dwellers>/

1. water-beetles/

2. land-dwellers /

For purposes of identification, the term ‘water beetle’ here includes assorted forms associated with wet habitats, in addition to true aquatics.

‘Aquatic’: living in water, with convincingly observed adaptations for respiring when submerged. ‘Sub-aquatic’: inhabiting wet places and apparently or supposedly surviving inundation, but sometimes not conspicuously adapted for respiring submerged. Assignment to these categories is sometimes unsatisfactory, because survival strategies in assorted ‘sub-aquatic’ families are either unknown, or are not detailed in the literature seen; and assignments are further complicated by (e.g.) Hydraenidae, in which the adults are genuinely aquatic but the larvae are easily drowned, and by Scirtidae, which combine terrestrial adults with aquatic larvae. The huge families Chrysomelidae and Curculionidae are here regarded as ‘terrestrial’, although adults associated with helophytic plants are sometimes encountered floating or struggling in water.

#160. Beetles <water beetles, adult locomotion>/

1. free-swimming and diving strongly, with the main thrust delivered by the specially adapted hind legs, moving clumsily on land/

2. surface swimmers with the main thrust delivered by the specialised middle legs, moving clumsily on land (Whirligigs)/

3. walking in water or free-swimming by conventional ambulatory motion of the legs, not diving strongly/

#161. <Aquatic beetles, mode of locomotion in the water>/

1. ‘Rowing’ by parallel-simultaneous leg movements/

2. moving in the water by <conventional> alternate, walking leg movements <not rowing>/

#162. Beetles <aquatic, acquisition and transport of air>/

1. respiring under water via air which is collected posteriorly and stored directly under the elytra/

2. replenishing air for respiration beneath the elytra indirectly from that acquired and held in the ventral plastron <(q.v.), which may be visible as a bubble on the underside when submerged>/

‘Plastron’: in the present context, a pile of fine hydrofuge hairs on the ventral surface of many aquatic beetles, in which air is collected and stored to supply oxygen for respiration when they are submerged. Air transferred from the plastron to the water-tight space under the elytra is respired via the terminal pair of abdominal spiracles. The plastron, which is often conspicuous as a bubble on the underside of the submerged insect, is a characteristic feature of hydrophilid beetles, and distinguishes them from dytiscids. The latter also store air under the elytra, but replenish it directly from the rear.

#163. Beetles <aquatic, posture for replenishing air supply>/

1. regularly posing tail first at the water surface to replenish air/

2. regularly posing head first at the water surface to replenish air/

3. not noticeably posing regularly at the water surface to replenish air/

#164. Beetles <aquatic, how air is collected>/

1. collecting air at the water surface by exserting the tip of the abdomen through the surface film/

2. collecting air at the water surface by exserting one antenna to achieve a continuum of air with the ventral plastron/

3. replenishing air in the ventral plastron by exserting both antennae at the water surface/

4. incorporating bubbles of oxygen directly into the <ventral> plastron/

‘Plastron’: in the present context, a pile of fine hydrofuge hairs on the ventral surface of many aquatic beetles, in which air is collected and stored to supply oxygen for respiration when they are submerged. Air transferred from the plastron to the water-tight space under the elytra is respired via the terminal pair of abdominal spiracles. The plastron, which is often conspicuous as a bubble on the underside of the submerged insect, is a characteristic feature of hydrophilid beetles, and distinguishes them from dytiscids. The latter also store air under the elytra, but replenish it directly from the rear.

#165. <Whether adults predacious. See Notes>/

1. predacious <specify prey>/

2. not predacious <implicit>/

The compiled data are very unsatisfactory, given the lack of unambiguous records of what adult beetles (as distinct from the larvae) actually consume and digest: even the best source of information (Lawrence et al., 1999) offers only non-comparative generalizations. The extent to which ‘predators’ are facultatively saprophagous, and vice versa, is unclear; ‘saprophagous’ beetles involved with rotting wood and decaying vegetable matter are probably often ‘mycetophagous’; and it seems likely that all insects with the capacity to imbibe water will digest any dissolved nutrients.

#166. <Non-aquatic adults, habitat (when not flying)>/

1. on living vegetation/

2. in decaying plant material/

3. in rotting wood/

4. in dried plant material/

5. under bark/

6. on lichens/

7. associated with fungi/

8. associated with dung/

9. associated with carrion/

10. on shed fur or feathers <in nests or burrows>/

11. associated with flowers/

12. under stones/

13. in stored plant products/

#167. <Non-predacious adults, diet: see Notes>/

1. necrophagous/

2. feeding on dried animal remains/

3. phytophagous <live plant material: specify kinds>/

4. consuming decaying plant material <other than wood>/

5. eating dried plant material or stored plant products/

6. boring into living wood/

7. consuming rotting wood/

8. boring into dead wood/

9. mycetophagous <specify>/

10. coprophagous/

11. parasitic <specify>/

Larvae

#168. Mature larvae <general size>/

1. minute (less than 3 mm long)/

2. small to medium-sized <more than 3 and less than 15 mm long>/

3. relatively large <at least 15 mm long>/

Estimates will often over-estimte variation in material from Britain and Ireland, being derived from world level group measurements given by Lawrence et al (1999).

