The Families of Mushrooms and Toadstools Represented in the British Isles


L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz


~ Boletaceae, Gomphidiaceae, Rhizopogonaceae.

Morphology. The fruit-bodies producing basidia and basidiospores; differentiated into a stipe and pileus with the hymenium underneath the latter; medium sized to large; 4–12 cm across. The mature pileus convex, or more or less flat or somewhat depressed. The top of the pileus conspicuously patterned with scales, or not patterned with scales; buff to straw-coloured (or yellowish brown), or reddish-brown, or light brown, or yellow. The stipe with neither ring nor volva; developing cavities at maturity (Boletinus), or not developing cavities. The hymenium porose. The hymenial layer readily separable from the supporting flesh. The hymenium not thickening. The basidia ‘unmodified’.

The hyphae with clamp connections (Boletinus), or without clamp connections. The hyphal walls lamellate, with a thin, electron-dense outer layer and a relatively thick, electron-transparent inner layer.

Chemical reactions. The context hyphae not xanthochroic. Yielding prenylated phenols and quinones (excepting Boletinus?).

Ecology. The fruit-bodies borne on the ground. Associated with conifers. Found in mixed woodland and in coniferous woodland.

British representation. 17 species in Britain; Suillus (including Boletinus, Fuscoboletinus, Ixocomus, Pinuzza).

World representation. 51 species; genera 2. Widespread north temperate, introduced in the southern hemisphere.

Classification. Basidiomycota; Basidiomycetes; Agaricomycetidae; Boletales.

Illustrations. • Suillus bovinus, S. grevillei, S. granulatus, S. luteus, S. variegatus (LH).

To view the illustrations with captions giving names in current use, go to the interactive key. This also offers full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting or lacking specified attributes, distributions of character states within any set of taxa, source references, and other relevant material.

Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2008 onwards. The families of mushrooms and toadstools represented in the British Isles. Version: 6th March 2015.’.