The Families of Mushrooms and Toadstools Represented in the British Isles


L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz


‘Stalked puff-balls’.

Morphology. The fruit-bodies producing basidia and basidiospores; ephemeral; angiocarpic; comprising a 1–2 cm. diameter head with a small, terminal pore, borne at ground level, atop a long, fibrillose, subterranean stipe (with apical dehiscence, the gleba compact, finally powdery); medium sized to large; with the head 1–2 cm across; 3–7 cm high (the stipe 2–5 cm). The basidia ‘unmodified’. The basidiospores statismosporic.

The hyphal walls lamellate, with a thin, electron-dense outer layer and a relatively thick, electron-transparent inner layer.

Ecology. The fruit-bodies not subterranean (at least, with its spore-bearing upper component exposed). Found usually in sand dunes, but occasionally recorded from old walls.

British representation. Battarrea, Queletia, Schizostoma, Tulostoma.

World representation. 87 species; genera 6. Widespread, but mainly in dry regions.

Classification. Basidiomycota; Basidiomycetes; Agaricomycetidae; Agaricales.

Comments. The basidium pleurosporous.

Illustrations. • Tulostoma brumale (LH).

To view the illustrations with captions giving names in current use, go to the interactive key. This also offers full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting or lacking specified attributes, distributions of character states within any set of taxa, source references, and other relevant material.

Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2008 onwards. The families of mushrooms and toadstools represented in the British Isles. Version: 6th March 2015.’.