#169. The larvae <general form>/

1. campodeiform/

2. eruciform/

3. scarabaeiform/

4. apodous/

#170. The larvae <outline shape, viewed from above>/

1. strongly flattened and disc-like/

2. neither strongly flattened nor disc-like <implicit>/

#171. The larvae <shape, viewed from above>/

1. elongate and more or less parallel-sided/

2. oblong to ovate <not parallel-sided>/

#172. The larvae <whether C-shaped in lateral view>/

1. C-shaped in lateral view <strongly curved ventrally>/

2. not C-shaped <more or less straight ventrally: implicit>/

#173. Body <of the larva, shape in cross-section>/

1. circular in cross-section/

2. somewhat flattened/

3. strongly flattened/

#174. Vestiture <of the larva, nature>/

1. restricted to fine hairs or setae/

2. not restricted to fine hairs or setae <e.g., including bristles, scales, expanded or complex hairs>/

#175. The larvae <dorsal pigmentation>/

1. dorsally heavily pigmented or sclerotized/

2. dorsally only very lightly pigmented or sclerotized/

#176. The larvae <ventral pigmentation>/

1. ventrally more or less heavily pigmented/

2. ventrally only very lightly pigmented/

#177. The antennae <of the larva, number of segments>/

segmented/

#178. The antennae <of the larva, length relative to the width of the head>/

1. less than 0.15 x the <maximum> width of the head/

2. 0.15–0.5 x the head width/

3. more than 0.5 x the width of the head/

#179. Stemmata <ocelli, presence>/

1. present/

2. absent/

#180. Stemmata on either side of the larval head <number>/

#181. The <mature> larval fronto-clypeus <of the head, extension>/

1. much extended forwardly/

2. not extended forwardly /

#182. The frontoclypeal suture <of the larva> between frons and clypeus <presence>/

1. indistinct or absent/

2. distinct/

#183. The labrum and head capsule <of the larva, distinction>/

1. separated by a complete suture/

2. partly fused, with an incomplete suture/

3. completely fused, with no suture apparent/

#184. Apices of the mandibles <of the larva, toothing or lobing>/

1. with a single lobe or tooth/

2. bilobed or bidentate/

3. trilobed or tridentate/

4. multilobed or multidentate/

#185. The maxillary palps <of the larva, number of segments exclusive of the basal palpifer>/

segmented/

#186. The labium <of the larva, presence of a ligula>/

1. without ligula between the palps/

2. with a short ligula between the palps/

3. with a ligula at least as long as the palps/

#187. Labial palps <of the larva, development, segmentation>/

1. present and segmented/

2. absent or non-segmented <reduced to the basal palpiger>/

#188. Labial palps <of the larva, number of segments>/

segmented/

#189. Mesothoracic legs <development>/

1. present and segmented/

2. much reduced or absent <non-segmented>/

#190. Mesothoracic legs <of the larva, number of segments>/

segmented/

#191. The tarsi <of the larva, number of claws>/

1. 1-clawed/

2. 2-clawed/

#192. Mesothoracic legs <of the larva, number of moveable claws>/

1. with 1 moveable claw/

2. with 2 moveable claws/

#193. Visible abdominal segments <of the larva, number>/

#194. Tergum 9 of the abdomen <of the larva, ventral extension>/

1. entirely dorsal/

2. extending to the underside/

3. completely ventral <LW to pursue this>/

#195. The abdomen <of the larva, of functional spiracles on anterior segments>/

1. having functional spiracles on anterior segments/

2. with functional spiracles confined to the <posterior pair on> the eighth segment/

#196. The abdomen <of the larva, whether spiracles borne on lateral spiracular tubes>/

1. with the spiracles on the eighth segment borne at the ends of spiracular tubes/

2. with anterior and 8th-segmental spiracles <i.e., all abdominal spiracles> borne at the ends of a series of spiracular tubes/

