Insects of Britain and Ireland: the families of Coleoptera

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L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz


Including Lamiidae, Parandridae, Spondylidae.

Longicorn, Long-horn Beetles.

General appearance. 2.5–30 mm long. Body length/maximum body width 1.7–7.97. Elytral length/pronotal length 1.03–7.3. Base of prothorax not or scarcely narrower than the combined elytral bases, or distinctly narrower than the combined elytral bases. Greatest prothoracic width not narrower or only slightly narrower than the greatest elytral width, or distinctly narrower than greatest elytral width. Beetles elongate; dorsally flattened, or cylindric; conspicuously necked to not necked; somewhat waisted, or conspicuously waisted; sometimes brightly coloured, sometimes cryptic; exhibiting bright ‘warning colours’, or without ‘warning colouration’. Upper surfaces of body glabrous or subglabrous, or non-glabrous; exhibiting stiff, erect, dark bristles, or not bristly; with neither scales nor scale-like setae.

Detailed morphology. Beetles prognathous, or not prognathous. Inclination of the head slight to very strong. Eyes strongly protuberant, or not strongly protuberant; usually accommodating the antennae in an anterior notch; bristly, or without bristles. The labrum at least partly visible in antero-dorsal view; labrum mostly moderately to heavily sclerotized. Mandibles with a well developed mola (Lepturinae and some Spondlidinae), or without a mola; with well developed prosthecae to without prosthecae. The mandibular apices simple, or bidentate or bilobed. The incisor edges of the mandibles simple, or with a single tooth, or with two or more teeth (some Prioninae). The maxillae with distinct galea and lacinia apically to the palp. The apical segment of the maxillary palps cylindrical to fusiform, or somewhat expanded and truncate to subtriangular, or securiform to cultriform. The apical segment of the labial palps more or less expanded apically, or not expanded apically. Antennae about half the insect's head to tail length to longer than the insect's head to tail length (nearly always at least two-thirds of the body length and often much longer; usually capable of being directed backwards over, and parallel with, the body); 8–9 segmented, or 11–20 segmented. Antennal scape swollen, or not swollen. Antennae filiform. Antennal insertions visible from above, or hidden from above; not in fossae.

Cervical sclerites variously present, or absent. Prothorax shorter than wide to longer than wide. Pronotal length/maximum pronotal width 0.37–2.1. The pronotum with lateral keels (pronotal carinae) (in Prioninae), or without lateral keels; keels when present, complete, or incomplete. Prothorax at its widest markedly narrower than the adjoining part of the abdomen. Prothorax without notopleural sutures. Scutellum conspicuous (commonly), or highly reduced, or absent (e.g., in some Lamiinae); when applicable, elevated above the mesoscutum in lateral view, or not elevated; anteriorly simple; posteriorly narrowly rounded or acute, or broadly rounded or obtusely angulate, or truncate, or emarginate. The prosternal process present, or absent (some Cerambycinae); when present, complete; when present, slightly overlapping the mesoventrite, or slightly overlapping the mesoventrite to moderately or strongly overlapping the mesoventrite. Metaventrite with a transverse groove, or without a transverse groove. The fore-leg coxae countersunk in ‘procoxal cavities’. The fore-leg coxal cavities open behind externally, or closed behind externally; broadly open, or narrowly open, or narrowly closed; medianly confluent, or narrowly separated, or quite widely separated; strongly transverse, or slightly transverse, or circular to longer than wide; with narrow lateral extensions, or without lateral extensions; internally open (Prioninae only), or internally closed by a slender bar, or broadly closed internally. The mid-leg coxae countersunk in ‘mesocoxal cavities’; separated by less than the shortest diameter of the cavity, or more than the shortest diameter of the cavity. The mid-leg coxal cavities narrowly separated, or moderately to widely separated; not or scarcely oblique; open laterally, or closed laterally. Hind-leg coxae variously contiguous or narrowly separated, or widely separated; not much enlarged; extending laterally to meet the elytra, or not markedly extended laterally; not shaped posteriorly to receive the femur. Tarsal segmentation formula 4, 4, 4. The tarsi exhibiting bilobed segments; with a tiny penultimate segment hidden by distal lobing of the fourth and fused to the fifth. Front tarsi with as many segments as the mid-tarsi; 4-segmented, or 5-segmented (depending on interpretation). Mid-leg tarsi 4-segmented, or 5-segmented; pseudotetramerous; the penultimate segment distinctly shorter than the antepenultimate one. The claws of the mid-leg tarsi not appendaged. The claws of the mid-leg tarsi simple, or one-toothed or bifid; with an empodium between them (sometimes with three or more setae), or without an associated empodium. Hind tarsi with as many segments as the mid-tarsi; 4-segmented, or 5-segmented (the basal segment shorter than the rest together).

