The Equisetum Species (Horsetails) of the British Isles

DELTA home

L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz


Sources of illustrations are indicated by bold face.

Andrews H.N. 1961. Studies in paleobotany. John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Boswell, J.T., N.E. Brown, W. H. Fitch, and J.E. Sowerby. 1886. English Botany, Third Edition. Vol. 12, Marsiliaceae to Characeae. George Bell & Sons, London.

Bentham G. and Hooker J.D. 1945. Handbook of the British flora. 7th edition, revised by A.B. Rendle. Reeve.

Clapham A., Tutin T.G. and Warburg E.F. 1962. Flora of the British Isles. Second edition. Cambridge University Press.

Curtis J. 1824–1835. British Entomology: being illustrations and descriptions of the genera of insects found in Great Britain and Ireland; containing coloured figures from Nature of the most rare and beautiful species, and in many instances of the plants upon which they are found. Printed for the author, London.

Dallwitz M.J. 1980. A general system for coding taxonomic descriptions. Taxon 29: 41–6. Also available at

Dallwitz M.J., Paine T.A. and Zurcher E.J. 1993 onwards. User’s guide to the DELTA System: a general system for processing taxonomic descriptions. 4th edition.

Dallwitz M.J., Paine T.A. and Zurcher E.J. 1995 onwards. User’s guide to Intkey: a program for interactive identification and information retrieval.

Dallwitz M.J., Paine T.A. and Zurcher E.J. 1998. Interactive keys. In: Bridge P., Jeffries P., Morse D.R. and Scott P.R. (editors). Information technology, plant pathology and biodiversity. CAB International, Wallingford. p. 201–212.

Dallwitz M.J., Paine T.A. and Zurcher E.J. 2000 onwards. Principles of interactive keys.

De Bary A. 1884. Comparative anatomy of the vegetative organs of the phanerogams and ferns. Translated by F.O. Bower and D.H. Scott. Clarendon, Oxford.

De Candolle M.A. 1835. Introduction a l’étude de la botanique. Librairie Encyclopedique de Boret, Paris.

Goebel K. 1887. Outlines of the classification and special morphology of plants. English translation, revised by I.B. Balfour. Clarendon, Oxford.

Hassler M. and Swale B. 2003. Family Equisetaceae, genus Equisetum; world species list.

Le Maout E. and Decaisne J. 1873. A general system of botany, descriptive and analytical. (English translation by Mrs Hooker, with additional material by J.D. Hooker. Illustrations by L. Steinheil and A. Riocreux). Longmans, Green and Co., London.

Matus M. 2001. Welcome to the wonderful world of Equisetum.

Sowerby J.E. and Johnson C. 1859. The fern allies: a supplement to the Ferns of Great Britain. Henry G. Bohn, London.

Sowerby J.E. in Sowerby J.E. and Johnson C.P. 1863. British wild flowers. Supplement: ferns, horsetails and club mosses. Van Voorst, London.

Sporne K.R. 1970. The morphology of Pteridophytes. Hutchinson, London.

Stace C.A. 1997. New flora of the British Isles. 2nd edition. C.U.P.