3. without spiracular tubes/

#197. The larvae <presence of abdominal gills>/

1. with abdominal gills/

2. without abdominal gills <implicit>/

#198. The larvae <presence and form of gills>/

1. with dorsal, balloon-like tracheal gills on abdominal segments 1–8/

2. with long and narrow lateral gills on abdominal segments 1–7/

3. with long and narrow lateral gills on abdominal segments 1–9/

4. with ventral abdominal gill tufts on abdominal segments 1–3/

5. with ventral abdominal gill tufts on abdominal segments 1–4/

6. with anal <abdominal> gill tufts/

#199. The abdominal apex <of the larva, presence of a respiratory chamber>/

1. with a respiratory chamber, formed from the 8th and 9th terga and enclosing a pair of enlarged spiracles/

2. without a respiratory chamber/

#200. Abdominal tergum 8 <of the larva: armature, spiracles>/

1. bearing a single median process with a pair of spiracles at its apex/

2. bearing a single <simple> median process without apical spiracles/

3. bearing a pair of processes, each with an apical spiracle/

4. without amature <lacking processes>/

#201. The posterior segments <of the larva, presence of swimming hairs>/

1. with swimming hairs/

2. without swimming hairs/

#202. The last abdominal segment <of the larva, presence of cerci (urogomphi)>/

1. with cerci <urogomphi>/

2. without cerci/

#203. The last abdominal segment <of the larva, presence of a median spine>/

1. with a long, median spine <Hygrobia>/

2. without a long median spine /

#204. Larvae <whether aquatic>/

1. aquatic/

2. non-aquatic /

#205. Larvae <whether predacious: see Notes>/

1. predacious/

2. not predacious <implicit>/

The compiled data are very unsatisfactory, given frequent uncertainty of what is actully consumed (cf. the situation re the adults). The extent to which ‘predators’ are facultatively saprophagous, and vice versa, is unclear; ‘saprophagous’ larvae involved with rotting wood and decaying vegetable matter are probably often ‘mycetophagous’; and it seems likely that all insects with the capacity to imbibe water will digest any dissolved nutrients. See Lawrence et al., 1999.

#206. Larvae <habitat>/

1. in living vegetation/

2. in decaying plant material/

3. in rotting wood/

4. in dried plant material/

5. under bark/

6. on lichens/

7. associated with fungi/

8. in dung/

9. in carrion/

10. in shed fur or feathers <in nests or burrows>/

11. associated with flowers/

12. under stones/

13. in stored plant products/

14. in the soil/

#207. Larvae <non-predacious, diet>/

1. necrophagous/

2. feeding on dried animal remains/

3. phytophagous <live plant material: specify kinds>/

4. consuming decaying plant material <other than wood>/

5. eating dried plant material or stored plant products/

6. boring into living wood/

7. consuming rotting wood/

8. boring into dead wood/

9. mycetophagous <specify>/

10. coprophagous/

11. parasitic <specify>/

#208. <Descriptive comments on larvae>/

Classification

#209. Suborder/

1. Adephaga/

2. Myxophaga/

3. Polyphaga/

See Unwin (1984), Lawrence et al (1999).

#210. Infraorder <of Polyphaga>/

1. Bostrichiformia/

2. Cucujiformia/

3. Elateriformia/

4. Scarabaeiformia/

5. Staphyliniformia/

#211. Superfamily <cf. Unwin, 1984>/

1. Bostrichoidea/

2. Buprestoidea/

3. Byrrhoidea/

4. Cantharoidea/

5. Caraboidea/

6. Chrysomeloidea/

7. Cleroidea/

8. Cucujoidea/

9. Curculionoidea/

10. Dascilloidea/

11. Dermestoidea/

12. Dryopoidea/

13. Elateroidea/

14. Eucinetoidea <Scirtoidea>/

15. Lymexyloidea/

16. Sphaeroidea/

17. Histeroidea/

18. Hydrophiloidea/

19. Scarabaeoidea/

20. Staphilinoidea/

21. Tenebrionoidea <Heteromera>/

See Unwin (1984), Lawrence et al (1999).

Representation in Britain and Ireland, and worldwide

#212. <Species worldwide, number>/

species worldwide/

Estimates of genus and species numbers (derived mainly from assorted Internet sources) are often unreliable, but they should suffice for viewing representation in Britain and Ireland in a world context.

#213. Genera <worldwide, number>/

#214. <Number of species in Britain:>/

species in Britain/

From Pope (1977).

#215. Genera in Britain <number>/

#216. <Listing of genera in Britain>/

#217. E.g., <scientific and common names of British representatives>/

General comments

#218. <Comments>/

Miscellaneous

#219. Abbreviated taxon name:/

#220. <Illustrations:>/


To view the illustrations with detailed captions, go to the interactive key. This also offers full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting or lacking specified attributes, and distributions of character states within any set of taxa.

Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2003 onwards. Insects of Britain and Ireland: the families of Coleoptera. Version: 16th May 2016. delta-intkey.com’.

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