Elytral length/maximum width across the elytra 0.57–5.55. Elytra individually distinctly tapered to their apices, or not individually tapered; meeting along the length of the mid-line, or not meeting along the full length of the mid-line; covering most to all of the abdomen, or short, exposing several terminal abdominal tergites; exposing no more than part of the terminal tergite to at least three complete abdominal tergites; not truncate; non-glabrous (usually), or glabrous. Elytra apunctate, irregularly punctate, or each with fewer than 6 longitudinal lines of punctures or impressed striae (often), or with six or more longitudinal lines of punctures (some Cerambycinae); the lines per elytron when more than five, 9. Scutellary striole present, or absent (commonly). Wings well developed, or absent or much reduced. Wings without an anal lobe. Wings with a medial fleck, or without a medial fleck; the medial fleck if present, not bisected by a vein. Abdominal sternites 5; all articulated and moveable. Abdominal segment 8 apparently without functional spiracles. The male external genitalia cucujiform.

Adult habitat, ecology. Land-dwellers.

Larvae. Mature larvae minute (less than 3 mm long) to relatively large. The larvae elongate and more or less parallel-sided. Body circular in cross-section, or somewhat flattened, or strongly flattened (sometimes, in Lepturini only). Vestiture restricted to fine hairs or setae. The larvae dorsally only very lightly pigmented or sclerotized; ventrally only very lightly pigmented. The antennae 2 segmented, or 3 segmented. Stemmata present, or absent (often); on either side of the larval head when present, 1–6. The frontoclypeal suture between frons and clypeus distinct (usually), or indistinct or absent (some Lepturinae). The labrum and head capsule separated by a complete suture. Apices of the mandibles with a single lobe or tooth, or bilobed or bidentate. The maxillary palps 2 segmented, or 3 segmented. The labium with a short ligula between the palps, or with a ligula at least as long as the palps. Labial palps present and segmented; 2 segmented. Mesothoracic legs present and segmented to much reduced or absent; 0 segmented (some Cerambycinae and Lamiinae), or 1 segmented, or 2 segmented, or 3 segmented (some Spondylidinae), or 4 segmented, or 5 segmented (Lepturinae only); with 1 moveable claw. Visible abdominal segments 10. Tergum 9 of the abdomen entirely dorsal, or extending to the underside (some Cerambycinae and Lepturinae). The abdomen having functional spiracles on anterior segments (annular, annular-biforous or annular-multiforous); without spiracular tubes. The abdominal apex without a respiratory chamber. Abdominal tergum 8 without amature. The last abdominal segment with cerci, or without cerci.

Larvae in living vegetation (in plant stems), or in rotting wood, or under bark (usually in cambium, sap or heartwood of dead or sick trees, some in small branches, twigs or cones; in cluding some pests of forest and orchard trees, and a few which damage structural timbers); phytophagous, or boring into living wood, or consuming rotting wood, or boring into dead wood.

The larvae whitish, cylindrical or flattened, with a small transverse head and legs very small or absent; distinguishable from those of Buprestidae by the less flattened thorax, and in having bilabiate or annular rather than cribriform spiracles.

Classification. Suborder Polyphaga; Infraorder Cucujiformia; Superfamily Chrysomeloidea.

Representation in Britain and Ireland, and worldwide. About 20000 species worldwide. 65 species in Britain; genera in Britain 37; Acanthocinus, Asemum, Mesosa, Molorchus, Strangalia, Monochamus, Obrium, Phymatodes, Prionus, Rhagium, Saperda, etc. E.g., Acanthocinus aedilis; Asemum striatum (Kinnordy Cerambyx); Mesosa nebulosa (Clouded Lamia); Strangalia quadrifasciata (Horn-tipped Leptura); Molorchus minor (Maculated Molorchus); Molorchus umbellatorum; Monochamus sartor; Obrium cantharinum (Reddish Obrium); Phymatodes alni; Prionus coriarius; Rhagium mordax; Saperda scalaris.

General comments. Small to large beetles, usually elongate and pubescent, subcylindrical or flattened, all the tibiae 2-spurred, hindwings without an anal lobe. The antennae of adults often borne on raised tubercles..

Illustrations. • Aromia moschata: B. Ent. 738. • Aromia moschata: B. Ent. 738, legend+text. • Aromia moschata: B. Ent. 738, text cont.. • Aromia moschata (Janson 228). • Asemum striatum (Kinnordy Cerambyx): B. Ent. 295. • Asemum striatum: B. Ent. 295, legend+text. • Asemum striatum: B. Ent. 295, text cont.. • Clytus quadripunctatus (Spotted Longicorn, probably Mainland-European): B. Ent. 199. • Clytus quadripunctatus: B. Ent. 199, legend+text. • Clytus quadripunctatus: B. Ent. 199, text cont.. • Mesosa nebulosa (Clouded Lamia): B. Ent. 172. • Mesosa nebulosa (details): B. Ent. 172. • Mesosa nebulosa: B. Ent. 172, legend+text. • Mesosa nebulosa: B. Ent. 172, text cont.. • Molorchus minor (Maculated molorchus): B. Ent. 11. • Molorchus minor (B. Ent. 11, legend+text). • Molorchus minor (B. Ent. 11, text cont.). • Monochamus sartor (B. Ent. 219). • Monochamus sartor: B. Ent. 219, legend+text. • Monochamus sartor: B. Ent. 219, text. • Obrium cantharinum (Reddish Obrium): B. Ent. 091. • Obrium cantharinum: B. Ent. 091, legend+text. • Obrium cantharinum: B. Ent. 091, text cont.. • Prionus coriarius: B. Ent. 746. • Prionus coriarius: B. Ent. 746, legend+text. • Prionus coriarius: B. Ent. 746, text cont.. • Rhagium mordax: B. Ent. 750. • Rhagium mordax: B. Ent. 750, legend+text. • Rhagium mordax: B. Ent. 750, text cont.. • Saperda tremulae (Grove-end Longicorn, not indigenous): B. Ent. 275. • Saperda tremulae: B. Ent. 275, legend+text. • Saperda tremulae: B. Ent. 275, text cont.. • Strangalia quadrifasciculata (Horn-tipped Leptura): B. Ent. 362. • Strangalia quadrifasciculata: B. Ent. 362, legend+text. • Strangalia quadrifasciculata: B. Ent. 362, text cont.. • Strangalia maculata: photos, Giles Watson. • Anaglyptus, Clytus, Gracilia, Molorchus, Obrium, Rhagium (3 spp.), Toxotus: Fowler 4, 121 (1890). • Fowler 4, 121 (1890): original legend.. • Aromia, Asemum, Callidium, Hylotrupes, Phymatodes, Plagionotus, Prionus, Pyrrhidium: Fowler 4, 120 (1890). • Fowler 4, 120 (1890): original legend.. • Acmaeops, Judolia, Leptura(4 spp.), Strangalia (5 spp.): Fowler 4, 122 (1890). • Fowler 4, 122 (1890): original legend.. • Acanthocinus, Alosterna, Grammoptera (3 spp.), Leiopus, Pogonochaerus (3 spp.): Fowler 4, 123 (1890). • Fowler 4, 123 (1890): original legend.. • Agapanthia, Lamia, Mesosa, Saperda, Tetrops: Fowler 4, 124 (1890). • Fowler 5, 124 (1890): original legend.. • Oberea oculata, Phytoecia cylindrica, Stenostola ferrea (with Bruchidae): Fowler 4, 125 (1890). • Fowler 4, 125 (1890): original legend.. • Anaglyptus, Arhopalus, Asemum, Gramoptera. Jodolia, Phymatodes, Tetropium (with some unrelated taxa): Fowler Suppl. 16, 1913. • Fowler Suppl. 16, 1913: original legend.. • Oberea oculata var. quadrimaculata and Monohamus sutor, with Chrysomelidae and Bruchidae: Fowler Suppl. 17, 1913. • Fowler Suppl. 17, 1913: original legend.. • Prionus coriarius, Rhagium mordax (Janson 231, 239). • Acanthocinus aedilis, Molorchus umbellatorum, Phymatodes alni, Saperda scalaris (Rye & Fowler 13).

To view the illustrations with detailed captions, go to the interactive key. This also offers full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting or lacking specified attributes, and distributions of character states within any set of taxa.

Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2003 onwards. Insects of Britain and Ireland: the families of Coleoptera. Version: 16th May 2016.’.